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He shares the frugal meal with those he loves;
Hail, Sabbath! thee I hail the poor man's day:
The morning air pure from the city's smoke,
EXERCISE.-39. PARSING, ETO. 1. Paraphrase the second last stanza.
2. Change the possessive cases in the following expressions into prepositional phrases :-ploughboy's whistle, milkmaid's song, the blackbird's song, the anvil's din, the poor man's day, the winter's cold, summer's heat, the city's smoke.
3. Put the first six lines in their direct order, and parse them. 4. What is the syntax of :-hum, trickling, bleating, midway, 'in the 5. Parse, with reasons, the words :-hail, Sabbath.
first stanza ?
THE HOUSE OF HANOVER.
GEORGE I. ; GEORGE II. ; GEORGE III. de-mean-our (F. de; mener, to lead), behaviour, bearing. pop-ular-i-ty [L. populus, the people), favour of the people, possession of the affections of the people. dis-con-tent-ed (L. dis, negative; con, together ; teneo, to hold], not satisfied, uneasy. QUEEN ANNE was the last of the Stuart race that wore the English crown. All her children died in infancy, and the succession passed to the heirs of Elizabeth, eldest daughter of James I.
Elizabeth had married Frederick, Elector of the Palatinate of the Rhine, who afterwards became king of Bohemia. Their daughter Sophia was united to the Elector of Hanover ; and it was the son of this Sophia who came to Eng. land to be its ruler upon Anne's death, in 1714, and ascended the throne under the title of George I.
As far as personal appearance is concerned, the new king was a stolid, heavy-looking man, with coarse features and an extremely awkward demeanour. It was soon discovered, too, that he was very ignorant, and cared little for literature or science : sad defects in any sovereign, but more prominent in one who began his reign in the Augustan age of English literature.
Prior to his arrival in England, George I. had acquired a bad reputation in his own country for his cruelty to his wife, Sophia Dorothea, whom he had imprisoned for life in a castle in Germany, on a charge that her accusers could not substantiate. His conduct in this matter has been severely commented upon by our best historians and essayists, and by none more so than by Thackeray in his lectures on the “Four Georges.”
According to custom, his son became Prince of Wales. The prince, while in Hanover, had served under Marlborough, where he was a favourite with the English soldiers. This circumstance was the beginning of a popularity which tended greatly to his advantage.
The first great events that disturbed the reign were the pretensions of a son of James II. to the throne, and the intrigues of those favourable to his cause. He was named by his friends the Chevalier St. George, and by his enemies the Pretender. His followers were called Jacobites, from the Latin form of his father's name.
Louis XIV. of France encouraged and aided the Pretender as far as possible. All the discontented in the land joined his cause, and, when strong enough, resorted to arms in his favour ; but the surrender at Preston, and the defeat at Sheriffmuir, showed that more powerful means than they had at command were required to drive out the new dynasty. In this desponding state of affairs, the prince fondly hoped that his presence would encourage matters. He accordingly landed in Scotland, but was soon glad to escape with life to his retreat at St. Germains, in France, leaving his friends to suffer for their unfortunate attempt.
Walpole's name became great in this reign. With a clear head and masterly hand he guided his country through many difficulties and dangers, and almost invariably to
When the South Sea Bubble burst, and involved thousands in a common ruin, his skill alone saved the ship of state from the perils that beset her.
After a reign of thirteen years, George died, in 1727, while on a visit to Hanover, which had now become an appanage of the British crown, and continued to be held by the kings of England until the death of William IV. His ill-used and unfortunate wife had died but a few months before, after an imprisonment of thirty-two years.
On his father's death, the Prince of Wales became king, under the title of George II. He was now forty-four, and had taken pains to acquire the English language, which he could speak with some fluency. From his experience in Marlborough's camp, he possessed a fair knowledge of military matters, and was a general of no mean skill. His bravery was undoubted, as was well displayed in 1743 at the battle of Dettingen, the last occasion on which a British king commanded his troops in person.
His son Frederick was now Prince of Wales. Like Absalom of old, he gave his father great grief and pain by his conduct. At his death, in 1751, few regretted him, so unworthy had he become. He left his title to his eldest son, afterwards George III.
George II. had scarcely become seated on the throne before he found himself at war with Spain, besides getting into serious difficulties with other states. Soon the flames of war broke out, and Britain stood arrayed against the world in arms,-certainly no enviable position for such a small country, and one too of extreme danger; but the spirit and determination of her people carried her triumphantly through the crisis. ,
Pitt, the Great Commoner, was the guiding genius of affairs in the great contest that ensued, and almost all his efforts were crowned with success.
Among many brilliant victories, the taking of Quebec, 1759, from the French by General Wolfe, deserves particular mention; for by it Canada soon fell entirely into the
hands of Britain. Wolfe was wounded, and died in the arms of victory.
The French were at this time attempting to drive us out of our small settlements in India, as well as from America. What Wolfe did for America, Clive performed for India. Instead of being themselves turned out, the English drove out the French, and from that day England founded a power in Hindostan which has grown into a colossal empire —the envy
and admiration of all European powers. This reign was disturbed, like the last, by a Jacobite rebellion ; but out of this, as well as other difficulties, the nation came forth far stronger than before.
Charles Edward, son of the Pretender, known in Scottish song as “ Bonnie Prince Charlie,” planted his standard on the heathery hills of Scotland, and at first sight appeared as if he were about to “enjoy his own again," and send George II. and his family back to Hanover. After several successes, including his chivalrous advance into England, the fatal defeat of Cullòden in 1746 saw him a fugitive, and his cause irretrievably lost.
In this rebellion, the highland clans displayed an amount of ardour, military enthusiasm, and endurance of fatigue that excited the admiration of Europe ; and Pitt and his compeers thought that if they could secure their services for King George, no troops could withstand them. Means were accordingly taken, after affairs were settled in the highlands, to encourage them to become regular soldiers. The result proved the wisdom of the scheme, and soon those who had been before a source of danger and annoyance to the state became its most gallant and sturdy defenders. Indeed to this day, no part of the army holds a higher character for steadiness, courage, and efficiency than its highland regiments.
George II. died in 1760, after a most prosperous reign of thirty-three years.
George III., the grandson of the late king, was joyfully received as the first native-born king of the Hanoverian dynasty, and as one who could speak the English language without the foreign accent of his predecessors.
He soon proved himself to be worthy of the nation's ad
miration, and deserving of the unbounded respect which he received from all classes of his people from the first. He took great interest in matters of state, and was soon regarded as a really working king, who loved his work and did it well. The welfare of Britain was dear to his heart, and he jealously guarded and promoted her interests.
He had, however, a strong will, and loved his own way. It was this which caused Pitt to resign so hastily in_1763. Pitt had desired the king to declare war against France and Spain, for forming what was called a family compact" against Britain. The king declined, and the fiery Pitt would no longer hold the seals of office. France and Spain declared war against England, as Pitt had foreseen ; but the allied powers soon found themselves even more unfortunate than they had been during their previous attempts.
The unfortunate events which led to the great American war were by this time in progress, but we will not enter here upon the details of this unhappy struggle.
The French revolution excited attention from 1789 to 1795. It shook Europe to its centre, and every state seemed on the eve of convulsion. England alone stood the shock with serenity. In 1797, off Cape St. Vincent, Jervis and Nelson defeated the Spanish fleet; and in the same year, Admiral Duncan scattered the Dutch fleet off their own village of Camperdown. Napoleon's campaigns in Egypt and Syria were rendered almost fruitless by the total destruction of his fine fleet by Nelson in the battle of the Nile in 1798.
Uncertain of the intentions of Denmark, the English government despatched the victorious Nelson to Copenhagen to watch the Danish fleet. He thought it necessary to offer battle, and destroyed it within four hours. The year 1804 saw Napoleon in full power as Emperor of France. He now formed the daring scheme of conquering Europe, and as part of this plan he purposed to invade Britain ; but his dread of Nelson, and the swiftness and certainty of that admiral's movements, effectually kept him from his intention.
Napoleon's fleet was soon after strengthened by that of