Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF

*est, the chyle becomes mixed with the chyme, and is coniocted oy this canal into the vein which posses under the left e-aviole, and there becomes mingled with the vetous blood. T-e composition of the thyle is the same with that of the blood, and the blood contains all the elements which are required for the nutrition and growth of every part of the body, as well as to repair that incessant loss which is going on in the system. ion is the end of nutrition; and if the chyle hold in a state of solution all the material elements of this reparation, then the reparation itself may be realised by the addition of the chyle to the blood. We have seen that the chyle gets into the venous system; and all that is now needful, is, that the venous blood should come into contact with the oxygen of the air in the lungs, to be transformed into arterial blood, and thus regain its own vital and vivifying property.

[ocr errors]

Can yo-describe the circulation in a plant, and in the lower kind of animals? what does the blood in the human body represent when looked stin a chemical point of view? Of what use are the teeth: and how are they divided ? what is the effect of eating our food too fast, and of drinking too much cold liquido What is the temperature necessary for digestion? What change does the food undergo in the stomach? What is the difference between the saliva and the gastric juice? What juices does the chyme meet with in passing into the duodenum? What important purposes are served by the bile? In what vessel is the ch found, the lymph * o * cavity do these lacteals and lymphatics empty themooi-eWhere does the thoracic duct arise; and what is its course? How does the chyle get into the current of the blood? How is venous blood converted into arterial? Does the chyle contain all the elements of the blood; and how does the blood supply the various parts of the body ?

SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS AND QUERIES.

Taz following is the complete solution of query 8, No. II. #: if: *. *:::::::::::Fo: o: In a right-angled tria the square which is described upon the si obtending the right angle, is equal to the squares described upon the sides which contain the right angle. Let A oc (figs. 1 and 2), be a right-angled triangle, having the right angle B.A. c. The square described upon the side B c, shall be equal to the squares described upon B. A., a c. On B c, describe the square B D 2 c (I.46); and, on B.A., a c, the squares G. B., H c,

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

through A, drawal parallel to Bn, or cit (I. 31); and join AD, F. c. Then, because the angle B. Acis a right angle (hyp.), and that the angle Is A G is a right angle ğ. 30), the two straight lines Ac, AG, UPox THE opposite sines, or on the same side, of AB, m-ke with it at the point A, The ADJAcENT Axgles, or the angles on the same side, two right angles; therefore, cA Is IN THE saxis staaughT LINE with AG, or coincides with it. (I.14.) For the same reason, B.A. and AH are in the same straight line. And, because the angle DB c is equal to the angle FBA, each of them being a right angle, add to, or subtract from, each othese equals, the angle A B C, therefore, the whole or the remaining, angle D R A is equal to THE whole, or the remaining, ange F scsax. 2). And, because the two si es A B, * 10, are equal to the two sides FB, Bc, each to each, and the included angle A B D is equal to the included angle FB c, therefore, the base A D is equal to the baser c (I.4), and the triangle A B1 to the triangle F.B. c. Now the parallelogram Blis double of the triangle ARI (I.41), because they are upon the same B D, and between the same parallels I, D, AL; also the square ghis double of the triangle FB c, because these also are upon the same FB, and between the sam: parallels FB, o c. But the doubles of equals are equal to one another (ax. 6); therefore, the parallelogram B L is equal to the square G. B. Similarly, by joining AE, B K, it can be proved that the parallelogram clis equal to the square II c. Therefore, the whole square B 15 E. c is equal to the two squares a B, H c (ax. 2). and the square B D E c is described upon the straight line B c, and the squares GB, H c, upon the straight lines AB, A c. therefore, the square upon the side B c is equal to the squares upon the sides AB, A c. Therefore, in any right-angled triangle, &c., Q.E.D. In the preceding demonstration, which is taken from one of the latest and best editions of Euclid's Elements, we have only introduced, in italics, the words which refer erclusively to the second figure; the words in small capitals referring ExclusiveLY to the first figure, and the rest of the demonstration to both figures. It is evident to any one who attentively studies the first book of Euclid, that the chief, if not the sole intention of the author, was to establish the truth of the 47th Proposition, or, in other words, the Pythagorean Theorem, on the sure foundation of logical and irrefragable demonstration. Many students of Geometry have read this demonstration carefully—have admitted the truth established by it as convincing, provided the other propositions on which it is sounded were true. They have then read the demonstrations of these other propositions, and those also of the propositions on which the latter were founded, and thus in a regular series retraced the steps of his reasoning back to the very first proposition. In this way, they have discovered that the Greek Geometry, as delivered to us by Euclid, is one of the most perfect specimens of pure and logical reasoning of which the human mind in this sublunary state is found to be capable. From the incidental remark of the editor of his works, which led to the query solved in the preceding demonstration, we have discovered not only his mistake, but the deficiency even of Euclid's werk, although it be a masterpiece. It is evident that he never contemplated the construction of the squares on the interior sides of the triangle, as shown in fig. 2, otherwise he would have found it necessary to alter the enunciation of the 14th proposition of the first book into the following:— If at a point in a straight line two other straight lines make the two angles on opposité sides of it, or the two angles on the same side of it, either two right angles, or together equal to two right angles, these, two straight lings shall be either in the same straight line, or shall coincide with each other. It will be a useful exercise for some of our more advanced readers to demonstrate the truth of this proposition under its new phase. In the printed arrangement of the preceding demonstration, we have adopted the very useful method followed by Mr. Potts in his edition of Euclid; where the text is “so arranged as to exhibit to the eye of the student the successive steps of the demonstration, road thus to facilitate his apprehension of the reasoning.” In conclusion, we remark, that although the above demonstrasoon is complete as regards the construction of the squares on the interior sides of the triangle, we shall not now consider the demonstration of the Pythagorean theorem absolutely complete, until our geometrical correspondents have actually solved all the possible cases of construction, which are the following six:— 1. The squares on the three crterior sides of the triangle. 2. The squares on the three interior sides of the triangle. 3. The two smaller squares on the exterior sides, and the greater on the interior side. 4. The two smaller squares on the interior sides, and the greater on the earterior side. t 5. The greater and one of the smaller squares on the eaterior sides, and the other on the interior side. 6. The greater and one of the smaller squares on the interior side, and the other on the earterior side. The first case is that given by Euclid. The second is that given above, and solved by many correspondents. The third we have repeatedly seen. But we should like to see a demonstration adapted to all the cases at once, with such necessary differences as are given in the preceding one. PRoBLEM-To describe an isosceles triangle, such that each of its legs shall be double the base or third side. Let A B be the given base. It is required to describe an isosceles triangle on AB, such that each of its legs shall be double A B.

[graphic]
[graphic]

From the points A and B as centres, with radius AP, describe the circles B D F, A F a ; produce A B both ways to E and g; then, from the point A, as a centre with radius A G, describe the circle G c H. ; from the point P, as a centre with radius B E describe the circle B c 1; and from the point c, where the circles intersect, draw c A, cr: ; then cAra is the triangle required. Because A E is equal to A B (I Euc. def. 15), therefore H E is double of A B ; for the same reason, A G is double of A B. Because A is the centre of the circle g c H, therefore A c is equal to A G (I. Euc. def. o but A G is double of A B, therefore A cis double of AB; in like manner it may be shown that B C is double of AB; wherefore Ac and B c are each double of A B; they are, therefore, equal to each other (I. Euc. ax. 6), and the triangle Ac B is the isosceles triangle required. Of this problem we have received many correct solutions exactly similar to the above. Owing to the problem being put without reference to a given base, we have received a number of solutions

of a different kind, but equally correct. Others, however, have not confined themselves within the prescribed limits’; and therefore their solutions, though correct in themselves are not so in reference to these limits.

PROBLEMS AND QUERIES.

1. Draw a straight line at right angles to a given straight line from one of its extremities without producing it, and give a demonstration with as few propositions from Euclid as possible, but still geometrically correct.

2. If sound travels at the rate of 1,142 feet per second, and a stone falls through the height of 16 feet linch per second, from what height would a stone fall, which should occupy the same time o orough it, that sound would occupy in ascending it?—

8. In the figure of the 47th Proposition of the First Book of Euclid's Elements (see figs. 1, 2, preceding page), if the points F. p. G to and K.P, of the squares is g, c is, and co, be joined, they wiif form three triangles—F B D, G A H, and k c E, which are all equal to one another; required the proof. . 4. In the same figure, prove that the straight lines F c, Br, intersect each other and the straight line A Lin the same point.

5. Show how the squares B G and c 11, if made of paper or pasteboard, must be cut, so that the pieces may be laid upon the square B e, and made exactly to fit or cover it, without leaving any space under or over.

[merged small][ocr errors]

James-street, Oxford-street, Yours respectfully,
April 21, 1852. JAMES WEECOCK.

A correspondent, E. C., earnestly suggests to us the utility of giving Lessons on Politeness, and our social duties to friends and foes, male and female, somewhat in the Chesterfield style. He draws a contrast between foreign manners and our own, to the disadvantage of the latter; and instances a case where, on two afternoons in the week, the children in schools are lectured on the art of politeness, and their social bearing towards all classes of society,+namely, in the Grand Duchy of Baden. He relates an anecdote of what he witnessed and was ashanaed of in the conduct of some of his countrymen on the quay at B–. American politeness invited English on-lookers to inspect a ship. Females as well as males availed themselves of the offer. The female descent of the ladder in returning after inspection, excited the risibility of an English crowd to the degree called the horse-laugh; while American politeness, in the shape of a common sailor, at once removed the cause, and prevented the repetition of the insult.

As another instance, which we have often witnessed ourselves, he mentions that of a gentlemen and lady walking on the pavement, the lady being meat the kerb, and forced off into the dirty street by persons standing in a knot on the pavement, or walking and talking together, without any regard to the comfort and convenience of others. He also wishes the masses to be taught, how to settle disputes among themselves by arbitration, as is done among the upper classes, rather than by “fighting it out,” as the phrase is. We think our correspondent is right, to a considerable extent, and we hope his abstract of his remarks will be taken in good part by those for whom it is intended.

LITERARY NOTICES.

The EMIGRANT's HANDBook, a Guide to the Warious Fields of Emigration in all Parts of the Globe, is now ready, price Gd.

The ILLUSTRATED ExhibiToh and MAGAZINE of ART, is in course of issue in Weekly Numbers, price 2d.; Monthly I’arts, price 9d. ; or if containing five weekly numbers, price 11d. The fourth Monthly Part, price 9d., contains a Portrait of the late J. M. W. Turner, R.A., drawn by J. Gilbert, and engraved by W. J. Linton together with upwards of forty other choice illustrations. The first half-yearly volume of this truly National Illustrated Work will be published July 1st, in a style of binding in strict accordance with the character of the work, price 6s. 6d. It may with safety be asserted that this volume will contain a larger number of first class engravings. executed in the most finished manner, than has ever previously appeared in works of three times the cost.

ScripTURE LIBRARY roR THE YouNo, in Shilling volumes—The first two volumes of this instructive series of works, “The " ": Joseph,” illustrated with sixteen choice engravings and map", "" “The TAmerNAcLE, its PRIESTs, and SERVicrs,” with twelve engray. ings, are now ready.

[graphic]

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. A. W. (Aberdeen)—He is right; there is a mistake in the place to which he refers, which has been corrected. w. M. H. (Hull)—sackville—F. L. C.—Lessons on the subject they mention will be given as soon as proper arrangements can be made. J. S. K. (Kirby, Notts.)—The words to which he refers are all pronounced so that the a in them sounds like the a in awa, with the exception of what may be included in his &c.; for this we cannot answer. An admirer and student at Newcastle is rather sharponour English grammarian; but Lennie is no authority, neither is Cobbett; and Murray is on the wane. Use has the power to alter a language, and use will do it too. As to m ical instruments, we can only give him our own experience,—viz- that with a pair of small bow compasses, and a common ruler, or straight-edge, we carefully constructed all the Azures of the Elements of Euclid. And, with the addition of the diagonal scale, we solved many practical questions and problems deducible from the same, in mensuration, surveying, trigonometry, &c. The price of the small compasses, about three inches in length, which served us for a geometrical pen, a pair of dividers, and various other *o-s is si The common ruler, was the bevelled edge of a diagonal scale, which cost about is.; so that, for about half-a-crown, we had a couple of instruments that served our purposeformany a long day. Axy (Northwich)-Afriend, under thisname, suggests that it would be well to render the French exercises more useful, by substituting the qualities of different objects, their origin, use, &c., for unconnected sentences, for instance, using the verb “avoir" and "an of" What has an egg? It has an outside, an inside, a surface, a shell, a porous the white, the yolk, the embryo or germ. What shape has the egg: It has an oral shape. How many eggs has the hen? She has torteen, and perhaps will have twelve chickens. &c. Then with “are.” Where is the ben's nest? It is in the poultry yard, where the cock is also. What colour is the egg-shell? It is white. What are its qualities? It is hard, yet porous. And soon, till the whole egg was examined, thus giving connexion and precision of ideas, at the same time that accurate words were acquired. Afterwards the same object might be recapitulated with other verbs and thus well fixed in the memory, with facts and observations worth treasuring up. It is quite possible to pack a multitude of materials in a small box, if skilfully disposed; why not written ideas and words in the mind? R. A. (Dublin).-His suggestion is a very good one indeed; but we fear our subscribers would soon get tired of it, and that would defeat --- There are many cheap publications on the subjects he mentions, but they are subjects upon which we intend to have papersoarselves. J. P. Cox. —A list of the best books on the subjects of which the various papers or articles treat will be a desideratum which we shall endeavour to supply; but this must be deferred to the close of each series, as we wish our own work to be first and Apecially consulted in reference to any subject of which it treats. J. W-x (Newtown).--When our treatise on the French language is completed, we shall consider it sufficient in itself to educate a pupil in that language. F. Blaskier.—His idea of an intercommunication page is very good, and so is the sample; but we prefer the idea of correspondence, notes and queries, under our own control and management, in order to prevent the circulation of error. Livea-—The subject he meations will be begun as soon as possible. He is quite right in his Latin lessons. Amare, to lore, to be fond of. expresses generally the lore of affection, whether with or without reflection or consideration; hence it is distinguished from diligere, to raise, to Mare an affection grounded on esteem, as the etymology of the word implies; for diligere is derived from dis and legere; now dis is a preposition only used in composition, that is, in union with other words; and it means separately or apart; legere means to gather or collect, (from the Greek lego, to lay), that is, to lay together; but as whatever is laid together or collected apart is peculiarly esteemed or lored, it naturally follows that the verb duigere signifies to lore in a more rational manner than amare does, which merely implies an affection of the mind without particular regard to the grounds or the consequences of the passion. This correspondent deserves high commendation for his laudable desire *. *:: :::::::::::: which he proposed to employ for that purpose. e -re to think that our i al is likel so serviceable to him. journ y to prove J. Passelle (Hennington).-His solution of the sth query in No. IL is complete, and similar to that inserted in this number. Josera Wesstra--Hisingenious communication is under considerattoo. Echopa.-Lessons on the first-mentioned subject are in actual preparation, and will soon make their appearance. The other subject . also occupy our most anxious attention assoon as we can afford room; :**** finish some of the lessons in hand before we begin

| H. H. M. D. CaMamar (Cheltenham).-His communication had |falien aside. We now state that without some further explanation we cannot give a decided answer on the subject to which he refers. Of course, the subject he is anxious about will appear. WM. WALTox-He is right in his cljection; the want he complains of must be supplied. IND.ocres.—We shall make some inquiry about the biographical subject he speaks of. A HARD Worker Axo TulskER –The omission will be supplied. The subjects he mentions will be treated of in our pages. A Subscriber, at Bishop-Auckland, puts in a word or two for the ladies' department of our pages. With every wish to serve the fair sex, we fear that the great objects we have in view, namely the improvement of the mind, and the elevation of the character, by the diffusion of literature and science among the people, will preclude our attempting to meet her wishes for some time to come. Still, if she can really assist us by her own efforts, to disseminate the kind of information she proposes, in a way that we can heartily approve of, we shall be glad to give her some encouragement in the attempt. C. BarEs—The simplest method of ascertaining the circumference of the earth at any latitude (by which we understand the length of any parallel of latitude), is to multiply the circumference of the earth at the equator, or rather its mean circumference, by the cosine of the given latitude. Otherwise: in “Keith on the Globes," there is a table of the the length of a degree of longitude, in geographical miles, corresponding to every degree of latitude, from the equator to the pole, appended to the ninth problem on the terrestrial globe. Take the number from this table, ing to the given latitude, and multiply it by 360, the product will be the circumference required in geographical miles. To convert them into British miles, tery nearly; take a tenth part of the geographical miles, and the half of this tenth part: then add these parts and the whole together, and the sum will be the required answer, within a small fraction of the truth. C. L.-There is a mistake in the Vocabul.ARY, in page 35, column 2, No. III., for vincio, I conquer, read viosio, Ilind. In the same page, stay is a misprint for slay. As to anare and diligere, they both mean to lore. The errors have been corrected in later impressious. W. P. (Dublin).-The syllables are written according to the pronunciation. Why should our Dublin friends want them spelt in the Italian | language? Not many others, we are persuaded, have any desire to be | puzzled with Italian spelling in their music lessons. The change of |si (See) for To, is already explained. CANTAso (Hounslow).-The monochord could not be used to set the “pattern," unless you could “stop” the strings at the appointed places very rapidly. Pianos are very commenly tuned more “sweet," that is, more correctly, in the keys most used, being, in proportion, all the more out of tune in the others. The best “pattern” is the voice of a correct singer. An equally accurate one is the notes of a well-played violin. If you can strike the right notes on the piano (taking care of the flats or sharps peculiar to the different keys), you can set yourself the "pattern" from that instrument. But let it be only a pattern. Do not sing trith the piano. Though few persons can say where precisely the piano notes are wrong, or to what extent, by the ear alone, yet almost any one can feel, as the general effect, that they are not so true and satisfactory as a “concert of sweet voices.” It is easier and more natural to sing in perfect tune than in “temperament.” Therefore you will soon become more perfect than your piano-pattern, especially if you study the “mental effect of notes," of which more anon. A piano tuned by “equal temperament," would be most nearly right on the fifth, the fourth, and the second of the scale. The third (Me), the sixth (Lak), and the seventh (Te), would be considerably too sharp. An “accordion" or “German concertina,” which gives only one key, and that tuned “sweet,” would be useful for giving the pattern in the earlier lessons. If you observe and think you will soon growindependent of the pattern, and a pattern in one key would serve you for any other. Mich. RAFFERTY-The memory, like other powers of the mind, is strengthened by exercise. He should endeavour to learn some useful rules by heart, and the effort itself would assist greatly in producing the power of concentration in the mind. He should, however, proceed by degrees, and not attempt too much at first. Let him begin by carrying the calf, and he will ere long be able to carry the bull. •,• The inquiries of subscribers, well-wishers, admirers, scholars. &c. &c., are really more than we can meet individually. Hebrew, Drawing, Perspective, Shadow, Phonography, Electro-Biology, and the whole range of the arts and sciences are all expected to be commenced in every successive number: Our readers ought to reflect that all this is actually impossible. Putting the question of expense entirely aside, the powers of men are limited, and time is positively required to bring every subject under notice in its appointed order. Again we request that our correspondents will have patience, and give us time to prepare for the proper arrangement and discussion of the subjects to be introduced.

Printed and Published by John Cassell, 335. Strand, and Ludgate-hill, o, 1852.

113

LESS ONS IN ANCIENT HISTORY.-No, IV.

By Robert FERGuson, LL.D.

It is a fact in history, of which the young student should never lose sight, that before states and kingdoms submit to foreign power, they will be found, if not outwardly and visibly, yet secretly and internally undermined. The conduct of Psammetichus towards the caste of warriors, which included the whole class of the nobility, created the most serious division between them and the princes of the throne. The disaffection of these nobles, led Psammetichus to take Greek soldiers into his pay, and intrust the defence of Egypt to an army of foreign mercenaries. This circumstance, together with the growing commercial intercourse with the Greeks, and the number of Greek settlements in Lower Egypt, all prepared the way for the subsequent conquest of this division of the kingdom. In fact, so close was the connexion between Greece and Egypt, and so fully did they correspond in their institutions and pursuits, that in the reign of Psammis, the son of Necho, an embassy was sent from the city of Elis, to obtain

He charges Pharaoh-Hophra with the most extravagant pride and profanity, in affecting to himself divine honours, and in so boasting of the strength and internal resources of his kingdom, as if not any god could dispossess him. He then addresses him under the image of one of those crocodiles or monsters which inhabited the river of that country, of whose riches and revenue he so loudly vaunted, and tells him, that, with as much ease as a fisher drags the fish he has hooked, God would drag him and his people to captivity, where their carcasses would fall a prey to birds and wild beasts;–that he should be subjected to the Babylonian yoke till the fall of that great empire, and that even after that catastrophe, Egypt should continue to be the basest of kingdoms. For thirteen years Nebuchadnezzar had been employed in the siege of Tyre, till the head of every soldier had become bald by the constant wear and friction of his helmet, and his shoulder had become peeled by the heavy burdens which he

TEMPLE OF

instruction from the Egyptian priests for the management of the Olympic games. In the year, B. c. 594, APRIEs, the PHARAoH-HoPHRA of Scripture, ascended the throne, as a prince distinguished for his martial prowess. On his accession, he hazarded a war with the Phoenician States, took the rich city of Sidon, and returned to Egypt laden with spoil. It was this success, which, in all likelihood, led Hezekiah, king of Judah, to form an alliance with him against Nebuchadnezzar. The monarch of Babylon, having, with his army, taken up a position before Jerusalem, it appears, that, to relieve the city, which was now in such imminent danger, Apries marched his forces from Egypt; but no sooner did he come in sight of the Babylonian troops, than his courage failed him; heretreated with all haste, and left the Jews in the hand of the enemy. For this act of perfidy, God, by the mouth of his servant Ezekiel, denounced

the severest judgments on the Egyptians and their sovereign. WOL. I.

DENDERA's

was doomed to carry in raising the necessary fortifications. And all this toil and endurance ended in getting possession of an empty city, for the inhabitants gradually withdrew till not a soul was left behind, Nebuchadnezzar then turned his arms against Egypt, at a time when the kingdom was being rent asunder by internal feuds and divisions. A Grecian colony of Cyrene having reinforced themselves by a large addition of their own countrymen, under their third king, Battus the Happy, commenced an attack on the neighbouring Libyans, and took possession of their lands. Andicam, king of Libya, applied for aid to Pharaoh-Hophra, who sent a large and

[merged small][ocr errors]
[graphic]

disaffection to usurp the supreme authority. He enlisted the whole kingdom in his favour, challenged Apries to an open conflict, came to battle with him near Memphis, took him Prisoner, treated him for a time with great kindness and respect, but the people becoming clamorous for his life, he at length delivered him into their hands; and no sooner had they got possession of the royal captive than they strangled him, and committed his bodyingloriously to the grave. us was fulfilled the prophecy of Jeremiah:—“Behold! I will give Fo king of Egypt, into the hand of his enemies, and into the hand of them that seek his life; as I gave Zedekiah, king of Judah, into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, his enemy, and that sought his life.” According to Ezekiel,t the king of Babylon was to leave Egypt so ruined and desolate that its waters should run as pure as oil, without the feet of man or the hoof of beast to disturb them; while the Egyptian monarch, should, like a beast of prey, becaught and slain, and his carcass thrown out to the fowls of heaven. More than this:—a place in the lower regions is ordered to be prepared for him and his host; while those who buried the slain are commanded to drag him and his followers to the subterraneous mansions. At the tumult and commotion excited by this command, the infernal Shades are re ted as roused from their couches to learn the cause. hail the king of Egypt, and again lie downto their slumbers. Once introduced into this immense subterraneous cavern, the prophet leads the unhappy prince all around, shows him the gloomy mansions of former ts, tells their names as he goes along, and concludes with pointing out to Pharaoh the §. appropriated to him, and in which, in the midst of espots and tyrants like himself, he must lie down for ever! The imagery of the prophet is sublime and terrible. No reader of taste and feeling can along with him in this funeral procession, and descend with him to the mansions of Hades, without being impressed with a degree of awe approaching to horror itself. AMAsis who in the year s.c. 569, assumed the

made it his first duty to secure the affection and attachment of the priesthood, and then-enacted laws for the better internal government of the kingdom. By allying himself in marriage with a Cyrenean princess, by allowing the Greeks to come and settle in Egypt, ortocarry on an unfettered commerce with his own subjects, and by granting them appropriate sites for the erection of temples and other sacred buildings, he attached many of them to his person and his throne. To ensure the trade of the Mediterranean, he conquered the island of Cyprus, and exacted atribute from the inhabitants. On the decline of

the Babylonian power, he aimed at establishing his supremacy

in Western Asia, and entered into an alliance with Croesus against Cyrus, the Persian monarch. It was a fatal step. He was not only defeated, but made tributary to the conqueror. His proud spirit could not brook this humiliation, and on the death of Cyrus, he attempted to assert his independence. Cambyses, who now *::: the Persian throne, vowed the destruction of Amasis. nfortunately for Amasis, and at the moment when he stood most in need of succour, the commander of his Grecian auxiliaries, Phamesof Halicarnassus, had some private with his royal master, and leaving Egypt, embarkedfor ersia, and presented himself to Cambyses, just as Cambyses was meditating the destruction of the Egyptian monarchy. As if to hasten his own ruin. Amasis now broke of his aliance with Polycrates, king of Samos—a man whose history was made up of uni ted prosperity and success—and Polyerates, finding that he could better dispense with the services of Amasis, than Amasis could dispense with his succour and help, threw himself into the arms of Cambyses, and offered to *ist hi- both by sea and land, in his expedition against Foot. The crisis came. But ere Cambyses had time to reach the scene of action. Amasis died, s.c. 525, after a reign effortyfor years, and left to his son. Psammenitus, a kingdom rent sodtorn, and on the point of ruin, by its own internal divisions. Scareely had Psammenitus ascended the throne, when Cambyses laid siege to Pelusium, and took it with but little resistance. His conquest was the effect of device. Having alaced in front of his army a number of animals which the

[ocr errors]

ey see and

Egyptians held sacred, he thus deterred them from throwing one dart, or shooting an arrow, lest they should kill any of these sacred animals. Psammenitus waited his opportunity; and, having raised a numerous army, advanced against Cambyses. But, before the engagement, the Greeks who served under him, in order that they might avenge the desertion and treachery of Phanes, brought his children into the camp; put them to death in the presence of their father, and then drank their blood. This awakened the indignation of the Persians, who fell upon the Egyptians with the utmost fury, and cut the o: part of them in pieces. who escaped fled to emphis, where, having been guilty of the murder of one of the Persian ambassadors, Cambyses renewed his assault, and spared neither rank, nor age, nor sex. He put to death the chief of the Egyptian nobles, and reduced their wives and daughters to slavery. Psammenitus was not in a position to save his capital, and he himself fell into the hands of the conqueror. At first, Cambyses seemed to spare the life of the captive prince; but, Psammenitus having committed himself to some treacherous design, he was afterwards doomed to drink bull's blood, which acted as a fatal poison. The allies of the Egyptian monarch at once submitted to Cambyses. The Egyptians were reduced to the most degrading vassalage; their country became a province of the Persian empire; the body of Amasis, their late king, was dug up, and mangled and burnt; their god APIs was slain, and his priests treated with the deepest ignominy. The foundation was thus laid for the most deadly national animosity between the Persians and Egyptians. On the one side we find the most crushing o ion, and on the other side, the most hopeless rebellion. on by their priesthood, the Egyptians frequently rebelled against the Persians; and the Persians, who every ecclesiastical hierarchy as their natural enemy, punished these insurrections with the most heartless severity. The Egyptians were never able to regain and establish their independence; and thus the deep

[graphic]

toned prediction of Ezekiel was literally fulfilled:--- this authority, was a man of mean birth, but of great abilities. He

saith the Lord God:—I will also destroy the idols, and I will cause theirim to cease out of Noph;+ and there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt; and I will put afearin the land of Egypt. And I will e Pathros: desolate, and will set fire in Zoan, ; and will execute judgments in No. And I willpourmy fury upon Sin," thestrength of t; and I will cut of the multitute of No. And I will set fire in t; Sinshall have great pain, and No shall be rent asunder, and Noph shall have distresses daily. The young men of Aven-and of Phibesethtt shall fall by the sword; and these cities shall go into captivity. At Tehaphnehest; also the day shall be darkened when Ishall break there theyokes of Egypt; and the pomp of her strength shall cease in her. As for her, a cloud shall cover her, and her daughters shall go into into captivity. Thus will I execute judgments in Egypt, and they shall know that I am the Lord." How remarkably has this prephecy been accomplished! . For more than two thousand years, Egypt has producednothing greatorremarkableinlearning, wisdom, or exploit. From the conquest of Cambyses, it has continued to be the basest of kingdoms. Without a prince of its own, it has ever been subject either to foreigners or to slaves. It was first subject to the Babylonians, then to the Persians:–afterwards to the Macedonians, and then to the Romans:–from them it passed to the Saracens, from the Saracens to the Mamelucs or slave us and from the Mamelucs to the Ottoman empire, of which it now forms a province governed by a Turkish Bashaw and twenty chiefs, advanced from among the slaves to the adminstration of public affairs. It was a superstitious notion or belief among the Egyptians, that it is decreed by the Fates, that slaves must always rule, and the natives be in subjection. What profound homage to that omniscient Spirit who sees the end from the beginning:

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]
« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »