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LESSONS IN ANCIENT HISTORY.-No. IV.

By ROBERT FERGUSON, LL.D.

It is a fact in history, of which the young student should | He charges Pharaoh-Hophra with the most extravagant prido never lose sight, that before states and kingdoms submit to and profanity, in affecting to himself divine honours, and in foreign power, they will be found, if not outwardly and visibly, so boasting of the strength and internal resources of his kingyet secretly and internally undermined. The conduct of dom, as if not any god could dispossess him. He then addresses Psammetichus towards the caste of warriors, which included him under the image of one of those crocodiles or monsters the whole class of the nobility, created the most serious which inhabited the river of that country, of whose riches and division between them and the princes of the throne. The revenue he so loudly vaunted, and tells him, that, with as much disaffection of these nobles, led Psammetichus to take Greek ease as a fisher drags the fish he has hooked, God would drag soldiers into his pay, and intrust the defence of Egypt to an him and his people to captivity, where their carcasses would army of foreign mercenaries. This circumstance, together with fall a prey to birds and wild beasts ;—that he should be subthe growing commercial intercourse with the Greeks, and the jected to the Babylonian yoke till the fall of that great empire, number of Greek settlements in Lower Egypt, all prepared the and that even after that catastrophe, Egypt should continue to way for the subsequent conquest of this division of the king- be the basest of kingdoms. dom. In fact, so close was the connexion between Greece For thirteen years Nebuchadnezzar had been employed in and Egypt, and so fully did they correspond in their insti- the siege of Tyre, till the head of every soldier had become tutions and pursuits, that in the reign of Psammis, the son of bald by the constant wear and friction of his helmet, and his Necho, an embassy was sent from the city of Elis, to obtain | shoulder had become peeled by the heavy burdens which he

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instruction from the Egyptian priests for the management of was doomed to carry in raising the necessary fortifications. the Olympic games.

And all this toil and endurance ended in getting possession of In the year, s.c. 594, APRIes, the PHARAOH-HOPHRA of an empty city, for the inhabitants gradually withdrew till not Scripture, ascended the throne, as a prince distinguished for a soul was left behind. Nebuchadnezzar then turned his arms his martial prowess. On his accession, he hazarded a war against Egypt, at a time when the kingdom was being rent with the Phænician States, took the rich city of Sidon, and asunder by internal feuds and divisions. A Grecian colony returned to Egypt laden with spoil. It was this success, of Cyrene having reinforced themselves by a large addition of which, in all likelihood, led Hezekiah, king of Judah, to form their own countrymen, under their third king, Battus the an alliance with him against Nebuchadnezzar. The monarch Happy, commenced an attack on the neighbouring Libyans, of Babylon, having, with his army, taken up a position before and took possession of their lands. Andican, king of Libya, Jerusalem, it appears, that, to relieve the city, which was now applied for aid to Pharaoh-Hophra, who sent a large and in such imminent danger, Apries marched his forces from powerful army to his relief. The Egyptians were overthrown Egypt; but no sooner did he come in sight of the Babylonian with tremendous loss ; while those who escaped, with a view troops, than his courage failed him; he retreated with all haste, to cover their retreat, affected to say that they had been be

trayed by their monarch. The people were foolish enough to and left the Jews in the hand of the enemy. For this act of believe these fugitives, and then followed a universal revolt. perfidy, God, by the mouth of his servant Ezekiel, denounced In vain did Apries try to bring back his subjects to a sense of the severest judgments on the Egyptians and their sovereign. their duty. His friend Amasis took advantage of this popular VOL. I.

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disaffection to usurp the supreme authority. He enlisted the Egyptians held sacred, he thus deterred them from throwing whole kingdom in his favour, challenged Apries to an open one dart, or shooting an arrow, lest they should kill any of conflict, came to battle with him near Memphis, took him these sacred animals. Psammenitus waited his opportunity; prisoner, treated him for a time with great kindness and re- and, having raised a numerous army, advanced against Camspect, but the people becoming clamorous for his life, he at byses. But, before the engagement, the Greeks who served length delivered him into their hands; and no sooner had they under him, in order that they might avenge the desertion and got possession of the royal captive than they strangled him, treachery of Phanes, brought his children into the camp: put and committed his body ingloriously to the grave. Thus was them to death in the presence of their father, and then drank fulfilled the prophecy of Jeremiah :-“Behold! I will give their blood. This awakened the indignation of the Persians

, Pharaoh-Hophra, king of Egypt, into the hand of his ene- who fell upon the Egyptians with the utmost fury, and cut the mies, and into the hand of them that seek his life; as I gave greater part of them in pieces. Those who escaped fled to Zedekiah, king of Judah, into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, Memphis, where, having been guilty of the murder of one of his enemy, and that sought his life.". According to Eze- the Persian ambassadors, Cambyses renewed his assault

, and kiel,t the king of Babylon was to leave Egypt so ruined spared neither rank, nor age, nor sex. He put to death the and desolate that its waters should run as pure as oil, without chief of the Egyptian nobles, and reduced their wives and the feet of man or the hoof of beast to disturb them; while daughters to slavery. Psammenitus was not in a position to the Egyptian monarch, should, like a beast of prey, be caught save his capital, and he himself fell into the hands of the conand slain, and his carcass thrown out to the fowls of heaven. queror. At first, Cambyses seemed to spare the life of the More than this:-a place in the lower regions is ordered to be captive prince; but, Psammenitus having committed hanset prepared for him and his host; while those who buried the to some treacherous design, he was afterwards doomed to slain are commanded to drag him and his followers to the sub- drink bull's blood, which acted as a fatal poison. The aves terraneous mansions. At the tumult and commotion excited of the Egyptian monarch at once submitted to Cambyses. The by this command, the infernal Shades are represented as Egyptians were reduced to the most degrading vassalage | roused from their couches to learn the cause. They see and their country became a province of the Persian empire ; hail the king of Egypt, and again lie down to their slumbers. body of Amasis, their late king, was dug up, and mangled sné Once introduced into this immense subterraneous cavern, the burnt; their god APIs was slain, and his priests treated with prophet leads the unhappy prince all around, shows him the the deepest ignominy. gloomy mansions of former tyrants, tells their names as he The foundation was thus laid for the most deadly national goes along, and concludes with pointing out to Pharaoh the animosity between the Persians and Egyptians. On the one place appropriated to him, and in which, in the midst of side we find the most crushing oppression, and on the other despots and tyrants like himself, he must lie down for ever! side, the most hopeless rebellion. Led on by their priesthood, The imagery of the prophet is sublime and terrible. No the Egyptians frequently rebelled against the Persians; and reader of taste and feeling can go along

with him in this the Persians, who regarded every ecclesiastical hierarchy s funeral procession, and descend with him to the mansions of their natural enemy, punished these insurrections with the Hades, without being impressed with a degree of awe ap- most heartless severity. The Egyptians were never able • proaching to horror itself.

regain and establish their independence ; and thus the deepAMA818 who in the year 2.c. 569, assumed the supreme toned prediction of Ezekiel was literally fulfilled :-* tas authority, was a man of mean birth, but

of great abilities. He saith the Lord God :-I will also destroy the idols, and I wä made it his first duty to secure the affection and attachment of cause their images to cease out of Noph it and there shall the priesthood, and then enacted laws for the better internal no more a prince of the land of Egypt; and I will put a fear is government of the kingdom. By allying himself in marriage the land of Egypt. And I will make Pathrost desolate, 222 with a Cyrenean princess, by allowing the

Greeks to come and will set fire in Zoan,g and will execute judgments in N. settle in Egypt, or to carry on an unfettered commerce with his And I will pour my fury upon Sin, f the strength of Egypt; own subjects, and by granting them appropriate sites for the I will cut off the multitute of No. And I will set fire in ESTF', erection of temples and other sacred buildings, he attached Sin shall have great pain, and No shall be rent asunder, many of them to his person and his throne. "To ensure the Noph shall have distresses daily. The young men of Aver" trade of the Mediterranean, he conquered the island of Cyprus, and of Phibesethtt shall fall by the sword; and these eitia and exacted a tribute from the inhabitants. On the decline of shall go into captivity. At Tehaphnehestt also the day she, the Babylonian power, he aimed at establishing his supremacy be darkened when I shall break there the yokes of Egypt; 13; in Western Asia, and entered into an alliance with Crosus the

pomp of her strength shall cease in her. As for her, against Cyrus, the Persian monarch. It was a fatal step. He was cloud shall cover her, and her daughters shall go into into capo not only defeated, but made tributary to the

conqueror. His tivity. Thus will l'execute judgments in Egypt, and the proud spirit could not brook this humiliation, and on the death shall know that I am the Lord." How remarkably has thus of Cyrus, he attempted to assert his independence. Cambyses, prophecy been accomplished ! For

more than two thousan who now occupied the Persian throne, vowed the destruction years, Egypt has produced nothing great or remarkable in legato of Amasis. Unfortunately for Amasis, and at the moment ing, wisdom, or exploit. From the conquest of Cambyses, it be when he stood most in need of succour, the commander of his continued to be the basest of kingdoms. Without a princess Grecian auxiliaries, Phanes of Halicarnassus, had some private its own, it has ever been subject either to foreigners. quarrel with his royal master, and leaving Egypt, embarked for slaves. It was first subject to the Babylonians, then to Persia, and presented himself to Cambyses,

just as Cambyses Persians :-afterwards to the Macedonians, and then to. was meditating the destruction of the Egyptian monarchy. As Romans :-from them it passed to the Saracens, from the Baro if to hasten his own ruin, Amasis now broke off his alliance cens to the Mamelucs or slave usurpers, and from the Ne with Polycrates, king of Samos-a man whose history was lucs to the Ottoman empire, of which it now forms a prorum made up of uninterrupted prosperity and success-and Polys governed by a Turkish Bashaw and twenty chiefs, advarer crates, finding that he could better dispense with the services from among the slaves to the adminstration of public affairs.. of Amasis, than Amasis could dispense with his succour and was a superstitious notion

or belief among

the Egyptians, els help, threw himself into the arms of Cambyses, and offered to it is decreed by the Fates, that slaves must always rule, assist him, both by sea and land, in his expedition against the natives be in subjection. What profound homage to tbai Egypt. The crisis came. But ere Cambyses had time to reach omniscient Spirit who sees the end from the beginning! the scene of action, Amasis died, B.c. 625, after a reign of fortyfour years, and left to his son, Psammenitus, a kingdom rent

QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION and torn, and on the point of ruin, by its own internal divisions.

What grand truth should the student of history ever keep a Scarcely, had Psammenitus ascended the throne, when

mind? Cambyses laid siege to Pelusium, and took it with but little re.

To what did the policy of Psammetichus lead : sistance. His conquest was the effect of device. Having

Ezekiel IXX, 13-19. placed in front of his army a number of animals which the + Memphis. : Thebais. Tanis, the metropolis in the time of Vol

[Thebes. 1 Pelurium. *• Heliopolis. # Bubastes. # Daphna Painelut Jeremiah xliv, 30. + Ezekiel xxix.-II.

where the post Jeremiah is said to have been put to death

When did Apries ascend the throne, and for what was he re.

VOCABULARY. markable ?

Luctus, m. grief; lusus, m. play: sensus, m. feeling or a sense: What ally did he betray, and how was he punished ? Which of the prophets describe the fate of Apries, and by what bestia, f. a beast; vis

, f. strength, power; voluptas, átis, f. pleasure

genus, eris, n. a race: amárus, a, um, bitter; gratus, a, um, pleasant, name do they describe him?

thankful; praeditus, a, um, endowed with; quantus, a, um, how.great; Who succeeded Necho, and in what year?

puerilis, e, boyish, childlike; sapiens, sapientis, as an adjective, wise, What were the chief features and events of his reign ?

as a noun, a sage; evīto 1, I avoid ; paro 1, I make ready, I procure; By what prince was the throne and kingdom of Amasis en.

indulgeo 2, I indulge in (with the dative); frango 3, I break, I over. dangered? In whose reign did Cambyses lay siege to Pelusium, and by come; succumbo 3, ! lie under, I yield to (with the dative); libenter,

adv. willingly; suaviter, sweetly; vehementer, greatly; quam, how what stratagem did he take it?

sagitta, f. an arrow.
Did the Egyptians ever regain their independence ?
How were they treated by Cambyses and the Persians ?

EXERCISES-LATIN-ENGLISH.
What has been the state of Egypt and the Egyptians since the
Persian conquest ?

Lusus gratus est pueris; varia sunt genera lusas; pueri libenter Has any remarkable prophecy been fulfilled in their history from indulgent lusui; nonne pueris gratus est lusus ? lusus est mihi that time?

gratus; tibi est lusus vehementer gratus; viri graves evitant lusus What does the accomplishment of such predictions prove?

pueriles; O lusus, quam suaviter animos puerorum delectas ! reges non delectantur lusu puerili; sensus sunt acres ; acres mihi sunt sensus; vis sensuum est magna; est ne sensuum vis magna; vir

fortis non succumbit sensibus doloris ; acres sensus habent bestiae; LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. VII.

O sensus, quantas voluptates hominibus paratis! animalia prae

dita sunt sensibus. By John R. BEARD, D.D.

ENGLI8H-LATIN. SUBSTANTIVES of the fourth declension have in the nominative The feeling of pain is bitter; is not the feeling of pain bitter to two case-endings, one in us, the other in %. The nouns which thee ? the feeling of pain is bitter to all men and to all animals; end in us are for the most part masculine ; those which end in the power of grief is great; the sage is not overcome by the power u are neuter, and are indeclinable. The u belongs to the stem. of the senses; a brave (fortis) man yields

not to griet; do brave With this 4 are blended the case-endings of the genitive and men yield to the power of the senses? O grief, how dost thou

overcome the minds of men ! boys willingly yield to play; (there) ablative singular, and the nominative and accusative plural ; huo u and is become s in the genitive singular ; u and e become are many kinds of play; plays (games) of all kinds are pleasant to

boys and girls; boyish plays delight ppt men; men are not delighted ū in the ablative singular ; u and es become ūs in the nominative by boyish plays; boys and men yield to pleasure ; how greatly is and accusative plural. The fourth conjugation then, is only grief avoided by children; boys delight in bows and arrows; girls a contracted form of the third; contracted, I say, that is delight in needles. shortened, as when u and s are melted together to form us the case-ending of the genitive singular.

There are no adjectives which follow the fourth declension,

as there are none which follow the fifth declension, Adjectives FOURTH DECLENSION,

follow exclusively the first, the second, and the third declenSign is in the Genitive singular

sions. Yet nouns of the fourth and of the fifth declensions are

sometimes united with adjectives. In declining nouns and CASE-ENDINGS. Singular.

Plural.

adjectives 80 united, you must take care to preserve the proper

forms of both, and not allow the one to influence the other. Cases. M. and F.

Cases. M. and F,

N. Nom.

To aid you in making the necessary distinctions, I supply us Nom.

ůă Gen. Us

Gen. ůúm

ůům

instances for practice. Dat. úi or a

Dat.
ibús
Ibūs

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES OF VARIOUS DECLENSIONS. Acc. ům

Aco.

ůx Voc. Voc.

EXAMPLES.—Maturus fructus, m. ripe fruit; frequens coetus, m., a Abl.

Abl. Ibus

Ibūs

full assembly; matura ficus, f. a ripe fig; debile genu, n. a weak knee. The following words have in the dative and ablative singular Cases.

Singular. abus instead of ibus ; namely, ácus, f. a needle ; arcus, m, a bow ; Nom. maturus fructus

frequens coetus artus, m, a limb; partus, m, a birth or offspring ; lacus, m. a Gen. maturi fructus

frequentis coetûs lake or inland sea; quercus, f. an oak; specus, m, a cave or grotto;

Dat. maturo fructui

frequenti coetui tribus, f, a tribe ; pecu, n, cattle ; veru, n. a spit.

Acc. maturum fructum

frequentem coetum Voc. mature fructus

frequens coetus As u belongs to the stem, ubus is the regular form in the

Abl. maturo fructu

frequente coetus dative and ablative plural; but the u has been set aside by the connecting vowel i, as in fruct-e-bus.

Cases.

Plural.
Nom. maturi fructus

frequentes coetus EXAMPLES.-Fructus, m. fruit; cornu, n. a horn.

Gen. maturorum fructuum frequentum coetuum
Cases. Singular. Plural.

Singular. Plural.
Dat. maturis fructibus

frequentibus coetibus N. fructės, fruit fructus, fruits

Acc.
cornū, a horn
cornŭă, horns

maturos fructus

frequentes coetus G. fructus, of fruit fructúăm, of fruits cornû, of a horn cornóăm, of horns

Voc.
maturi fructus

frequentes coetus D. fructăi, to fruit fructibus, to fruits cornū, to a horn cornibus, to horns

Abl. maturis fructibus

frequentibus coetibus A. fructăm, fruit fructūs, fruits cornu, a horn cornūă, horns

Cases.

Singular.
V. fructūs, O fruit fructus, O fruits cornū, o horn cornŭă, o horns

Nom. matura ficus
A, fructü, by fruit fructibus, by fruits cornu, by a horn cornibús, by horns Gen. maturae ficûs

debilis genů Domus, f, a house partakes of the second as well as the fourth

Dat. maturae ficui declension: thus, from the second, it has the ablative singular

Acc. maturam ficum in o, as domo, and one form of the genitive plural in orum, as

Voc. matura ficus

Abl. domorum; from the fourth declension, it has most of its other

maturâ ficu cases. It is declined thus :

Cases.

Plural.
Domus, ús, f. a house.

Nom. maturae ficus

debilia genua Gen, maturarum ficuum

debilium genuum Singular.-N. Domus. G. domūs. D. domui. Ac. domum. V. domus. Dat. maturis ficis

debilibus genibus Abl. domo. Plural.-N. domus. G. domuum or domorum, D. domibus. Acc. maturas ficus

debilia genua Ac. domos (rarely domus). V. domus. Abl. domibus.

Voc. maturae ficus

debilia genua

Abl. maturis ficis Domus has also domi, genitive singular; but domiis not used

debilibus genibus except in the sense of at home; with domi, you may connect Here, observe, that the regular form of the dative and ablative other words, as, domi tuae, at thy house ; domi alienae, at plural would be ficibus or ficubus, but only ficis is found in another's house,

good Latin authors.

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debile genu

debili genu debile genu debile genu debili genu

VOCABULARY.

military; civic; marine ; aviary ; acrid; sweet; audacious; mor. Frémutus, as, m. a roaring; genu, u, or us, n. a knee; tonitru, n, or

tal; virtuc ; hostile. us, m. thunder ; vigor, óris, m. vigour; fulmen, inis, n. lightning; robur,

Commit to memory these lines which compose the feminine dris, n, strength; multus, a, um, much or many; validus, a, um,

nouns of the fourth declension. strong; horribilis, e, frightfiu, horrible; terríbilis, e, terrible; supplex, Feminine : these nouns in us : tribus, acus, porticus. supplicis, as an adjective, entreating, as a noun, a suppliant; indico Domus, nurus, socrus, anus : idus, quercus, ficus, manus. 1, I point out; resono 1, I resound, I echo; vacillo 1, I move to and fro, I vacillate; permóveo 2, I move greatly; antecédo 3, I go before; exti. mesco 3, fear; flecto 3, I bend; procumbo 3, I fall down.

LESSONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR. No. VII. EXERCISES-LATIN-ENGLISH.

CASES OF NOUNS_Continued. Tonitru terribile animos hominum permovet; nonne tonitras sonus est terribilis ? tonitrùs fremitus horribilis est; horribile est IN FORMER LESSONS we stated that nouns have two NUMBERS, tonitru; fulmen antecedit tonitru; multi homines extimescunt the singular and the plural ;-three Genders, the masculine, the tonitrui tonitru extiméscitur a multis hominibus ;. O tonitru, feminine, and the neuter; and three Cases; the Nominative, quam horribilis est fremitus tuus! domus résonat tonitru; genua denoting the name of a person or thing, or the subject of a provirorum sunt valida; vigor genuum indicat robur corporis; magna position ; the Possessive, denoting relation, ownership

or possession; vis est genibus ; supplices

procumbunt in con genua ; 0 genua, and the Objective, which indicates the object of some act. We proquam valde vacillatis ! in genibus est magna vis.

ceed to speak more particularly of this latter. ENGLISH-LATIN.

The OBJECTIVE CASE of Nouns describes a person or thing that The man's knee is strong; strong knees have vigour; are thy is the object of any pursuit, or of any action that another person or Knees strong ? the woods resound with the horrible sound of thun thing performs. Suppose you were to read of some gentleman der; the sound of thunder greatly moves the animals; thunder is who, on returning to his home, found his little girl asleep on the feared by strong beasts ; I have weak knees; has your father weak ground, exposed to a strong wind, -" He lifted her up, and knees ? 'no, my father has strong knees ; I am greatly moved by placed her on a chair, and then he wrapped a cloak round her." much lightning; the roaring of thunder greatly moves the sup. In this case the gentleman might have either of the pronouns he pliants ; the suppliant points out the beautiful house.

and him applied to him, and the little girl either of the pronouns she Summus, highest ; medius, middle ; imus, lowest ; reliquus, and her. But it would have been both incorrect and vulgar to remaining ; ultimus, extremus, last, &c. These adjectives agree have said, him lifted her," or him lifted she," or him wrapped in number, case, and gender with their nouns, though in a cloak round she." In correct composition, when the words he, English they appear to have the force of nouns, and conse- him, she, and her are used, we shall find, on examination, that quently to require the construction of nouns. Thus the Latins when something is done to a person, the pronouns him or her are say, summus mons, that is, the highest mountain ; meaning, the used; but when a person does something, the pronouns he and she top of the mountain, the highest part of the mountain, the mountain, are generally employed. The gentleman “ lifted" his daughter that is, where it is highest. 1 subjoin some instances with forms —that was doing something to her; and as the gentleman did it, for practice.

it was proper to say, “he lifted her:" her is the objective case of Instances : ima quercus, the bottom of the oak ; reliquum opus, the pronoun she. Again, the word "lifted" describes an action the remainder of the worh ; primum limen, the edge of the thres- which produces an effect on something which is the object of the hold; extremum bellum, the end of the war; ine ins ver, the action : the gentleman is the doer of the act of lifting-the girl is beginning of spring ; media aestas, the middle of sun.ner ; summa the object on which the action takes effect. A verb such as aqua, the surface of the water ; intima philosophia, t.?e recesses of liftedis called a transitive verb, and must have an object after philosophy ; reliqua Aegyptus, the rest of Egypt. Decline each it, which is put in the objective case. A preposition also causes a of these instances according to the proper models; tbls : noun or pronoun immediately following it to be in the objective Cases. Singular.

case; as, " be wrapped a cloak round her:" the noun or pronoun reliquum opus

in such cases is the object of some relation expressed by the presummi montis mediae aestátis reliqui operis position; the preposition roundshows the relation of the

reliquo operi cloak, or the wrapping of it, to the child. The nouns “ cloak" and summum montem mediam aestatem reliquum opus chair" are also considered to be in the objective case ;-the

reliquum opus cloak has the action of wrapping done to it; and the chair is media aestate reliquo opere

shown by the preposition “onto be in a certain relation to the Cases. Plural.

child. summi montes mediae aestates reliqua opera In nouns, the nominative and objective cases are alike; as may summorum montium mediarum aestatum reliquorum operum be seen in the following sentence,- The bear bit the man.” Here suminis montibus mediis aestatibus reliquis operibus

bear is in the nominative, and man is in the objective case ; summos montes medias aestates reliqua opera

but the sentence may be so turned as to reverse the cases, while summi montes mediae aestates reliqua opera mediis aestatibus reliquis operibus

it still has the same meaning: thus,—The man was bitten by the

bear; in this sentence man is the subject, or nominative; bear is So in English, instead of “the middle of summer," wesay after in the objective case, being put in that case by the preposition by; the Latin manner, mid-summer, that is middle summer; also yet there is no change in the words man or bear by which the mid-day; mid-night; mid-way, &c.

objective case may be distinguished. Perhaps, strictly speaking, The student is required to find out English words derived there is no objective case in the English noun, though there is in from the Latin words just used; and the Latin words derived the pronoun; and some writers on English Grammar omit the obfrom the English words which follow :

jective case altogether ; but in considering the form of sentences, Acute ; archery; parturition; peculiar; fructify; domestic ; and the nature of the various relations which exist among their parts, alienate; sensual ; voluptuary; generic ; grateful ; puerile ; sweet ; it is useful to make the distinction in meaning, though it may not variously; nature; antecedent; vacillation.

be made in form, especially as the distinction in form is still reWith these English words, other English words are connected tained in the pronouns. 80 that when you know the import of these, you easily learn The objective case generally follows what are called transitire the import of the connected or related terms. Thus from the verbs and participles, and prepositions ;* as, honesty pays debts ; adjective acute comes the adverb acutely and the noun acuteness ; fraud increases them; or, praise Him from whom all blessings with the verb alienate is connected the noun alien ; voluptuary flow; there are, however, exceptions: in the following sentence has corresponding forms in voluptuous and voluptousness ; grate- the noun precedes the verb which puts it in the objective case ;ful also has gratitude and gratefully.

" Whom, therefore, ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto Find the Latin terms which occur in the instructions in the you." third declension, from which are derived these English words ;

Remember, then, that a noun is in the objective case when it namely: to err; maternal ; guttural; terrify (the fy represents has some action performed upon t by a transitive, or active, verb the Latin facio, I do or cause); nominal ; corpulent ; floral; cardinal ; luminous ; decorous ; to judge ; to reign i legal; gregarious ; ]

• These will be explained in future lessons,

summus mons

media aestas

summo monti

mediae aestati

Norn. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Abl.

media aestas

summe mons summo monte

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Abl.

summis montibus

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preceding it, or when placed in relation to something else by a

In the mist the ravens hover, preposition put before it; in most instances, when it follows imme

Peep the wild dogs from the cover, diately after an active verb or a preposition. In the example

Screaming, croaking, baying, yelling,

Each in his wild accents telling, given above,—" The man was bitten by the bear; the man has

* Soon we feast on dead,and dying, an action performed upon him, and yet man is not in the objective

Fair-hair'd Harold's flag is flying.' case. You will observe that the word man is placed before the verb describing the action, and that it is evidently the subject or

Many a crest on air 18 streaming ; nominative of the sentence. If we were to substitute a pronoun

Many a helmet darkly gleaming ; for the noun man, it would be the pronoun he. The verb in this

Many an arm the axe uprears,

Doom'd to hew the wood of spears case is said to be passive and not active.

All along the crowded ranks, The objective case of the pronouns are, me, him, her, us, them,

Horses neigh, and armour clanks ; and whom. In the pronouns you and it, the nominative and

Chiefs are shouting, clarions ringing, objective cases are alike.

Louder still the Bard is singing, It is not uncommon for a person when asked, who is there? to

Gather footmen, gather horsemen, answer, it is me; this is an error; the answer should be, it is I;

To the field, ye valiant Norsemen !! " or, it is Henry, or whatever your name may be. If it were right to say, it is me, it would also be right to say, me is here; yet no

QUESTIONS ON THE FOREGOING LESSON. one would say so, except an infant just lisping. It is wrong, also,

What is meant by the objective case of nouns ? though common, to say, us two will go for it ;-it should be, we

Do the nominative and objective eases resemble each other? two will go for it. It sounds still worse for a married man to say, In what connexion do active verbs and participles, and pre. I and her will attend to it; it should be, I and she, &c.; but, I and positions stand to the objective case ? my wife would be still better. It is equally erroneous to zey to we,

Give an example. instead of to us.

What are the objective cases of pronouns? Before dismissing the subject of cases of couns, the following

Is it correct to say, "Us two will go for it?" If not correct

what should be said ? mode of ascertaining them may se stated.

How may the cases of nouns be ascertained ?
The NOMINATIVE answers the questions W1.0 or what? In what case are nouns answering to who? or what?
The PosseSSIVE

Whoseł or of what? Furnish an example illustrating the three cases.
The OBJECTIVE

Whoint or what? What is meant by declining a noun?

Decline the noun “ Parent." EXAMPLE: Charles Perkins D. Eried his master's daughter.

Point out the nouns in the verses at the end of this Lesson.
Who married his master's daughter .

Charles Perkins ....... the Nominative.
Whose daughter did Charles Perkins marry?
His master's....
..the Possessive.

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. VII.
Whom did Charles Perkins marry?

By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D.
His master's daughter
the Objective.

Section XV.
In the following sentence from Shakspeare, all the cases may be
found : let our pupils search them out, and assign to each its 1. Adjectives and adverbs are always compared in French,
proper name :-

as they often are in English, by means of adverbs. "As imagination bodies forth

Plus beau, plus souvent.

Handsomer, oftener.
The forms of things unknown; the Poet's pen
Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy cothing

2. The comparative of equality is expressed by : A local habitation and a name."

Aussi- que,

pronoun. to which nouns are subjected. A noun is said to be declined when Aussi aimé que son frère, As much loved as his brother. it is gone through in order, so as to exhibit its different parts. Autant de--que de, A few examples are given as follows:

Singular.

Plural.

Autant de crayons que de plumes. As many pencils as pens. Nominative case

Man

Men

Autant de science que de modestie. As much science as modesty. Possessive case

Man's

Men's Objective case

Man

Men

3. The comparative of superiority is expressed by : Nominative case Parent

Parents

Plus que } before an adjective, an adverb, or a pronoun.

-than, Possessive case Parent's

Parents' Objective case

Parent

Parents

Il est plus docile que son frère. He is more docile than his brother. Nominative case Book

Book

Plus de—que de, } before a noun. Possessive case Book's

Books'

More-than Objective case

Book

Books

Plus de bonté que de jugement. More goodness than judgment. Nominative case Master

Mastes Possessive case

Master's

Masters'

4. The comparative of inferiority is expressed by: Objective case

Master

Masters

Pas si; pas aussi ; moins--que, before an adjective, an ad

Not so ; not 80; l688than, In the following lines there are nine common nouns; whick, it

Vous n'êtes pas si grand que votre You are not so tall as your sister. our first lessons on nouns be remembered, our pupils will have no difficulty in finding out.

est moins poli que son cousin. He is less polite than his cousin
Man, like a flower, at morn appears,

before a sub-
And blooms, perhaps, a few short years :
The flatterer, Hope, still leads him on

Las tant de ; pas autant de; moins de-que de stantive, a de-
In quest of pleasure, finding none;

monstrative,
Or, if he finds it for a day,

Not so much, or so many; less ; fewer than or possessive
It soon takes wings and flies away.

pronoun.
In the following passage, from Sir Walter Scott, nouns will be 11 n'a pas tant de courage que de He has not so oruich courage as

patience.

patience. found in almost every line :

Il a moins d'argent que de viande He has less money than meat.
“The sun is rising dimly red,

5. Tout autant-que, is used for quite as manyas; as much,
The wind is wailing, low and dread;
From his cliff the eagle sallies;

just as much, or as many.
Leaves the wolf his darksome vallies ;

J'en ai tout autant que vous.

I have quite as many as you

By Declension of Nouns is shown the inflections, or changes, 45, or as much as } before canadjective, an adverb, or a

As much or asmane –as,} before a substantive.

} before or a personar pronour

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