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alternately in a time approaching to the vibrations of a church rendulum, there was a larger swell of which the others were out inconsiderable parts, and oven a mightier still, of which this second was but a limb and portion. Something like this appears to be the nature of the undulations of musical notes. There is a great swell and alittle one, and both of them contri- | bute to the general effect. The examination may therefore on this principle be conducted in two directions s—first, to enquire what quantity of minor undulations may be within the commass of a bar or "measure"—and secondly, to ask whether wars themselves may not be fractions of greater undulations, , and whether out of these again may not be constituted undulations of higher orders in succession, to an extent that can only be measured by the skill of the performer, and probably also by the cultivated sensitiveness of the hearer Any person
who will attend critically to the execution of s ior instrumental performers, will be surprised to find to what an extent this species of "linked sweetness may be traced, and how large a number of bara may be formed into a connected whole, by means of the relations of what is here termed accent."
When the tune is simple it is not unfit for
The Binary measure is the boldest of the measures one most easily felt or performed. It is by far the large masses of voice, and is well adapted to aid in givi majesty to a tune. Try “St. Stephen's” or " ord" first in the three-pulse measure (l ing the accented notes) and then in the fire-pulse measure, and you will understand the character of the Binary measure. The Trinary measure is well adapted to aidin producing a soft and soothing musical effect. ional use: especially if the people have been trained to keep the accent. The adaptation of this measure to soft and soothing music is illustrated by its analogy (according to Dr. Bryce) to the breathing of health and rest. The Quaternary measure, when delicately performed, gives much elegance to a tune. It is adapted to gational tunes when the movement is not too slow. Try the well-known tune "Vesper Hymn,” taking care to give the medium accent. The Senary measure is commonly used in connexion with quick movements, and is naturally soft, light, and elegant. It is better adapted tosecular than to sacred music.
Exercise 12, Dom, ME, son. Four-pulse Measure. KEY F (or E).
Not F.—Take a low, but not very low note for your Doh. Tell little in the middle, so as to express the medium accent. [The your friend to pattern it (if you are still dependent on him) “in F open note without a stem is to be sung twice as long as that with a with one flat.” Learn both “parts.” Be careful to hold the long || stem. There was not room to write the last long open note of the notes of the lower line with evenness of sound, swelling them a | “second” part on the staff.]
Note.—Take a low sound for the key-note. Sing, when you dotted open note and the close note, shows that they should be have traced the tune on the modulator, rapidly and lightly, mark- İ sung as one. The note is written in this way, instead of being ing delicately the accents. In singing from the book, your eye written as an open, note without a stem (which would give the will scarcely rest on the soft accents. ... You will only have time to same length) that the accent may be marked.] think of the “loud” and “medium” marks. [A curve over the
TROUBADOUR. (The words from “Ballads for the Times,” by M. F. Tupper, Esq.) Key F. M. 96,
NotE.-You should take a rather low note for your Don here. Tell your patterning friend—“the key of F with one flat.” The hrst thing you will notice, in looking at this tune, is, that some of the “aliquots” or pulses have two notes in them. The dot which follows SoH, the second note, always means that the note before it takes half a pulse. It, of course, leaves the other half to the other note, in this case Me. When you have carefully traced the first phrase of the tune (five notes) on the modulator, then sing it with special attention to this point, letting the notes SoH ME o are placed in one pulse of the voice) run from your tongue jus twice as fast as the others. And so on with the rest. u will notice that both the first and second parts of the tune are repeated, so that it is not as long as it looks. If you find the “second” #. of the tune low for your voice, pitch the key-note a little
igher. Be careful to point on the modulator from memory.
All's for the best; for unbiassed, unbounded,
Providence reigns from the east to the west,
And by his wisdom and mercy surrounded,
Remember that very tune, thus thoroughly learnt, becomes a power by which others will be more easily mastered. This tune, in its present arrangement, is taken from Mr. Curwen's “People's Singing Lessons." It is harmonised for three voices—“two Trebles and a Bass”—in his “School music,” so as not to be discordant with the present harmony for two voices. You need not attempt the words yet. When you do, let those printed in CAPITALS be sung with increased force and loudness of voice; and those in italics with increased softness. [The square note is used to indicate the place bf Don at the beginning of the staff, but it is not to be sung. The place of Doh, being thus once marked, is not afterwards indicated by a square note as in previous exercises. The pupil must learn to keep the place of Doh in his mind. The notes, with a tail to the stem, are to be sung half as long as those without the tail.]
LESSONS IN LATIN.—No. VI. By John R. BEARD, D.D.
II.-Nouns with vowel-stems; parisyllabic.
Nom. avis, a bird febris, a fever
Gen. avis, of a bird febris, of a ferer Dat. avi, to a bird febri, to a fever Acc. avem, a bird febrem (im), a serer Voc. avis, O bird - febris, Oferer
Abl. ave or avi, by a bird febri (e), by a sever Cases Plural.
Nem aves, birds febres, fevers
Gen. avium, of birds febrium, offerers
Voc. aves, O birds febres, 0 forers
Nom. nubes, a cloud mare (neuter), the sea
Woc. nubes, to cloud mare, O sea
Abi. nubi, by a cloud mari, by the sea
Nom. nubes, clouds marian seas
Gen nubium, of clouds marium, of seas
Voc. nubes, 0 clouds Inaria, O seas
Abl. nubibus, by clouds marious, by seas
sunt in navibus; in orbe estignis; in ignibus sunt fratres; altaria sunt deabus; non ne diis sunt altaria? securi defendunt agricolae ovilia. ENGLISH-LATIN.
Sailors defend ships with (their) bodies; birds are on the rocks; are rocks loved by sailors slaughter injures the people; birds strike the clouds; axes defend the ships; the birds of the citizens are injured; the seat of the prince is praised; we conquer the companions of the princes.
General view of nouns of the third declension, according to their
stems :CLASS I.
Nouns with consonantal stems or imparisyllabic.
1st division; nouns without the terminations.
1st subdivision; nouns in which the nominative and the stem are the same ; the stems end in r and l.
2nd subdivision; nouns in which the nominative and the stem art different; the stems end in n and s.
2nd division; nouns with the -termination s, with the sounds k, t, p.
CLASS II. Nouns with vowel-stems, or parisyllabic. With and without the termination 8.
Some peculiarities belonging to this declension must be briefly indicated. The termination of the accusative singular is properly m, which is connected with the consonantal stem by the interposition of e. In the vowel-stems no interposing vowel is required, because there is a vowel in the stem. That vowel is i. Vowel-stems therefore end in im in the accusative, and in i in the ablative singular; for the most part, however, they in usage have e in both. However, in sitis, thirst, tussis. a cough, and vis, strength, i only is used. Wis is a defective noun; vis is thus declined; singular, vis, vim, vi; plural, wires, wirium, viribus, wires, wires, viribus, the plural being complete and regular. In these nouns,—namely, febris, a fever; securis, an az; pelvis, a basin; turris, a tower; and restis, a cord, in is more usual than em; but less usual than em is it in classis, a fleet; messis, a crop of corn ; clavis, a key; navis, a ship. The ablative singular has for the most part i (perhaps from ie) instead of ein parisyllabics with the vowel-stem ini. In imparisyllabics with consonantal stems, e is the usual ablative
termination, but i is sometimes found, derived from the usage in the vowel-stems.
Nouns which make the ablative singular in i make the gemitive plural in ium instead of um; and nouns neuter, which in the ablative singular end in i, in the nominative, accusative, and vocative plural end in ia.
Adjectives of the third declension, in general, follow the declension laws of the nouns, only that in the ablative singular they prefer i. Adjectives of the third declension are of two sorts; first, those that have three terminations, as, alăcer, m., alácris, f., alăcre, n., lively, active; second, those that have two terminations, as the comparitive, vilior, m, and f., vilius, n, meaner; under this second class may stand such as ferox, fierce, which in the nominative singular is m. f. and n. (accusative, , rocem), but in the plural has for the neuter a separate form in ia, as ferocia.
Brave men yield not to enemies; a bold band is not easily conquered; my son studies with an active (alacri) mind; do thy sisters love knowledge they are delighted by the voices of the birds; the birds of the enemy have sweet voices; my scholars apply well to knowledge; the ło band is conquered by Julius 8. the bodies of men are mortal, the souls immortal; the piety of the mother delights the son; the daughter is delighted by the virtue of the father; the virtue of boys consists in industry and good character; my mother's letter (the letter of my mother) is heard by all.
LESSONS IN BOTANY.-No. III. THE GRASSES AND THE CORN PLANTS.
THE verdant carpet, which strikes foreigners on arriving in England with so much surprise and pleasure, and which, spread over the country, gives it as individual a character as the pines of Norway or the palm-groves of the Equator, is composed chiefly of grasses. And, perhaps, the only instance in which a country has derived a name from the character of its vegetation is that of Ireland, which is often called the “Emerald Isle.” So familiar have we been from infancy with our rich pasture-lands and the smooth lawns of our parks, that it is difficult for us to imagine what an agreeable contrast is caused between the country that gave us birth and the naked appearance of other lands, however rich they may be in various #. from a deficiency of this verdant covering. In some vegetable products they may equal, or exceed ourselves, but by all accounts, the perpetual freshness of verdure caused by our grass-lands is almost peculiar to the United Kingdom. And then what important purposes do grasses servel Cattle feed on their leaves, and birds on their smaller seeds. Well has it been said, “Grasses are Nature's care.” Their extraordinary means and power of preservation and increase, their hardiness, their disposition to spread, their properties of reroduction, coincide with the designs of God respecting them. hey thrive under a treatment by which other plants are destroyed. The more their leaves are consumed the more their roots increase; the more they are trampled upon the thicker they grow. Many of the seemingly dry and dead leaves of rasses revive, and renew their verdure on the return of spring. lofty mountains, where the summer heats are not sufficient to ripen the seeds, grasses which increase without seed abound. It has also often been stated that herb-eating animals attach themselves to the leaves of grasses, and if at liberty in their pastures to range and choose, leave untouched the straws which support the parts essential to their increase. The stems of other plants are variously branched, but in grasses the culm, or stem, is single, till, in some instances, it arts to produce a cluster of flowers. The length of the eaves is great when compared with their breadth. The flowers are composed of concave parts, called valves, applied one over the other. When four of these valves belong to a single seed, the lower pair are called the calya, or flower-cup, and the upper the corolla or blossom. In some grasses every particular seed has a calyx and corolla; as the Canary grass, distinguished by its pretty and compact head of flowers; and the Timothy grass, remarkable for its long spike of flowers, resembling the tail of a cat. It is exactly the same with many others. In other cases a single pair of calyx leaves contains two or several florets. There is
an example of the latter in the annual meadow-grass, on which the stems or bents are in flowerfor nearly six months of the year. 1 grains belong to the humble tribe of grasses. They are annual plants, which complete their vegetation generally in a few months, and never in longer time than a year. All send up a hollow straw, or culm, which is divided into lengths by joints; at these joints the leaves are inserted, one at each joint on the alternate sides of the stem, and each leaf embraces the stem for some length like a sheath. These stems, moreover, always contain a portion of silex or earth of flint, hence their firmness and stability, while their ashes are useful for polishing articles formed of wood, horn, ivory, and some of the softer metals. The last leaf of the season becomes a sheath to the newly-formed flower, embracing it for a time so firmly that the sheath cannot be opened without difficulty. With the growth of the flower it bursts open its sheath, rises above it, and the leaf then turns backward. The small yellow points which beautify an ear of wheat, when in flower, are J. anthers, and there are generally three stamens. Two threads always appear at the top of every seed; these, called the styles, are pretty objects when viewed through a glass. Sometimes they are peculiarly elegant, as in the case of the floating sweet-grass. The head or ear consists of an uncertain number of flowers, followed by seeds. The plant on which many people chiefly depend for food is called corn by them; as wheat is in England, oats in the northern lowlands of Scotland, rye in the sandy districts on the southern shores of the Baltic Sea, and maize throughout the United States of America. Let us look for a few moments at wheat, some varieties of which are exhibited in the following engravings:
Fig. 1, the giant species; fig. 2, the common winter wheat; fig. 3, the bearded wheat; and fig. 4, the Talavera wheat.
The engraving, fig. 5, represents a remarkable fact in the germination of wheat. The grain sends forth a young stalk, the bottom of which is surrounded with roots; and just where the stalk emerges from the earth, there is formed its first knot, from which springs a leaf. As soon as the atmosphere will allow, the same knot sends forth some lateral roots, which act as the real feeders of the plant; while the stalk and the roots that are beneath, speedily perish. In the figure, a represents the roots that issue from the first knot on the stalk when the seed b is properly covered with loose earth, capable of being duly acted on by the atmosphere; and c shows the state of the grain when it has been too superficially sown, and can produce neither lateral shoots nor after-stalk.
A full-grown, and perfect grain of wheat, is, in form, a compressed oval; first enclosed in certain chaffy sides, which are easily separated, and then in a membraneous covering,