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alternately in a time approaching to the vibrations of a church pendulum, there was a larger swell of which the others were but inconsiderable parts, and even a mightier still, of which this second was but a limb and portion. Something like this appears to be the nature of the undulations of musical notes. There is a great swell and a little one, and both of them contribute to the general effect. The examination may therefore on this principle be conducted in two directions :-first, to enquire what quantity of minor undulations may be within the compass of a bar or "measure"-and secondly, to ask whether bars themselves may not be fractions of greater undulations, and whether out of these again may not be constituted undulations of higher orders in succession, to an extent that can only be measured by the skill of the performer, and probably also by the cultivated sensitiveness of the hearer. Any person who will attend critically to the execution of superior instrumental performers, will be surprised to find to what an extent this species of linked sweetness' may be traced, and how large a number of bars may be formed into a connected whole, by means of the relations of what is here termed accent."
d :r : m
: d d: d d
EXERCISE 9. DOI, ME, SOH. Three-pulse Measure. KEY D (or C).
r NOTE.-Take a low note for the key-note of this exercise also. Point it from memory on the modulator, like the last, and all you learn Mark the accent well, and learn to sing both the upper and the lower line of notes. [The key-note is placed on the lowest line to prevent your accustoming your eye to look for it always in
NOTE.-Take a low sound of your voice for the key-note in this exercise. If any one gives you the pattern from an instrument, tell him to play in the key of D with two sharps. You understand that the letters are the initials of the notes on the modulator, and direct you in tracing out the tune there. The notes are placed within the accent marks to which they belong. Doн occupies the whole of the loud "pulse" of the measure. ME fills the first soft pulse, and Soн the second. This is the Trinary measure. The second measure is easily understood. In the third measure you have the first Dон occupying two pulses (loud and soft), and the second Doн only one pulse. The horizontal stroke, as in the second pulse, always indicates that the preceding note is to be continued. Thus the last note of the exercise is continued through the whole measure. In the fourth measure, the third accent-mark is followed by no note. In the time of that pulse, therefore, the pice rests. If the previous exercises have been perfectly learnt
from the modulator, you will probably be able to make this est without pattern. Be careful to give the proper accent. You are strongly recommended not to study the "staff," at present, in any of these exercises. It is printed here that you may be able to return to it when you have gained some command of voice and some knowledge of music itself, and are not likely to be perplexed by its numerous signs; but, if we may suppose that you have done this, then the following remarks will be of use. [The open note is twice as long as the closed notes. The empty "pulse," during which the voice rests, is represented by a distinct character, called a "rest." It tells you to rest as long as one of the closed notes, in the same time, would be sung. A dot after a note, in the oid notation, bids you sing that note half as long again. Thus you perceive that the relative length of notes is expressed by tym wla, and not, as in the soifa notation, measured out pictorially by the regularly recurring accents placed along the page.]
Three-pulse Measure. KEY E (or D).
The Binary measure is the boldest of the measures and the one most easily felt or performed. It is by far the best for large masses of voice, and is well adapted to aid in giving majesty to a tune. Try "St. Stephen's" or "Bedford" first in the three-pulse measure (lengthening the accented notes) and then in the two-pulse measure, and you will understand the character of the Binary measure. The Trinary measure is well adapted to aid in producing a soft and soothing musical effect. When the tune is simple it is not unfit for congregational use· especially if the people have been trained to keep the accent. The adaptation of this measure to soft and soothing music is illustrated by its analogy (according to Dr. Bryce) to the breathing of health and rest. The Quaternary measure, when delicately performed, gives much elegance to a tune. It is adapted to congregational tunes when the movement is not too slow. Try the well-known tune "Vesper Hymn," taking care to give the medium accent. The Senary measure is commonly used in connexion with quick movements, and is naturally soft, light, and elegant. It is better adapted to secular than to sacred music.
EXERCISE 11. DOH, ME, SOH. Four-pulse Measure. KEY G. Quickly.
d' d' d d
:f:m rd t mr d t1 :1, :t
the same place on the staff. It would be well for you if it could be so. But as it is to be found, in different tunes, on every pos tion on the staff, it is important that we should not mislead you. We prefer, however, that this exercise should be sung in the key of D or C, not of E.]
NOTE.-Take a middle sound of your voice for the key-note.
the accents carefully. What measure is it in? [You will notice that the old notation has no mark for the secondary accents.]
ms.m Nothing but dm.d
d1 : t. 1 All's for the m: s. f
ms.m All's for the dm.d
NOTE. Take a low, but not very low note for your DOH. Tell your friend to pattern it (if you are still dependent on him) "in F with one flat." Learn both " parts." Be careful to hold the long notes of the lower line with evenness of sound, swelling them a
d : d best be d
d. d : d fol-ly goes d. d : d
s. m: d best, be a m.d: d
r: d. r faith-less and si: d. ti
1 : s. f man, but con fm.r
EXERCISE 13. THE SCALE. Six-pulse Measure. KEY D. Quickly.
t d m:f:s
NOTE. Take a low sound for the key-note. Sing, when you have traced the tune on the modulator, rapidly and lightly, marking delicately the accents. In singing from the book, your eye will scarcely rest on the soft accents. You will only have time to think of the "loud" and "medium" marks. [A curve over the
TROUBADOUR. (The words from "Ballads for the Times," by M. F. Tupper, Esq.) KEY F. M. 96.
m : d
little in the middle, so as to express the medium accent. [The open note without a stem is to be sung twice as long as that with a stem. There was not room to write the last long open note of the "second" part on the staff.]
ms. m Cou-rage for d : m.d
ms.m Trou-ble and d : m.d
d. r: m Providence 1.t, d
dotted open note and the close note, shows that they should be sung as one. The note is written in this way, instead of being written as an open note without a stem (which would give the same length) that the accent may be marked.]
ཁྐྲ :d d
d. d: d
d. d: d
d. d: d e-ver is d. d: d
f. s 1 ten-der-ly 1. 8, f
d : t. 1 And the frail m : s. f
s.m: d bark of his m.d : d
2 All for the best; then FLING AWAY TERRORS,
NOTE.-You should take a rather low note for your Doн here. Tell your patterning friend-"the key of F with one flat." The hist thing you will notice, in looking at this tune, is, that some of the "aliquots" or pulses have two notes in them. The dot which follows SOH, the second note, always means that the note before it takes half a pulse. It, of course, leaves the other half to the other note,-in this case ME. When you have carefully traced the first phrase of the tune (five notes) on the modulator, then sing it with special attention to this point,-letting the notes SoH ME (which are placed in one pulse of the voice) run from your tongue just twice as fast as the others. And so on with the rest. You will notice that both the first and second parts of the tune are repeated, so that it is not as long as it looks. If you find the "second" part of the tune low for your voice, pitch the key-note a little higher. Be careful to point on the modulator from memory.
avis, a bird
avis, of a bird
avi, to a bird
avem, a bird
avis, O bird
ave or avi, by a bird
LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. VI.
By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D. II.-Nouns with vowel-stems; parisyllabic. With and without the termination s. For the most part feminines. Singular.
avium, of birds
avibus, to birds
aves, O birds
avibus, by birds
febris, a fever
febris, of a fever febri, to a fever febrem (im), a fever febris. O ferer febri (e), by a fever
febres, fevers febrium, qffecers febribus, to fevers febres, ferers febres, O fevers febribus, by fevers
d. r: m Wisely and 1.ti: d
All's for the best; for unbiassed, unbounded,
nubes, a cloud
nubis, of a cloud
nubi, to a cloud
nubem, a clond
nubes, O cloud
nubes, O clouds
mare (neuter), the sea
mare, to the sea
mare, the sea
mare, O sea
Ignis, ignis, m. fire; civis, civis, m. a citizen; orbis, orbis, m. globe, the world; navis, navis, f. a ship; securis, securis, f. an ar; rupes, rupis, f. a rock; sedes, sedis, f. a seat; clades, cladis, f. slaughter; altáre, altáris, n. an altar; ovíle, ovilis, n. a sheepfold. EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
Aves fallunt caelebes; matres occiduntur febribus; valde diligo mare; mare diligitur a nautis; agricolae colunt ségetes; nautae
Remember that very tune, thus thoroughly learnt, becomes a power by which others will be more easily mastered. This tune, n its present arrangement, is taken from Mr. Curwen's "People's Singing Lessons." It is harmonised for three voices-"two Trebles and a Bass"-in his "School music," so as not to be discordant with the present harmony for two voices. You need not attempt the words yet. When you do, let those printed in CAPITALS be sung with increased force and loudness of voice; and those in italics with increased softness. [The square note is used to indicate the place of Don at the beginning of the staff, but it is not to be sung. The place of Dон, being thus once marked, is not afterwards indicated by a square note as in previous exercises. The pupil must learn to keep the place of Doн in his mind. The notes, with a tail to the stem, are to be sung half as long as those without the tail.]
sunt in navibus; in orbe est ignis; in ignibus sunt fratres; altaria sunt deabus; non ne diis sunt altaria? secúri defendunt agricolae ovilia.
Sailors defend ships with (their) bodies; birds are on the rocks; are rocks loved by sailors? slaughter injures the people; birds strike the clouds; axes defend the ships; the birds of the citizens are injured; the seat of the prince is praised; we conquer the companions of the princes.
General view of nouns of the third declension, according to their stems :
1st division; nouns without the termination s.
1st subdivision; nouns in which the nominative and the stem are the same; the stems end in r and 1.
2nd subdivision; nouns in which the nominative and the stem are different; the stems end in n and s.
2nd division; nouns with the termination s, with the sounds k, t, p.
Some peculiarities belonging to this declension must be briefly indicated. The termination of the accusative singular is properly m, which is connected with the consonantal stem by the interposition of e. In the vowel-stems no interposing vowel is required, because there is a vowel in the stem. That vowel is i. Vowel-stems therefore end in im in the accusative, and in i in the ablative singular; for the most part, however, they in usage have e in both. However, in sitis, thirst, tussis a cough, and vis, strength, i only is used. Vis is a defective noun; vis is thus declined; singular, vis, vim, vi; plural, eires, virium, viribus, vires, vires, viribus, the plural being complete and regular. In these nouns,-namely, febris, a fever; securis, an ax; pelvis, a basin; turris, a tower; and restis, a cord, in is more usual than em; but less usual than em is it in classis, a fleet; messis, a crop of corn; clavis, a key; navis, a ship. The ablative singular has for the most part i (perhaps from ie) instead of ein parisyllabics with the vowel-stem in i. In imparisyllabics with consonantal stems, e is the usual ablative termination, but i is sometimes found, derived from the usage in the vowel-stems.
Nouns which make the ablative singular in i make the genitive plural in ium instead of um; and nouns neuter, which in the ablative singular end in i, in the nominative, accusative, and vocative plural end in ia.
Adjectives of the third declension, in general, follow the declension laws of the nouns, only that in the ablative singular they prefer i. Adjectives of the third declension are of two sorts; first, those that have three terminations, as, alăcer, m., alacris, f., alacre, n., lively, active; second, those that have two terminations, as the comparitive, vilior, m. and f., vílius, n. meaner; under this second class may stand such as ferox, fierce, which in the nominative singular is m. f. and n. (accusative, Jocem), but in the plural has for the neuter a separate form ia ia, as ferocia.
N. majóra opěra, greater works rudes milites, untrained soldiers
FORMS OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES OF THE 1ST, 2ND, AND 3RD
suaves suavibus OTHER FORMS OF ADJECTIVES OF TWO TERMINATIONS. EXAMPLES: Major, m. and f.; majus, n. greater; audax, m. f. and n. (audacem in acc.); audácia, n. plural, bold.
N. audax audácis
acres acríbus acribus
A. bono púero
N. audax vir
Singular. bona soror bonae sorúris bonae sorúri bonam sororem bona soror bona sorore
A. audáci viro
Singular. herba viridis herbae viridis herbae viridi herbam víridem herba viridis herbâ víridi
Singular. audax fémina audácis féminae audáci féminae audácem féminam audax fémina audáci fémina
EXAMPLES: Audax vir, m. a bold man; audax femina, f. a bod woman; audax animal, n. a bold animal. Cases.
bonum nomen boni nóminis bono númini bonum nomen bonum nomen bono nómine
gramen víride gráminis viridis grámini viridi gramen víride gramen víride grámine víridi
grámina virídia gráminum virídium graminibus viridibus grámina virídia grámina viridia graminibus viridibus
audax anima! audácis animális audáci animáli audax animal audax animal audáci animáli
N. acer odor, m, a pungent smell
audácia Abl. audácibus ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION-Declined together.
N. acres odóres, pungent smells
matres, sweet mothers
D. acribus odóribus, to pungent smells dulcibus mátribus, to sweet mothers
N. acetum acre, n. sharp vinegar
N. audax agmen, n. a daring band
Cicero disértus, eloquent Cicero
N. vir major, m. a greater man
silva magna, f. a great wood
pratum sterile, n. an unfruitful
Julius Caesar, m. Julius Cæsar
miles, m. an untrained soldier
Fortis, e, brave; mortális, e, mortal; immortális, e, immortal; omnis, e, every one, in the plural, all; gravis, e, heavy, severe; indústria, ae, f. diligence; litterae, arum, f. letters, literature, knowledge; littera, in the singular, signifies a letter of the alphabet; litterae in the plural means also a letter, that is, an epistle (epistola);
A majus opus, a greater work rudem militem, an untrained soldier
A majore opere, by a greater work rudi milite, by an untrained soldier fundamentum, i, n. a foundation; avis, is, f. a bird; hostis, is, m.
an enemy; mos, moris, m. a custom ; mores, in the plural, denotes an example of the latter in the annual meadow-grass, on morais, character; pištas, átis, f. piety ; virtus, útis, f. virtue which the stems or bents are in flower for nearly six months of (originally valour); vox, ócis, f. a voice; consto 1, I consist of, habeo the year. 2, I have ; incumbo 3 (with in and the ac.), I apply to ; meus, mea, All grains belong to the humble tribe of grasses. They are meum, my; tuus, tua, tuum, thine; facile, adv. casily.
annual plants, which complete their vegetation generally in a EXERCISES. LATIN-ENGLISH,
few months, and never in longer time than a year. All send Miles forti animo pugnare debet; homines córpora mortália, up a hollow straw, or culm, which is divided into lengths by animos immortáles habent; non ne sunt hominibus mortalia cor joints; at these joints the leaves are inserted, one at each joint pora? suavi voce avium delector ; suavi ne avium voce delectáris on the alternate sides of the stem, and each leaf embraces the pueri in litteras incumbere debent alăcri animo; cur non in litteras stem for some length like a sheath. These stems, moreover, incumbitis, pueri, alăcri animo ? discipulorum laus constat bonis always contain a portion of silex or earth of flint, hence their moribus et acri (severe) industriâ; acri industria pater meus in- firmness and stability, while their ashes are useful for polishcumbit in litteras ; pietas omnium virtutum est fundamentum; ing articles formed of wood, horn, ivory, and some of the tuae virtutes, o mater, me delectant; viri fortes non vincuntur do- softer metals. The last leaf of the season becomes a sheath to loribus gravibus; non cedimus hostibus audacibus ; vox omnis bene the newly-formed flower, embracing it for a time so firmly auditur a matre tuâ; tuae voces, soror, mihi sunt dulces.
that the sheath cannot be opened without difficulty. With ENGLISH-LATIN.
the growth of the flower it bursts open its sheath, rises above Brave men yield not to enemies ; a bold band is not easily con. it, and the leaf then turns backward. quered; my son studies with an active (alacri) mind; do thy sisters The small yellow points which beautify an ear of wheat, love knowledge ? they are delighted by the voices of the birds ; the when in flower, are the anthers, and there are generally three birds of the enemy have sweet voices; my scholars apply well to stamens. Two threads always appear at the top of every seed; knowledge; the bold band is conquered by Julius Cæsar; the these, called the styles, are pretty objects when viewed through bodies of men are mortal, the souls immortal; the piety of the mother delights the son; the daughter is delighted by the virtue of the of the floating sweet-grass. The head or ear consists of an
a glass. Sometimes they are peculiarly elegant, as in the case father; the virtue of boys consists in industry and good character ; uncertain number of dowers, followed by seeds. The plant my mother's letter (the letter of my mother) is heard by all.
on which many people chiefly depend for food is called corn by them; as wheat is in England, oats in the northern lowlands of
Scotland, rye in the sandy districts on the southern shores of LESSONS IN BOTANY.-No. III.
the Baltic Sea, and maize throughout the United States of THE GRASSES AND THE CORN PLANTS.
Let us look for a few moments at wheat, some varieties of The verdant carpet, which strikes foreigners on arriving in which are exhibited in the following engravings :England with so much surprise and pleasure, and which, spread over the country, gives it as individual a character as
Pig. I, Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
Fig. 4. the pines of Norway or the palm-groves of the Equator,-is composed chiefly of grasses. And, perhaps, the only instance in which a country has derived a name from the character of its vegetation is that of Ireland, which is often called the “ Emerald Isle.” So familiar have we been from infancy with our rich pasture-lands and the smooth lawns of our parks, that it is difficult for us to imagine what an agreeable contrast is caused between the country that gave us birth and the naked appearance of other lands, however rich they may be in various plants, from a deficiency of this verdant covering. In some vegetable products they may equal, or exceed ourselves, but by all accounts, the perpetual freshness of verdure caused by our grass-lands is almost peculiar to the United Kingdom.
And then what important purposes do grasses serve! Cattle feed on their leaves, and birds on their smaller seeds. Well has it been said, “Grasses are Nature's care." Their extraordinary means and power of preservation and increase, their hardiness, their disposition to spread, their properties of reproduction, coincide with the designs of God respecting them. They thrive under a treatment by which other plants are de. stroyed. The more their leaves are consumed the more their roots increase; the more they are trampled upon the thicker they grow. Many of the seemingly dry and dead leaves of grasses revive, and renew their verdure on the return of spring. In lofty mountains, where the summer heats are not sufficient to ripen the seeds, grasses which increase without seed abound.
Fig. 1, the giant species ; fig. 2, the common winter wheat; It has also often been stated that herb-eating animals attach fig. 3, the bearded wheat; and fig. 4, the Talavera wheat. themselves to the leaves of grasses, and if at liberty in their The engraving, fig. 5, represents a remarkable fact in the pastures to range and choose, leave untouched the straws germination of wheat. The grain sends forth a young stalk, which support the parts essential to their increase.
the bottom of which is surrounded with roots; and just The stems of other plants are variously branched, but in where the stalk emerges from the earth, there is formed its grasses the culm, or stem, is single, till, in some instances, it first knot, from which springs a leaf. As soon as the atmoparts to produce a cluster of flowers. The length of the sphere will allow, the same knot sends forth some lateral leaves is great when compared with their breadth. The roots, which act as the real feeders of the plant; while flowers are composed of concave parts, called valves, applied the stalk and the roots that are beneath, speedily perish. one over the other. When four of these valves belong to a In the figure, a represents the roots that issue from the first single seed, the lower pair are called the calyx, or flower-cup, knot on the stalk when the seed 6 is properly
covered with and the upper the corolla or blossom.
loose earth, capable of being duly acted on by the atmoIn some grasses every particular seed has a calyx and sphere; and c shows the state of the grain when it has been corolla ; as the Canary grass, distinguished by its pretty and too superficially sown, and can produce neither lateral shoots compact head of flowers; and the Timothy grass, remarkable nor after-stalk. for its long epike of flowers, resembling the tail of a cat. It A full-grown, and perfect grain of wheat, is, in form, a is exactly the same with many others. In other cases a single compressed oval ; first enclosed in certain chaffy sides, which pair of calyx leaves contains two or several florets. There is are easily separated, and then in a membraneous covering,
Varieties of Wheat.