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When did Apries ascend the throne, and for what was he remarkable?

VOCABULARY.

Luctus, m. grief; lusus, m. play; sensus, m. feeling or a sense;

What ally did he betray, and how was he punished?

Which of the prophets describe the fate of Apries, and by what bestia, f. a beast; vis, f. strength, power; voluptas, átis, f. pleasure name do they describe him?

genus, čris, n. a race: amárus, a, um, bitter; gratus, a, um, pleasant, thankful; praeditus, a, um, endowed with; quantus, a, um, how great; puerilis, e, boyish, childlike; sapiens, sapientis, as an adjective, wise, as a noun, a sage; evito 1, I avoid; paro 1, I make ready, I procure; indulgeo 2, I indulge in (with the dative); frango 3, I break, I overcome; succumbo 3, I lie under, I yield to (with the dative); libenter, adv. willingly; suaviter, sweetly; vehementer, greatly; quam, how sagitta, f. an arrow.

Who succeeded Necho, and in what year?

What were the chief features and events of his reign?
By what prince was the throne and kingdom of Amasis en-
dangered?

In whose reign did Cambyses lay siege to Pelusium, and by what stratagem did he take it?

Did the Egyptians ever regain their independence?
How were they treated by Cambyses and the Persians?
What has been the state of Egypt and the Egyptians since the
Persian conquest?

Has any remarkable prophecy been fulfilled in their history from

that time?

What does the accomplishment of such predictions prove?

LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. VII. By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D. SUBSTANTIVES of the fourth declension have in the nominative two case-endings, one in us, the other in u. The nouns which end in us are for the most part masculine; those which end in u are neuter, and are indeclinable. The u belongs to the stem. With this u are blended the case-endings of the genitive and ablative singular, and the nominative and accusative plural; husu and is becomes in the genitive singular; u and e become u in the ablative singular; u and es become is in the nominative and accusative plural. The fourth conjugation then, is only a contracted form of the third; contracted, I say, that is shortened, as when u and s are melted together to form ūs the case-ending of the genitive singular.

FOURTH DECLENSION.

Sign ús in the Genitive Singular

CASE-ENDINGS.

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The following words have in the dative and ablative singular ubus instead of ibus; namely, acus, f. a needle; arcus, m. a bow; artus, m. a limb; partus, m. a birth or offspring; lacus, m. a lake or inland sea; quercus, f. an oak; specus, m. a cave or grotto; tribus, f. a tribe; pecu, n. cattle; veru, n. a spit.

As u belongs to the stem, ubus is the regular form in the dative and ablative plural; but the u has been set aside by the connecting vowel i, as in fruct-i-bus.

EXAMPLES.-Fructus, m. fruit; cornu, n. a horn.

Cases. Singular. Plural.

N. fructus, fruit fructüs, fruits

Singular. corni, a horn

F

G. fructus, of fruit fructăăm, of fruits cornû, of a horn
D. fructui, to fruit fructibus, to fruits cornu, to a horn
A. fructum, fruit fructus, fruits cornu, a horn
V. fructus, O fruit fructus, O fruits cornu, O horn
A. fructa, by fruit fructibus, by fruits cornu, by a horn cornibus,by horns

Plural.

cornuă, horns

cornăăm, of horns
cornibus, to horns

EXERCISES-LATIN-ENGLISH.

Lusus gratus est pueris; varia sunt genera lusus; pueri libenter indulgent lusui; nonne pueris gratus est lusus? lusus est mihi gratus; tibi est lusus vehementer gratus; viri graves evitant lusus pueriles; O lusus, quam suaviter animos puerorum delectas! reges non delectantur lusu puerili; sensus sunt acres; acres mihi sunt sensus; vis sensuum est magna; est ne sensuum vis magna; vir fortis non succumbit sensibus doloris; acres sensus habent bestiae; O sensus, quantas voluptates hominibus paratis! animalia prae dita sunt sensibus.

ENGLISH-LATIN.

The feeling of pain is bitter; is not the feeling of pain bitter to thee? the feeling of pain is bitter to all men and to all animals; the power of grief is great; the sage is not overcome by the power of the senses; a brave (fortis) man yields not to grief; do brave men yield to the power of the senses? O grief, how dost thou overcome the minds of men! boys willingly yield to play; (there) are many kinds of play; plays (games) of all kinds are pleasant to by boyish plays; boys and men yield to pleasure; how greatly is boys and girls; boyish plays delight not men; men are not delighted grief avoided by children; boys delight in bows and arrows; girls delight in needles.

There are no adjectives which follow the fourth declension, as there are none which follow the fifth declension. Adjectives follow exclusively the first, the second, and the third declensions. Yet nouns of the fourth and of the fifth declensions are sometimes united with adjectives. In declining nouns and adjectives so united, you must take care to preserve the proper forms of both, and not allow the one to influence the other. To aid you in making the necessary distinctions, I supply instances for practice.

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES OF VARIOUS DECLENSIONS.
EXAMPLES.-Maturus fructus, m. ripe fruit; frequens coetus, m. a
full assembly; matura ficus, f. a ripe fig; debile genu, n. a weak knee.
Cases.
Singular.
Nom.
Gen.

Dat.
Acc.
Voc.
Abl.
Cases.

Nom.

Gen.

Dat.

Acc.

Voc.
Abl.
Cases.
Nom.

maturus fructus
maturi fructus
maturo fructui
maturum fructum
mature fructus
maturo fructu

maturi fructus
maturorum fructuum
maturis fructibus

maturos fructus
maturi fructus
maturis fructibus

Plural.

frequens coetus
frequentis coetûs
frequenti coetui
frequentem coetum
frequens coetus
frequente coetus

frequentes coetus

frequentum coetuum frequentibus coetibus

frequentes coetus frequentes coetus frequentibus coetibus

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cornuă, horns
cornǎă, O horns

Domus, f. a house partakes of the second as well as the fourth declension: thus, from the second, it has the ablative singular in o, as domo, and one form of the genitive plural in orum, as domorum; from the fourth declension, it has most of its other cases. It is declined thus:

Domus, ús, f. a house.

Singular.-N. Domus. G. domûs. D. domui. Ac. domum, V. domus. Abl. domo. Plural.-N. domus. G. domuum or domorum. D. domibus. Ac. domos (rarely domus). V. domus. Abl. domibus.

Domus has also domi, genitive singular; but domiis not used except in the sense of at home; with domi, you may connect other words, as, domi tuae, at thy house; domi alienae, at another's house,

Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Voc.

Abl.

Cases.

Nom.

Gen.

Dat.

Acc.

Voc.
Abl.

matura ficus
maturae ficûs
maturae ficui
maturam ficum
matura ficus
maturâ ficu

Singular.

maturae ficus
maturarum ficuum
maturis ficis
maturas ficus
maturae ficus
maturis ficis

Plural.

debile genu debilis genû debili genu debile genu debile genu

debili genu

debilia genua debilium genuum debilibus genibus debilia genua debilia genua debilibus genibus

Here, observe, that the regular form of the dative and ablative plural would be ficibus or ficubus, but only ficis is found in good Latin authors.

VOCABULARY.

military; civic; marine ; aviary ; acrid; sweet; audacious; mor. Frémutus, as, m. a roaring; genu, u, or us, n. a knee; tonitru, n, or

tal; virtuc ; hostile. us, m. thunder ; vigor, óris, m. vigour; fulmen, inis, n. lightning; robur,

Commit to memory these lines which compose the feminine dris, n, strength; multus, a, um, much or many; validus, a, um,

nouns of the fourth declension. strong; horribilis, e, frightfiu, horrible; terríbilis, e, terrible; supplex, Feminine : these nouns in us : tribus, acus, porticus. supplicis, as an adjective, entreating, as a noun, a suppliant; indico Domus, nurus, socrus, anus : idus, quercus, ficus, manus. 1, I point out; resono 1, I resound, I echo; vacillo 1, I move to and fro, I vacillate; permóveo 2, I move greatly; antecédo 3, I go before; exti. mesco 3, fear; flecto 3, I bend; procumbo 3, I fall down.

LESSONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR. No. VII. EXERCISES-LATIN-ENGLISH.

CASES OF NOUNS_Continued. Tonitru terribile animos hominum permovet; nonne tonitras sonus est terribilis ? tonitrùs fremitus horribilis est; horribile est IN FORMER LESSONS we stated that nouns have two NUMBERS, tonitru; fulmen antecedit tonitru; multi homines extimescunt the singular and the plural ;-three Genders, the masculine, the tonitrui tonitru extiméscitur a multis hominibus ;. O tonitru, feminine, and the neuter; and three Cases; the Nominative, quam horribilis est fremitus tuus! domus résonat tonitru; genua denoting the name of a person or thing, or the subject of a provirorum sunt valida; vigor genuum indicat robur corporis; magna position ; the Possessive, denoting relation, ownership

or possession; vis est genibus ; supplices

procumbunt in con genua ; 0 genua, and the Objective, which indicates the object of some act. We proquam valde vacillatis ! in genibus est magna vis.

ceed to speak more particularly of this latter. ENGLISH-LATIN.

The OBJECTIVE CASE of Nouns describes a person or thing that The man's knee is strong; strong knees have vigour; are thy is the object of any pursuit, or of any action that another person or Knees strong ? the woods resound with the horrible sound of thun thing performs. Suppose you were to read of some gentleman der; the sound of thunder greatly moves the animals; thunder is who, on returning to his home, found his little girl asleep on the feared by strong beasts ; I have weak knees; has your father weak ground, exposed to a strong wind, -" He lifted her up, and knees ? 'no, my father has strong knees ; I am greatly moved by placed her on a chair, and then he wrapped a cloak round her." much lightning; the roaring of thunder greatly moves the sup. In this case the gentleman might have either of the pronouns he pliants ; the suppliant points out the beautiful house.

and him applied to him, and the little girl either of the pronouns she Summus, highest ; medius, middle ; imus, lowest ; reliquus, and her. But it would have been both incorrect and vulgar to remaining ; ultimus, extremus, last, &c. These adjectives agree have said, him lifted her," or him lifted she," or him wrapped in number, case, and gender with their nouns, though in a cloak round she." In correct composition, when the words he, English they appear to have the force of nouns, and conse- him, she, and her are used, we shall find, on examination, that quently to require the construction of nouns. Thus the Latins when something is done to a person, the pronouns him or her are say, summus mons, that is, the highest mountain ; meaning, the used; but when a person does something, the pronouns he and she top of the mountain, the highest part of the mountain, the mountain, are generally employed. The gentleman “ lifted" his daughter that is, where it is highest. 1 subjoin some instances with forms —that was doing something to her; and as the gentleman did it, for practice.

it was proper to say, “he lifted her:" her is the objective case of Instances : ima quercus, the bottom of the oak ; reliquum opus, the pronoun she. Again, the word "lifted" describes an action the remainder of the worh ; primum limen, the edge of the thres- which produces an effect on something which is the object of the hold; extremum bellum, the end of the war; ine ins ver, the action : the gentleman is the doer of the act of lifting-the girl is beginning of spring ; media aestas, the middle of sun.ner ; summa the object on which the action takes effect. A verb such as aqua, the surface of the water ; intima philosophia, t.?e recesses of liftedis called a transitive verb, and must have an object after philosophy ; reliqua Aegyptus, the rest of Egypt. Decline each it, which is put in the objective case. A preposition also causes a of these instances according to the proper models; tbls : noun or pronoun immediately following it to be in the objective Cases. Singular.

case; as, " be wrapped a cloak round her:" the noun or pronoun reliquum opus

in such cases is the object of some relation expressed by the presummi montis mediae aestátis reliqui operis position; the preposition roundshows the relation of the

reliquo operi cloak, or the wrapping of it, to the child. The nouns “ cloak" and summum montem mediam aestatem reliquum opus chair" are also considered to be in the objective case ;-the

reliquum opus cloak has the action of wrapping done to it; and the chair is media aestate reliquo opere

shown by the preposition “onto be in a certain relation to the Cases. Plural.

child. summi montes mediae aestates reliqua opera In nouns, the nominative and objective cases are alike; as may summorum montium mediarum aestatum reliquorum operum be seen in the following sentence,- The bear bit the man.” Here suminis montibus mediis aestatibus reliquis operibus

bear is in the nominative, and man is in the objective case ; summos montes medias aestates reliqua opera

but the sentence may be so turned as to reverse the cases, while summi montes mediae aestates reliqua opera mediis aestatibus reliquis operibus

it still has the same meaning: thus,—The man was bitten by the

bear; in this sentence man is the subject, or nominative; bear is So in English, instead of “the middle of summer," wesay after in the objective case, being put in that case by the preposition by; the Latin manner, mid-summer, that is middle summer; also yet there is no change in the words man or bear by which the mid-day; mid-night; mid-way, &c.

objective case may be distinguished. Perhaps, strictly speaking, The student is required to find out English words derived there is no objective case in the English noun, though there is in from the Latin words just used; and the Latin words derived the pronoun; and some writers on English Grammar omit the obfrom the English words which follow :

jective case altogether ; but in considering the form of sentences, Acute ; archery; parturition; peculiar; fructify; domestic ; and the nature of the various relations which exist among their parts, alienate; sensual ; voluptuary; generic ; grateful ; puerile ; sweet ; it is useful to make the distinction in meaning, though it may not variously; nature; antecedent; vacillation.

be made in form, especially as the distinction in form is still reWith these English words, other English words are connected tained in the pronouns. 80 that when you know the import of these, you easily learn The objective case generally follows what are called transitire the import of the connected or related terms. Thus from the verbs and participles, and prepositions ;* as, honesty pays debts ; adjective acute comes the adverb acutely and the noun acuteness ; fraud increases them; or, praise Him from whom all blessings with the verb alienate is connected the noun alien ; voluptuary flow; there are, however, exceptions: in the following sentence has corresponding forms in voluptuous and voluptousness ; grate- the noun precedes the verb which puts it in the objective case ;ful also has gratitude and gratefully.

" Whom, therefore, ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto Find the Latin terms which occur in the instructions in the you." third declension, from which are derived these English words ;

Remember, then, that a noun is in the objective case when it namely: to err; maternal ; guttural; terrify (the fy represents has some action performed upon t by a transitive, or active, verb the Latin facio, I do or cause); nominal ; corpulent ; floral; cardinal ; luminous ; decorous ; to judge ; to reign i legal; gregarious ; ]

• These will be explained in future lessons,

summus mons

media aestas

summo monti

mediae aestati

Norn. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Abl.

media aestas

summe mons summo monte

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Abl.

summis montibus

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preceding it, or when placed in relation to something else by a preposition put before it; in most instances, when it follows immediately after an active verb or a preposition. In the example given above,-"The man was bitten by the bear; the man has an action performed upon him, and yet man is not in the objective case. You will observe that the word man is placed before the verb describing the action, and that it is evidently the subject or nominative of the sentence. If we were to substitute a pronoun The verb in this for the noun man, it would be the pronoun he. case is said to be passive and not active.

The objective case of the pronouns are, me, him, her, us, them, and whom. In the pronouns you and it, the nominative and objective cases are alike.

It is not uncommon for a person when asked, who is there? to answer, it is me; this is an error; the answer should be, it is I; or, it is Henry, or whatever your name may be. If it were right to say, it is me, it would also be right to say, me is here; yet no one would say so, except an infant just lisping. It is wrong, also, though common, to say, us two will go for it ;-it should be, we two will go for it. It sounds still worse for a married man to say, I and her will attend to it; it should be, I and she, &c. ; but, I and my wife would be still better. It is equally erroneous to say to we, instead of to us.

Before dismissing the subject mode of ascertaining them may The NOMINATIVE answers the The POSSESSIVE

quesons Who or what? Whose? or of what? :9 Whom? or what?

" ""

29

The OBJECTIVE
EXAMPLE: Charles Perkins n vried his master's daughter.
Who married his master's daughter.

Charles Perkins .....
the Nominative.
Whose daughter did Charles Perkins marry?
His master's.......

..the Possessive.

Whom did Charles Perkins marry?

His master's daughter

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Nominative case Possessive case

Objective case

the Objective.

In the following sentence from Shakspeare, all the cases may be found: let our pupils search them out, and assign to each its proper name :

Nominative case Possessive case Objective case

of cases of nouns, the following

e stated.

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Nominative case Possessive case Objective case

"As imagination bodies forth The forms of things unknown; the Poet's pen Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing A local habitation and a name."

Nominative casc Possessive case Objective case

By DECLENSION of NOUNS is shown the inflections, or changes, to which nouns are subjected. A noun is said to be declined when it is gone through in order, so as to exhibit its different parts. A few examples are given as follows:

Singular.

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Man

Man's

Man

Parent

Parent's Parent

Book

Book's

Book

Master

Master's Master

Plural.

Men

Men's

Men

Or, if he finds it for a day,

It soon takes wings and flies away.

Parents

Parents'

Parents

Books

Books'

Books

Masters

Masters' Masters

In the following lines there are nine common nouns; which if our first lessons on nouns be remembered, our pupils will have no difficulty in finding out.

Man, like a flower, at morn appears,
And blooms, perhaps, a few short years:
The flatterer, Hope, still leads him on
In quest of pleasure, finding none;

"The sun is rising dimly red,

The wind is wailing, low and dread; From his cliff the eagle sallies; Leaves the wolf his darksome vallies;

117

In the following passage, from Sir Walter Scott, nouns will be n'a pas tant de courage que de found in almost every line :

In the mist the ravens hover,
Peep the wild dogs from the cover,
Screaming, croaking, baying, yelling,
Each in his wild accents telling,
'Soon we feast on dead, and dying,
Fair-hair'd Harold's flag is flying.'

Many a crest on air is streaming;
Many a helmet darkly gleaming;
Many an arm the axe uprears,
Doom'd to hew the wood of spears.
All along the crowded ranks,
Horses neigh, and armour clanks;
Chiefs are shouting, clarions ringing,
Louder still the Bard is singing,-
'Gather footmen, gather horsemen,
To the field, ye valiant Norsemen !'"

QUESTIONS ON THE FOREGOING LESSON.

What is meant by the objective case of nouns ?

Do the nominative and objective eases resemble each other? In what connexion do active verbs and participles, and prepositions stand to the objective case? Give an example.

What are the objective cases of pronouns ?

Is it correct to say, "Us two will go for it?" If not correct what should be said?

How may the cases of nouns be ascertained?

In what case are nouns answering to who? or what?
Furnish an example illustrating the three cases.

What is meant by declining a noun ?

Decline the noun "Parent."

Point out the nouns in the verses at the end of this Lesson.

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. VII.

By Professor LOUIS FASQUELLE, LL.D.

SECTION XV.

Plus beau, plus souvent.

1. Adjectives and adverbs are always compared in French, as they often are in English, by means of adverbs. Handsomer, oftener. 2. The comparative of equality is expressed by : Aussi-que, before an adjective, an adverb, or a pronoun. As, or as much—as

Aussi aimé que son frère. Autant de que de,

As much or as many—as,

As much loved as his brother.
before a substantive.

As many pencils as pens.
As much science as modesty.

Autant de crayons que de plumes.
Autant de science que de modestie.

3. The comparative of superiority is expressed by: Plus-que, }before an adjective, an adverb, or a pronoun. More-than,

He is more docile than his brother.

Il est plus docile que son frère.
Plus de-que de,
More-than

} before a noun.

Plus de bonté que de jugement.

4. The comparative of inferiority is expressed by:

Pas si; pas aussi; moins-que,
Not so; not so; less-than,

Vous n'êtes pas si grand que votre

sœur.

Al est moins poli que son cousin.

patience.

Il a moins d'argent que de viande

More goodness than judgment.

Pas tant de; pas autant de; moins de-que de

Not so much, or so many; less; fewer-than

J'en ai tout autant que vous.

before an adjective, an adJ verb, or a personal pronour You are not so tall as your sister.

He is less polite than his cousin
before a sub-
stantive, a de-
monstrative,
or possessive
pronoun.
He has not so much courage as
patience.

He has less money than meat.

5. Tout autant-que, is used for quite as many—as ; as much,

just as much, or as many.

I have quite as many as you.

brother 1

man.

SECTION XVI.
Resuaż op EXAMPLES.

COMPARISOX-EXCORE, &c.
Avez vous autant de livres anglais, Have you as many English boobs, as
que de livres italiens ?
Italian books 1

The superlative absolute is formed by placing très, fort, or
J'en ai tout autant
I have just as many.

bien, cery, before the adjecuire ( 14, 11). J'ai autant de ceux-ci que de ceux. I have as many of these as of those. Ces chandeliers sont très utiles. These candlesticks are very weful. là.

Notre tailleur est bien obligeant. One tailor is very obliging. Il est aussi heureux que vou. He is as happy as you.

2. The superlative relative is formed by adding the article Avez vous plus d'assiettes que de Hare you more plates than dishes 1

le, la, les, to a comparative (f 14 (9)). plats ? J'ai plus de ceux-ci que de ceux-là. ' I have more of these than of those. Votre neuve est le plus savant de tous. Your nephero is the most learned of all. Est-il plus complaisant que ses Is he more obliging than his brothers 3. Encore is used in French in the sense of more, some more, frères ?

any more, still used affirmatively and interrogatively, but not Le Français a-t-il moins de légumes Has the Frenchman server vegetables negatirely. que de fruits ? than fruits i

Arez vous encore du café? Have you any more coffee! Il a moins de livres que de manu- He has fewer books than manuscripts.

J'ai encore du café.

I are saure (or some more) coffee. ecrits.

J'en ai encore.

I luce some more, or soane left. Il n'a pas autant de ceux-ci que de He has not so many of these as of ceux-là? those,

4. Ne-plus is used in the sense of not any more, and no En a-t-il moins que votre frère ? Has he less (of tiem) than your more, or none left.

Je n'ai plus de livres.

I have no more books.
Il en a tout autant.
He has quite as many.

JC A'ai plus de chocolat. I have no chocolate ieft
EXERCISE 29.

6. Ne-guère means but little, but fer.

Je n'ai guère d'amis.
Bleu, -e, blue.
Manuscrit, mn.

I have but few friends.
Fer, m. iron.

Je n'en ai guère.

I have but fero-rat little. Courage, m. courage. Fromage, m. cheese. script. Davantage,* more. Hollandais, m. Dutch Marécbal, m. blacksmith. 6. The pronouns moi, toi, lui, eux, are used instead of the Drap, in, cloth.

Modestie, f. modesty. nominative pronouns je, tu, il, ils, after the que of a comEnnemi, m. enemy. Italien, -ne, Malian. Soie, f. silk,

parison, and when the verb is understood. Espagnol, -e, Spaniard. Jardin, m. garden.

Tres, very.

Vous êtes plus heureux que moi. You are happier than I. Estampe, f. engraving. Manteau, m. cloak. Verre, m. glass.

Vous avez plus de mérite que lui. You have more merit than he, 1. Etes vous aussi content que votre frère ? 2. Je suis aussi content que votre frère. 3. Votre père a-t-il autant de courage

Résumé op EXAMPLES. que de modestie? 4. Il a moins de modestie que de courage. Votre marchand est bien obligeant. | Your merchant is very obliging. 6. Le libraire a-t-il autant de manuscrits que d'estampes ? 6. Voilà le meilleur de ces garçons. That is the best of those boys. Il a plus de celles-ci que de ceux-là. 7. A-t-il autant d'amis Nous avons encore des amis. We hare some more (or still) friends. que d'ennemis ? 8. Il a plus de ceux-ci que de ceux-là. 9. Vous avez encore du crédit. You have still (or yet) credit. A-t-il autant de pain que de fromage? 10. Il a tout autant Avez vous encore une piastre? Have you a dollar left: de celui-ci que de celui-là. 11. Le maréchal a-t-il plus de Le maçon a-t-il encore des briques ? Has the mason more bricks I chevaux que votre frère. 12. Il en a plus que mon père et nl n'en a plus.

He has no more-he has none left.

He has no more bricks. plus que mon frère. 13. N'avez vous pas froid ? 14. Non, il n'a plus de briques. Monsieur, je n'ai pas froid, j'ai très chaud. 15. Avez vous il n'en a plus guère.

He has but few. deux manteaux de drap. 16. J'en ai un de drap et un de Je n'ai guère de livres.

He has buit few left.

I hace but few books. velours bleu. 17. N'avez vous pas plus de verres que d'assi. Avez vous plus de courage que lui ? Hare you more courage than he! ettes ? 18. Nous en avons davantage.* 19. Le maréchal a-t-il II a moins de courage que moi. He has less courage than 1! plus de fer que d'acier ? 20. Il n'a pas autant de celui-ci que combien de piastres avez vous en- How many dollars have you still, of de celui-la. 21. Il a moins de celui-ci que de celui-la? 22. core ?

hare you left? Les Hollandais ont ils de beaux jardins ? 23. Leurs jardins

EXERCISE 31.
sont très beaux. 24. Les jardins des Italiens sont plus beaux
que ceux des Espagnols.

Correct, -, correct. Neveu, m. nephew. Sæur, f. sister,
Crédit, m. credit. Nièce, f. niece,

Salade, f. salad.
EXERCISE 30.

Beaucoup, much. Nouvelles, f. news. Tante, f. aunt. 1. Are you more attentive than your sister ? 2. I am not Boyer, Boyer. Quel, which, which one. Tous, all. Bo attentive as your brother. 3. Have you more courage than Dictionnaire, m. diction- Savant, -e, learned. Ville, 1. town, city. my brother ? 4. I have quite as much. 6. Has the black

ary. smith as much money as iron? 6. He has more of the latter

1. Votre dictionnaire est il très correct? 2. Il est plus cor. than of the former (Sect. 8, R. 6). 7. Has he more modesty rect que celui de Boyer. 3. Votre dictionnaire est le plus than the Spaniard ? 8. He has more. 9. He has more than correct de tous. 4. Quel est le meilleur de ces jardins ? 5. your friend's sister. 10. Are you not cold, Siri 11. No, Sir, Celui-ci est le meilleur de tous les jardins de la ville. 6. Avez but I am afraid and sleepy. 12. Has the Dutchman more

vous encore de l'argent ! 7. Je n'ai plus d'argent, mais j'ai cheese than the Italian? 13. He has more cheese and more

encore du crédit? 8. Avons nous encore de la salade? 9. money; 14. Have you as much English silk as Italian silk ? Nous n'en avons plus. 10. Nous n'avons plus de viande. 16. I have more of this than of that. 16. Who has more 11. Qui en a encore? 12. Mes frères et mes sæurs en ont friends than the Spaniard ? 17. Your friend has more.

18. encore.

13. En avez vous encore beaucoup: 14. Je n'en ai Has the Spaniard as much of your money as of his ? 19. He plus guère. 15. Votre tante a-t-elle plus de robes que votre has less of mine than of his. 20. Have we more silk cloaks nièce ? 16. Elle n'en a pas beaucoup. 17. Votre neveu est il than cloth cloaks? 21. We have more of these than of those. plus savant que votre nièce ? 18. Il n'est pas aussi savant 22. Have you good cloaks? 23. Yes, Sir, I have good cloaks; qu'elle. 19. Elle est plus savante que lui. 20. Avez vous good hats, and good leather shoes. 24. Have you more plates encore froid? 21. Je n'ai plus froid, j'ai bien chaud. 22. ikan dishes ? 25. I have not more plates than dishes ; but I N'avez vous plus de nouvelles ?. 23. Je n'en ai plus. 24. En have

more glasses than plates. 26. Are you not very cold 7 avez vous beaucoup ? 25. Je n'en ai guère. 27. No, Sir, I am neither cold nor warm. 28. Has your car.

EXERCISE 32. penter wood ? 29. Yes, Sir, he has wood, money, cheese, and meat. 30. Who has more money than the carpenter ? 31. is not very correct. 3. Has your father more courage than he ?

Has your brother a very good dictionary: 2. His dictionary The Duitser. has more. 32. Who has more engravings 4. He has much more courage than your nephew. 6. Hare tinan booho : 33. The bookseller has more of these than of your brothers credit? 6. They have but little credit, but they chose. 34. Are you as attentive as your friend ? 35. I am have money. 7. Is your aunt obliging? 8. My aunt is very more attentive than my friend.

obliging? 9. Have you still books, pens, and paper ? 10. i Davantage means more. It can never be placed before a noun ; it may have no more books, but I have still good

pens and excellent be used instead of plus, at the end of a sentence.

English paper. 11. Who has still paper: 12. I have no more,

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but my brother has some more. 13. Have you any news, Sir? 14. No, Madam, I have none to-day. 15. Have you as much wood as my brother's son? 16. I have more than you or he. 17. Are you still wrong? 18. No, Sir, I am no longer (plus) wrong, I am right. 19. Are your sisters still hungry? 20. They are neither hungry nor thirsty, but they are still sleepy. 21. Is your niece as learned as he? 22. She is more learned than he and (que) his aunt. 23. Have you no news, Sir? 24. No, Madam, I have no more news. 25. Who has news? 26. I have no more. 27. Have you them all? 28. Yes, Sir, I have them all. 29. Has your aunt much of it left? 30. She has but little more of it? 31. Has your brother any more English horses? 32. He has no more. more. 34. Have you a handsome French shawl left? 35. I have no more French shawls, but I have an English one. SECTION XVII.

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1. Combien de pommes-de-terre votre frère a-t-il ? 2. I 3. L'épicier a-t-il beaucoup de sucre n'en a pas beaucoup. dans son magasin? 4. Il n'en a guère, mais il a beaucoup de cerises? 6. Il a plus de cerises que de prunes. 7. Les beurre et de poivre. 5. Votre jardinier a-t-il beaucoup de prunes 8. Les cerises sont sont elles meilleures que les cerises? meilleures que les prunes. 9. Avez vous quelques poires mûres? 10. Nous en avons quelques unes, nous avons aussi beaucoup d'ananas et d'abricots. 11. Votre oncle a-t-il quelque chose de bon dans son jardin ? 12. Il a quelque chose de bon et de beau. 13. Il a de beaux légumes et de belles fleurs. 14. Avez vous des fleurs étrangères? 15. J'en ai quelques unes. 16. Lesquelles avez vous? 17. J'ai celles de votre frère et celles de votre jardinier. 18. N'avez vous pas auss les miennes? 19. Non, Monsieur, je ne les ai pas. 20. Qu en a beaucoup? 21. Personne n'en a beaucoup. 22. J'en al quelques unes. 23. Avez vous assez de thé? 24. J'en at assez. 25. J'en ai plus que lui.

He has two

1. The adverbs of quantity, combien, how much, how many; trop, too much, too many; beaucoup, much, many; assez, enough; peu, little, few; guère, but little, few; and the word pas, meaning no, when coming before a noun or an adjective, are followed by the preposition de.

Combien de fleurs avez vous ?
J'ai beaucoup de fleurs.
Vous avez trop de loisir.
Votre sœur a assez de temps.

How many flowers have you?
I have many flowers.

You have too much leisure.
Your sister has time enough.

2. The adverb bien, used in the sense of beaucoup (much,
many), is followed by the preposition de, joined to or blended
with the article le, la, les [Sect. 4].
Vous avez bien de la complaisance.
Elle a bien des amis.

You have much kindness
She has many friends.

3. Quelque chose, something, anything [Sect. 5, 6], and rien,
nothing, not anything, take de before an adjective.
Votre ami a quelque chose d'agré-
able.
Avez vous quelque chose de bon?
Je n'ai rien de bon.

Your friend has something pleasant.

Have you anything good?

I have nothing (not anything) good.
4. Quel, m., quelle, f., quels, m. p., quelles, f.p., are used
interrogatively for which or what before a noun.

Quelle serviette avez vous? What or which napkin have you!
Quelles bourses votre ami a-t-il ? What purses has your friend?

5. Que is used for what before a verb,

Qu'avez vous?

What is the matter with you!

6. Lequel, m., laquelle, f., lesquels, m. p., lesquelles, f. p., are used absolutely for the word which, not followed by a noun, and equivalent to which one, which ones.

Lequel votre fils a-t-il ?
Lesquelles avons nous ?

Which (one) has your son?
Which (ones) have we?

7. Quelques is used before a plural noun for a few, some;
quelques uns, m., quelques unes, f., are used absolutely, with
the same meaning-Plusieurs means several, and is invariable,
Le Danois a-t-il quelques pommes ? Has the Dane a few apples?
Il en a quelques unes.
He has a few.
Il en a plusieurs.

He has several.

RESUME OF EXAMPLES.

Combien de poires avez vous ?
Nous avons beaucoup de poires.
Nous en avons beaucoup.
Nous avons assez de cerises.
Nous n'en avons pas assez.
Vous n'avez guère de pêches.
Votre jardinier a bien des pêches.
N'avez vous pas de pêches?
J'ai beaucoup de pêches et d'abri-
cots.

How many pears have you?
We have many pears.
We have many (of them).
We have cherries enough.
We have not enough (of them).
You have but few peaches.
Your gardener has many peaches.
Have you no peaches?

I have many peaches and apricots.

Le boucher a-t-il quelque chose de bon.

Has the butcher anything good.

Il a quelque chose de bon et de He has something good and bad.
mauvais.

Il n'a rien de bon.
Quelles poires f. avez vous?
Nous avons celles de votre sœur?
Quel habit m. avez vous ?
Nous avons celui du tailleur.
Qu'avez vous de bon ?
Lequel avez vous ?
Lesquels votre frère a-t-il ?

He has not anything (nothing) good.
What or which pears have you?
We have your sister's.
Which or what coat have you!
We have the tailor's.
What have you good?
Which (one) have ?
you
Which (ones) has your brother?

EXERCISE 34.

1. Has your gardener many vegetables? 2. Yes, Sir, he has many. 3. How many gardens has he? 4. He has several gardens and several houses. 5. Have you many books? 6. I have but few, but my friend has many. 7. What coat has your brother? 8. He has a good cloth coat. 9. Has your uncle many peaches? 10. He has but few peaches, but he has many cherries. 11. How many plums has the tailor? 12. The tailor has no plums, he has cloth and silk. 13. What silk has your friend the merchant? 14. He has a great deal (beaucoup) of silk, and a great deal of money. 15. Has the gardener anything good in (dans) his garden? 16. He has many pineapples. 17. Has he more vegetables than fruit? 18. He has more of this than of those. 19. Has your uncle many pears and cherries? 20. He has a few, and he has many apples and plums. 21. Have you a few? 22. I have still many, but my brother has no more. 23. Which peaches has he? 24. He has large (grosses) peaches. 25. Which (ones) have you? 26. I have the best peaches. 27. Has the merchant anything good in his warehouse? 28. He has nothing good in his warehouse, but he has something good in his garden. 29. How many potatoes has the foreigner? 30. He has not many. 31. Has he good vegetables? 32. He has good vegetables. 33. Is he right or wrong? 34. He is right, but you are wrong. he has the bookseller's.

35. He has neither this book nor that,

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-No. IV.
THE CORN PLANTS-Continued.

In our last lesson, it was shown that corn plants are cultivated
grasses; we have now to consider a few more examples.

Maize, or Indian corn, was cultivated in America before the discovery of that country by Columbus, and indeed from time immemorial. It is a plant of much larger growth, in the leaves, the ear, and the grain, than any other sort of corn. See fig. 1, next page.

Indian corn is also known by the name of Turkey-corn; this name being given to it from the circumstance that maize is cultivated in that country. It is the largest and handsomest of all the grasses cultivated for food. When growing luxuriantly, it attains a height of from five to six feet; while its broad leaves, springing from its straight thick stem, and its elegant spike of flowers at the summit, present a form which is rarely surpassed. Next to rice it supplies food to the greatest number of the human race. It forms the staple crop in North America, where the farmers make it answer a great number of purposes, besides supplying their families with bread. Maize is also very extensively cultivated in Mexico: and from the genial nature of the climate, and the general fer

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