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Each of the above parts of English Grammar will now be considered separately.
I. ORTHOGRAPHY and ORTHOEPY, or the correct spelling and pronunciation of words. Words are formed of the letters in the alphabet. ALPHABET is the name given to the whole set of letters in any language; it is so called from the first two letters in the Greek Alphabet, namely, alpha and beta,
In the English Alphabet there are twenty-six letters, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z. Now, before we can put any of these letters properly together so as to make words, we must understand the nature of their sunds, otherwise we might put letters together which would not make a word, and which could not be spoken. For instance, the letters g, m, r, if put together, will not make a word, but the letters g, r, a, m, m, a, r, put together, make the word grammar.
The letters used in the English language are divided into two classes, vowels and consonants. Vowels are letters having a clear and distinct sound, and which may be uttered by themselves: they are six in number; a, e, i, o, u, and y. The ro maining twenty letters are called consonants, because they cannot be distinctly sounded unless a vowel be added to them; n, p, and g, are consonants, but in order to sound them we must add a vowel, as en, pe, gee.
SOUNDS OF THE VOWELS.
a, the first letter or vowel in the alphabet, has three distinct sounds, as in the words all, an, and ale; the last two are the most proper sounds because they belong to this letter and to no other.
e, has also three sounds, as in the words then, the, and me. The first and second are the most proper sounds of this letter,
for the e in the, and the ee in thee, are not to be sounded exactly alike. From want of observing the exact sound, many words in the English language are sounded alike which ought to be sounded with some difference, as, for example, the and thee meet and meat-beet and beat, and many more which might be named.
first of these is the proper sound, the second being nearly the i, has three sounds; as in the words find, third, and kill. The same as the full u, and the third as the narrow sound of e.
o, seems to have four distinct sounds, as in the words cloth,
ton, bone, and womb. The third of these sounds is the most proper, as the first is very like the broad sound of the a, the second resembles the broad sound of the u, and the fourth that
u, has three sounds, as in the words us, use, and mule; of these, the middle is the most pure and proper sound, as the first nearly resembles the second sound of o, and the third is like the sound of oo.
y, is sounded nearly the same as i, and in many cases may be regarded as a substitute for it in sound.
w, is used as a vowel when it does not begin a word or part of a word, as vow, towel; and y is used as a consonant when it begins a word, as you, yoke, &c.
Besides these seven proper sounds of the vowels, there are some other sounds in the English language which can only be expressed by uniting two vowels, as ae, written æ, or o e, written e, &c. These are called diphthongs, or double vowels; and where three vowels come together they are called triphthongs,
The a, though two letters, has but one sound, as Cæsar sounded Cesar.
The a 1 also combines the sounds of the two vowels in on.
in praise, fail, rail, frail, &c.
'Many of its inflections were altered, and many were lost altogether. The power of expressing different shades of meaning by the change of termination in verbs and nouns, or by the addition of prefixes, fell into disuse. Prepositions and auxiliary verbs were employed instead.
The greater inherent strength of the Saxon language, however, at last enabled it to overcome and root out its rival, and establish itself firmly as the English tongue. In the hands of Geoffrey Chaucer, and other writers, it was moulded almost into its present form; but it must be remembered, that the Anglo-Saxon and modern English are now totally different. Many words of Norman origin are retained. All those relating to the chase, falconry, cookery, &c. are derived from this source, as also many law terms. Shakspere and Milton did a vast deal to fix the English language on a firm basis, and their works prove how easily it may be adapted to the highest purposes of oratory and poetry. At a later period, Dr. Johnson and other writers made it more flowing, sonorous, and majestic, by the introduction of many words of Greek and Latin origin; and it is now unequalled by any language in the world, for harnay, richness, variety, force, and precision. Every Englishman ought to account it his duty and his honour, to be well acquainted with the language of his own country, not only for its own sake, but as it will be a key to the knowledge of those of other countries.
The power of making thoughts known, either by speaking or by writing, is peculiar to human beings. But, in order that we may express our real meaning, we must write and speak according to some given rules. These rules make up what is called GRAMMAR.
The RULES of GRAMMAR therefore must be understood. Their study may seem rather dry and difficult at first; but by a little attention and the exercise of memory you will be able to master one rule at a time, and by degrees you will master the whole. And this is well worth a little trouble; because you will then speak and write correctly, and you will be able to see and enjoy the beauty of the different books you may have the means of reading. Books will thus become a rich treat, and the knowledge you get from them will be of great service to you through life, whatever station you may be called to fill.
The word GRAMMAR is formed from the Greek word gramma, signifying literature; and it means the art of speaking or writing a language properly; that is, according to rules agreed upon in the country in which a person lives.
ENGLISH Grammar is the art of speaking or writing the English language so that every word shall have its proper place in a sentence, and every sentence be placed in proper order. Unless these rules be understood and attended to, a person will neither make his own meaning plain, nor will other persons understand what he writes or says.
English Grammar is divided into four parts :First, ORTHOGRAPHY. This word is formed from the Greek word orthographia, signifying writing correctly; and it teaches the shape and sound of the letters of the alphabet, the art or practice of spelling rightly, or the putting of the letters properly together, as their nature and sounds may require, so as to form words according to rule. Under this head is included ORTHORPY, a word formed from the Greek word orthoepeia, signifying correct speaking; and it means the art of pronouncing words properly.
Secondly, ETYMOLOGY. This word is formed from the Greek word etymologia, signifying the analysis of a word so as to find its origin; and it means the science which explains the true nature and meaning of words by pointing out how they have been formed; also the several kinds of words and the changes of which they admit.
Thirdly, SYNTAX :-from the Greek word syntaxis, signifying a putting together in order. It means that part of grammar which teaches the mutual connexion and dependence of words, and how they should be put together so as to form regular and connected sentences.
Fourthly, PROSODY, from the Greek word prosodia, signifying the doctrine of accentuation and rhythm. It is that part of grammar which teaches in what tone and emphasis words are to be pronounced; also the measure of verse or poetry; 80 that we may know how sentences, either in prose or verse, ought to be written, spoken, or read.
The au has three sounds, as in the words author, aunt, gauge
ay has one sound, as in bay, lay, say, &c.
ea has three sounds, as in heart, heaven, seat.
ee has one sound, as in see, thee, sheep, &c.
e o has three sounds, as in George, leopard, people.
ie has three sounds, as in fle, friend, chief.
of has but one sound, as in oil, toil, voice.
oo has three sounds, as in the words for, flood, fool o w has two sounds, as know, now.
Consonants are divided into three classes, semivowels or half Vowels, liquids, and mutes. Semivowels have a sound of their own, though it is not so perfect as that of the vowel; they are f, j, l, m, n, r, s, v, x, z, and c and g soft. Four of these, l, m, n, r, are also called liquids, because they readily unite, and sound pleasantly with any other letters, as lemon, melon, nectar, rose, &c. The mutes are letters that cannot be sounded at all without the help of a vowel; they are b, d, k, p, q, t; and c, and g hard.
Some letters require to be sounded hard and others soft, some sharp, and others flat. This should be borne in mind, so that your words may be pronounced correctly.
Cis either hard like k, as in cull, pronounced kull; or soft, like s, as in cell, pronounced sell. Cis always hard before a, o, u, and all consonants, and at the end of words, as call, coal, cut and public. It is soft before e, i, and y; as in cease, city,
G is likewise either hard or soft; hard, as in gun; soft, as in gin. It is always hard before a, o, u, and all consonants, and at the end of words; as for example, get, got, gut, glad, jug. It is, for the most part, soft before e, i, and y; as in the words yem, gill, clergy. In most of the names of persons or places in the bible, g is sounded hard before e and i, as in Gera, Gilboa, Gilead, &c. Gis likewise hard in many English words before e and i, as in geese, get, gear, girl, give, giddy, dagger, anger, and many more.
Ch has one hard and two soft modes of sound; hard, as in Baruch; soft, as in arch, chaise, &c. It is generally hard in words derived from the Greek and Hebrew; and soft in words that come from the French.
Ph, when united in the same syllable, is sounded like ƒ, as in asaph, elephant.
S has a flat and a sharp sound; sharp as in this; fat, as in those. The flat sound prevails in all words made plural, or increased by the addition of a, as in pins, foxes, gloves.
Th also has a sharp and a flat sound; sharp, as in thin; flat, as in thine.
Of the letters of the alphabet, words, syllables, sentences, paragraphs, chapters, and volumes are made. A WORD is composed of one or more syllables. A SYLLABLE is any complete sound spoken at one effort, as man, book, give, take, &c. A word of one syllable, as man, is called a monosyllable; a word of two syllables, as manly, a dissyllable; a word of three syllables, as man ess, a trisyllable; and a word of four or more syllabl as polyanthus, is call d a polysyllable. A SENTENCE is as many words put together as will make complete sense, or express a whole thought or a distinct divi
sion of a train of thoughts; as, "I wish to learn grammar." "If I knew the rules of grammar, I should be able to write and speak correctly." "I mean to take in the Popular Educator, and hope by reading it carefully that I shall become acquainted with many useful branches of knowledge of which at present I know little or not' ing." These are all
A PARAGRAPH consists sometimes of one long sentence, but more commonly of several sentences put together in proper order, so as to form a distinct part of a letter or discourse. Paragraphs are often used to break into shorter portions, a letter, discourse, or essay, which might otherwise fatigue the reader.
put together in order, either to form one complete part of a A SECTION, OF CHAPTER, consists of a number of paragraphs whole work, or to give the reader a little time to rest or think. For instance, the instructions in grammar in the Popular Educator, which contain a number of paragraphs, are put together so as to form one complete lesson or chapter.
A BOOK, or a VOLUME, is made up of many sentences, paragraphs, sections, or chapters, and varies in length and bulk, according to the nature of the subject, or the intention of the writer.
QUESTIONS ON THE FOREGOING LESSON,
What is grammar?
Why is a knowledge of it necessary?
Into how many parts is English grammar divided?
What is orthoepy?
What is etymology?
What is prosody?
What part of grammar is that which teaches the art of spelling and pronouncing words correctly?
How many letters are there in the English alphabet?
Is there more than one class of letters in the alphabet ?
How many sounds has the letter a?
What are the names given to the double and treble vowels?
What is the difference between a proper and an improper diphthong?
What are consonants?
How are they divided?
Describe a semi-vowel, a liquid, and a mute.
How are consonants sounded?
Give an example of the hard sound.
How is a word or syllable made up?
which contains either one long sentence, or several sentences ? What is that portion of a letter, speech, or discourse called What is a section, or chapter?
What is the principal subject of this lesson?
THE word mathematics, which is derived from the Greek verb, manthano (to learn), was originally applied to learning in general, but it was afterwards restricted to the knowledge of what are now called the exact sciences. This restriction began with Plato and Aristotle, in whose writings the term was especially applied to skill in the sciences of Arithmetic, Geometry, and Astronomy, the latter science having been cultivated at a very early period of the world's history. So high an opinion had the former philosopher of the value of these sciences, and particularly of the second, that he placed over the door of the academy or school founded by him at Athens, this inscription: "Let none ignorant of geometry enter here." Passing over the "dark ages," when religion and philosophy were alike encrusted with the ignorance and prejudice of mankind, we come to the opinion of one who mightily assisted in the "advancement of learning." Lord Bacon, in his treatise on this subject, expresses his opinion of the nature and value of the exact sciences, in the following appropriate words: "The mathematics are either pure or mixed. To the pure mathematics belong those sciences which handle quantity determinate, merely severed from any axioms of natural philosophy, and these are two, geometry and arith
metic, the one treating of quantity continued, and the other of compasses, and that he made calculations. I inquired what
With the example of Stone before us, we propose to begin
The admirable distinction between pure and mixed mathematics, which is drawn by the celebrated Lord Chancellor, in the preceding extract, remains correct to the present day; but the wonderful verification of his own prediction, has added in an extraordinary degree to both kinds. Hence, under pure mathematics are now included, arithmetic, algebra, called by Newton universal arithmetic, logarithms, or exponential arithmetic, and the theory of equations, probabilities, &c. Also geometry, plane, solid, and analytical; trigonometry, or the application of arithmetic to geometry, plane, spherical, and analytical; and the new geometry, or the differential and integral calculus, including the whole theory of curves and curved surfaces. Under mixed mathematics, are included mechanics, which comprehends statics and dynamics, hydrostatics, and hydrodynamics or hydraulics; also pneumatics, optics, heat, electricity, and magnetism; with astronomy, plane, nautical, and physical; the latter being sometimes denominated celestial mechanics. To these may be properly added many other mixed sciences, which perpetually call in the aid of pure mathematics; as geology, geography, geodesy, land-surveying, navigation, civil, practical, and military engineering, life assurances, steam-locomotion by sea and land, &c.
It will be the object of the "Popular Educator" to make its readers acquainted more or less with the subjects just enumerated, and their application to the present state of society; and to convey instruction in such a manner, as that any one willing to learn, may do so without the aid of a master, provided he can only read and write. That this can be done, has been often proved by the history of those who have followed" the pursuit of knowledge under difficulties." The example of Edmund Stone may be cited for the encouragement of all. He was the son of the gardener of the Duke of Argyle. At the age of eight years he was taught to read; and, at that of eighteen, he had, without assistance, made such progress in mathematical knowledge, that he could read the works of Sir Isaac Newton. As the duke was one day walking in his garden, he saw a copy of Newton's Principia lying on the grass, and called some one near him to take it back to his library. Young Stone modestly ob. served that the book was his own. "Yours!" replied the duke; "do you understand geometry, Latin, Newton ?" "I know a little of them," said the young man, with an air of simplicity. The duke was surprised, and having himself a taste for the sciences, he entered into conversation with the young mathematician. He asked him several questions, and was astonished at the force, the accuracy, and the candour of his answers. "But how," said the duke, "did you corne by the knowledge of all these things?" Stone replied: "Å servant taught me ten years ago to read. Does any one need to know more than the letters of the alphabet, in order to learn any thing else he wishes?" The duke's curiosity was redoubled: he sat down on a bank, and requested a detail of Proceedings. "I first learned to read," said Stone;
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.—No. I.
The term Arithmetic, which is derived from the Greek verb bers. To a certain extent, this science must have been coeval arithmeo, to count, is properly applied to the science of numwith the history of man. As an art, it is indispensable in daily business; and the man who is best acquainted with its practical details has always the preference in every mercantile fold-to develop its principles as a science, and to show the establishment. Our object in these lessons shall be twoapplication of its rules as an art. For this purpose, it will be necessary to begin with the first principles of Numeration and Notation, and to give such rules as will enable any one to read and write a given number correctly.
In almost all languages, ancient and modern, we find ten
Combinations by Addition,
After the teens, or combinations of ten and the first nine names,
One and ten
ns were then at work upon your house; I went ne day and saw that the architect used a rule and
Combinations by Multiplication.
Two times ten
After the tys, or multiples of ten, by the first nine names, which ble of expressing a number containing sixty figures in the are again combined by addition with the same names, 80 as to common system of notation. In many of our recent works on reach from twenty-one up to ninety-nine, a new series commences arithmetic, the French system of numeration is adopted, by the adoption of a new name for ten times ten, or tenty-viz., which differs very considerably from ours, and which has the a hundred. This enables us, by the help of previous combina- merit of greater simplicity to recommend it; but what it gains tions, to, reach from one hundred and one up to nine hundred in simplicity, it loses in power. Instead of dividing num. and ninety-nine, when a new series commences by the adoption bers into periods of six ranks each, they divide them into of the new name, a thousand, for ten hundred. After this, no periods of three ranks each, the first period being called units ; new name occurs till we reach a million, or a thousand times a the second, thousands ; the third millions; and so on, as in the thousand. It is true, that we have adopted from the Greek the following table : term myriad, which signifies ten thousand, and which might
French System of Numeration. properly commence a new series; but it has not been admitted
UNITS (ones). into the nomenclature of our system of numeration. If the
Tens of units. same process of analogy had been followed out, a new name
Hundreds of units. ought also to have been adopted for a hundred thousand; but
THOUSANDS (in French, Mille). this has nut been done, evidently for the simple reason that
Tens of thousands.
Hundreds of thousands. such high numbers were seldom in use, either in speaking or
MILLIONS (th in writing. Names, indeed, would have increased so fast, and
sands of thousando).
Tens of millions. their combinations would have become so laborious to remem
Hundreds of millions. ber and to apply, in any language, that the adoption of a
BILLIONS (thousands of millions). conventional system of signs to denote numbers, was absolutely
Tens of billions. necessary to supply the wants of mankind. Accordingly, we
Hundreds of billions. find that at a very early period a variety of signs or characters
TRILLIONS (millions of millions). were invented and employed to denote numbers, and to enable
Tens of trillions. men not only to express very large numbers by a few of these
Hundreds of trillions, &c. characters, but to make calculations of various kinds, essential This table, when compared with the table of the English both for the purposes of commerce and science.
system of numeration, will clearly show the difference between The system of numeration adopted in our language, and the two systems. For example, trillions in the preceding table explained above, proceeds on the decimal scale of numbers, signifies only millions of millions ; whereas in the English table in which every new name or rank is tenfold, or ten times, it signifies millions of millions of millions. This comes of the greater than the preceding-a system which is evidently French using the word mille for a thousand, and the word founded on the digital structure of the human hand. So million for a thousand thousand; hence, also, the confusion natural, indeed, is the practice of counting by the fingers, that arising from the similarity of the names. In consequence of both learned and unlearned adopt it, whenever any calculation the French division of the numeration table into periods of is to be made which does not require the pen. The names of three ranks instead of six, it is plain that with the exception the successive ranks of numbers in their decimal order, to a of one period, viz., the thousands, their system is capable of certain extent, are the following:
expressing a number containing only half the quantity of
figures which the English system can express; and is thereDecimal System of Numeration.
fore so much inferior in power.
QUESTIONS ON THE PRECEDING LESSON.
What is the origin of the term, Arithmetic, and to what science
is it properly applied i Tens of thousands of units.
How many primitive words, as names of numbers, are to be Hundreds of thousands of units.
found in almost all languages ?
How are names obtained for the numbers beyond ten ?
When is it necessary to invent new names for numbers ?
State the combinations by addition of the primitive names of
numbers in English. Tens of thousands of millions.
State the combinations by multiplication of the same primitives. Hundreds of thousands of millions.
Give an idea of the manner in which the names of numbers, up BILLIONS (millions of millions).
to one hundred, are filled up.
What is the meaning of the name myriad ?
What is the name of the next rank after myriads, which, accord
ing to analogy, would have required a new name? Tens of thousands of billions.
What method was necessary to denote numbers to prevent the Hundreds of thousands of billions, &c.
increase of names ? In the preceding table, the first six ranks of names are called
What are the advantages of denoting numbers by characters or
signs? the first period of numbers; the next six, the second period ; What scale of numbers, or system of numeration, is adopted ir: the six after this, the third period ;and so on. It will be ob- English ? served that after the first period of units, the same names are What is the origin of this system? applied, in the same order, to the second period of millions ; State the different ranks of numbers in our system of numeration and then, to the third period of billions. This process is con- up to trillions. tinued, in our system of numeration, and the table may be Mention the names of the higher periods, and states how many extended to any length required, by applying the same names ranks each period consists of. to each successive period in order, the names of these periods
Give some account of the French system of numeration. being as follows:
State the difference between the French and English systems
and the advantages of each.
LESSONS IN FRENCH.—No. I.
By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D.
In commencing these French Lessons, we have thought it
best to begin with a chapter exclusively devoted to the NONILLIONS (millions of octillions), &c.
pronunciation of words, and the variations which are caused
in the sounds of vowels and consonants by changes in their The preceding system of numeration is that adopted by all relative position. We shall then enter into the construction the oldest and best English writers on arithmetic; and, up to of the language, and endeavour in as plain a manner as the last name in the higher periods above mentioned, is capa- sible to make our readers familiar with its various
and peculiarities. It will greatly facilitate their progress to
u. The exact French sound of this letter is not found in
12. û is the u with a prolonged sound. Ex. múre, mulberry;
The French alphabet contains twenty-five letters :
When the diphthong ai is followed by s, d, or t, it
17. au nearly like oh! in English. Ex. taux, rate; chaud,
18. ei nearly like a in fate. Ex. beige, serge; neige, snow;
19. eu approaches the sound of u in tub. Ex. jeu, play; lieu,
A vowel surmounted by an accent cannot form a dipth-
A vowel surmounted by a diæresis () follows the
16. ai is like a in fate. Ex. j'ai, I have; je ferai, I will make ;
20. ia nearly like ia in medial. Ex. il lia, he bound; il cria, he cried; dialogue, dialogue.
21. ie like ee in bee. Ex. il lie, he binds; il étudie, he studies; harpie, harpy; mie, the soft part of bread.
22. oi nearly like wa in was. Ex. croix, cross; il boit, he drinks; roi, king.
23. ou like oo in cool. Ex. doux, soft; coup, blow; nous, we; vous,
Il salua, he saluted; il remua, he moved; il contribua, he contributed.
The grave accent (') is placed over a, e, u, to give to these vowels a grave or open sound. (See 5, è.)
The circumflex accent (*) is placed over a, e, i, o, u, to give to these letters a long and broad sound.‡‡
Il salue, he salutes; il remue, he moves; il
1. a like a in mass. Ex. face, face; bateau, boat; tableau,
2. a like a in bar, far. Ex. âge, age; château, castle; páte, 28. y when initial, when coming between two consonants, or
paste; bláme, blame; crâne, cranium.
3. e nearly like u in bud, and frequently silent at the end of
when forming a syllable of itself, has the sound of the French i. Ex. style, style; type, type; yeux, eyes; Ypres, Ypres; y, there; between two vowels y has the power of two i's, one of which forms a diphthong with the preceding, and the other with the following vowel ; the syllabic division taking place between the i's. Ex. moyen, means; essayer, to try; nettoyer, to clean; citoyen, citizen; abbaye, abbey; these words are pronounced as if they were written moien, essai-ier. nettoi-ier, citoi-ien, abbai-ie. The words, pays, country, paysage, landscape; paysan, peasant, are pronounced pé-is, pé-isage, péi-san.
THE NASAL SOUNDS.
29. The combination of the vowels with the consonant m or n, produces what the French call le son nasal, the nasal sound.
The e of the other letters has 30. When the consonant m or n is doubled, or is immedi ately followed by a vowel the nasal sound does not
W, called in French double V, might be added, as many foreign words which have that letter, have been adopted into the French language.
Vowels are rendered long or short by certain marks placed over them. These marks, which are three in number, are called accents.
The acute accent () is placed over the e to give it a sharp or close sound. (See 4, é.)
polysyllables. Ex. le, the; me, me; te, thee; que, that; meuble, piece of furniture; peuple, people; rime, rime. 4. é like a in fate. Ex. été, summer; amitié, friendship;
élevé, raised; épée, sword.
5. è like ai in pair. Ex. père, father; frère, brother; mère,
Like s in pleasure.
6. ê nearly like e in there. Ex. rêve, dream; extrême, ex-
7. i nearly like i in pin. Ex. midi, mid-day; ici, here; fini, finished; credit, credit.
8. I like ee in bee. Ex. fle, island; gîte, lodging; épître,
epistle; dime, tithe; abîme, abyss.
Published at the office of the " Popular Educator," price 6d.
+ se in rose.
# This accent indicates the suppression of the letters after the vowel on which it is placed, thus: fête, téte, bête, were formerly written, feste, teste, beste, the s was not sounded, but gave to the preceding vowel that prolonged sound now represented by the eireumflex accent.
• The words ennui, ennuyer, emmener, enivrer, enorgueillir, form excep tions to this rule The first syllable of ennui, ennuyer, emmener is nasal enivrer, enorgueillir are pronounced en-nicirer, en-orgueillir,