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be made to keep time, that is, follow his leader, it is by no d. The dot after a mark of continuance shows that the premeans necessary that he should at first be able to beat time, vious note is to be continued through half that aliquot, ihus that is, act as leader. It may be said that he requires to keep | d.t : m.fm :d 10 :-.fm :d time when singing alone. This is true. But if his mental e. A comma signifies that the note before it fills a quarter conception of time cannot guide him to a correct and regular of the time from one accent to the next. The last note in an movement of the muscles of the larynx, neither will it guide aliquot does not require a mark after it, as the proportion left him to a correct and regular movement of the muscles of the to it is sufficiently, evident. Thus, I d :d.dd 1 d id or arm. On the contrary, by making him first to regulate the id :t,.drid. :d motion of the arm by his mental feeling of time, and then to 5. The dot and comma together show that the note before regulate the motions of his organ of sound by that of his arm, them fill three-quarters of the time from one accent to the we give him two things to do instead of one, and therefore next, thus | d.,r':m.,f | m.,r:d double the chance of going wrong by the very measures we take g. This mark , indicates that the note before it fills one. to keep him right. There can, therefore, be no greater practical third of the time from one accent to the next, thus blunder in teaching, than the premature attempt to teach the

:ds :18.f|m:r 1d beating of time to those who are yet struggling with the diffi- h. An aliquot or any part of an aliquot left unfilled indicates culties of the scale ; and, instead of being any assistance to a pause of the voice, thus Id : 18:|m ild them in keeping time, it is the most effective hindrance. Dr.

hark! hark ! hark ! while inBurney, in his Dissertation on the Music of the Ancients," :d lr :1 m :- of thus, 10 :-.

fm:d 1a :. prefixed to his “General History of Music,” seems to have fant voicos sing. proved satisfactorily that one of the greatest improvements of Im :d inodern music is, that we have learned to keep time with less external flourishing and hammering than was necessary in

NOTATION OF BLURS, REPEATB, AND EXPRESSION. ruder ages, whose music was little more than an exaggerated

a. When two or more notes are sung to the same syllable, way of marking the feet of the poetry to which it was sung. they are said to be slurred. The slur is indicated by stroke He concludes his account of the operations of the ancient beneath the notes. Coryphæus, or leader of a choir, in the following words :-—" It 6. In some tunes it is required to repeat certain parts of the was not only with the feet that the ancients beat the time, but strain. The manner in which this is done is indiated by the with all the fingers of the right hand upon the hollow of the following signs :left; and he who marked the time or rhythm in this manner

D. 0. abbreviated from the Italian Da Capo, means " Rewas called MANU-DUCTOR. For this purpose they used oyster- turn to the beginning." shells and the shells of other figh, as well as the banes of ani. D. 8. abbreviated from Dal Segno, means “Return, and mals, in beating time, as we do castanets, tabors, &c. Both sing from the sign." Hesychius and the Scholiast of Aristophanes furnish passages

B. is used for the Sign, and to contirm this assertion. What a noisy and barbarous music; F. abbreviated from Fine, shows where such repetitions all rhythm and no sound !

It would afford us no

end. very favourable idea of the abilities of modern musicians if R. placed over a note shows that a repetition of words they required so much parade and noise in keeping together. commences there. "The more time is beaten,' says M. Rousseau, the less it is c. Greater "expression" is sometimes given to music by kept.' Rousseau's opinion is, perhaps, too strongly ex- regulating the degree of force with which certain parts of the pressed; but I think no person of good taste can doubt that strain are to be delivered. This is done by means of the folit is, in the main, well founded. The practice of making a lowing signs placed over the notes :whole class beat time while they sing, is a return to barbarism. f. abbreviated from forte, signifies loud. The proper mode of teaching this part of practical music p. from piano, signifies soft. would be to make the members of the class act as leaders in

f. very loud. turn; or, if the class be large, one or two at once might be

pp. very soft. taken out, placed in front of the others, and employed to beat a. Sometimes it is needful to indicate the manner in which the time-first with the assistance of the teacher, and after that force is to be thrown in. For this purpose the following wards by themselves. See Dr. Bryce's “Rational Introduc- marks are used : tion to Music."

o denotes a swell, the voice commencing softly—be. The peculiarities of the old notation on the staff of five lines coming louder—and then closing softly. will be explained as we come to them, and at the proper period denotes increasing force. of his course our pupil will be more systematically introduced denotes diminishing forcé. to them. He is already acquainted with most of the points or over a note shows that it should be sung abruptly relating to our “ interpreting notation." They are, however, and with accent. repeated below for the sake of distinctness. Observe that the The same piece of music often requires to be sung with notation of "slurs, repeats, and expression," applies alike to different expression, according to the different words with both notations. NOTATION OF THE RELATIVE LENGTH OF Notes. As the should be placed on the words. It is proposed that

which it may be used. In that case the marks of expression accents recur at equal intervals of time throughout a tune, marking aliquot parts of the measure, the relative length of

CAPITAL LETTÉRs, in printing, or double lines under the notes can be clearly indicated by showing what proportion of

word in writing, should distinguish words to be sung the measure each note occupies. This is done by first placing

louder than others that the accent marks at equal distances along the page, thus

Italic letters, in printing, or a single line under the word Til : or thus :1:1:: | : or thus 1:1

in writing, should indicate softness ; that

: &c. and then observing the following rules.

The acute accent' should denote special abruptness and

decision of voice; that 4. A note placed alone immediately after an accent mark is

A stroke above the words, in printing, a succession of supposed to pocupy the time from that accent to the next.

little strokes over or a stroke through the word in Thus 1d :d :d 1d :d :d | d or thus 10 :r I m :d

writing, should show a heavy movement ; the accents b. A stroke indicates the continuance of the previous note through another aliquot (or pulse), thus | d :

dd:

being dragged along, and the lighter ones little dis

tinguished from the stronger: and that or thus :d 1d :d :did :-:- Id :-:d id :C. A dot divides an aliquot into equal parts and shows that

The grave accent · placed on the words, which fall to the the note before it fills half the time from one accent to the

strong accent of the music, should indicate a spirited

movement, with marked attention to accent. next, leaving only half an aliquot to the note or notes which follow, thus 1 :d.dd :d id:d.d/d :- ord :m.r words slowly or quickly,

A slower or quicker movement may be expressed by the

The “heavy movement" mentioned id :8. Id :mrld 11, :d 181 :m | m.r :d.ty above necessarily tends to slacken, as the “spirited moveId :-

ment" does to quicken the pace of the singer.

In the first number of the "Tonic Solfa Reporter" will be found a selection of hymns marked for "expression' on the plan here proposed. An analysis of those markings has elicited the following principles, which may be of use to the student:-Passages should be marked to be sung softly in which (1) any peculiarly solemn or awe-inspiring thought is expressed; (2) a change from praise to reflection, or (3) from reflection to prayer. Passages should be marked to be sung loudly which express (1) joyful praise, (2) strong desire, (3) ardent gratitude, (4) high resolve, or (5) some inspiring thought.

THE STANDARD SCALE.-A certain note "about midway between the highest and the lowest that can be perceived by the ear" is fixed on by musicians as the standard of PITCH, and the notes arranged upon it, according to the order of the "common mode" or scale already described, are called THE STANDARD SCALE. This note is called c. The second note of the scale is called D; the third ; the fourth F; the fifth o; the sixth A; the seventh B; and the replicate or octave o again. A note something less than half a tone higher than any one of these notes is said to be that note sharpened, as "a sharp." A note something less than half a tone lower than any one of these notes is said to be that note flattened as "B flat." M. Fetis (a wellknown French writer) truly observes that "a sound cannot be altered or substituted for another without ceasing to exist. Do (or c) sharp is no longer Do (or c). It is a mere error so to call it, and it is one of those errors which have tended to render music obscure." But so it is called and we must be content with this warning against the dangers of obscurity. The particular pitch assigned to this note c and consequently to the other notes of its scale is called "concert pitch." The moderns generally fix the sound of c as that which would be produced by 256 vibrations of a sonorous body. The accepted" concert pitch" has been gradually rising to this standard within the last few years, so that Handel's music (unless we lower the key) is sung nearly a tone higher than he meant it to be.

The pitch of the key-note may be given in the heading or title of a tune, thus "key A," "key a," "key в flat," &c. In

STANDARD SCALE.

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EXERCISE 15. GRIFFIN.

KEY F.

METRONOME, Minim=58.

(Music by H. BURNET, Esq., Manchester. Words from LONGFELLOW.)

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"pitching a tune" it is usual to take the upper c' of the standard scale from the TUNING FORK or the pitch pipe to descend to the pitch-note required, and then give its sound to the syllable DOH. Doн, thus fixed, establishes the relative position of all the other notes of a tune. Suppose the "pitch-note" required is D. Then you would take o' from the tuning fork, and run down till you come to D, which you would "swell out" a little, and then sing the same sound to DOH, taking the "chord" afterwards. Thus:| BAG F E : D | -DOH : -i DOH ME | SOH :

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If you find any difficulty in singing your ABC backwards, remember that after sounding the c' you have only to spell the words BAG and FED. To pitch в flat, sing the c to the syllable soн, and striking FAH, which will be в flat, call it DOH. The upper c' is used in pitching because the higher sounds are found to be more distinctly and correctly appreciable by the Tuning forks can now be obtained for a shilling or eighteen pence. The wholesale price is 10s. a dozen. We mention this to stimulate our friends to the purchase of these useful instruments. With a small sized one in his pocket the good solfaer is ready to take up a tune-book and make out a tune without the need of any other instrument. After a time he will become, with a little practice to that end, quite inde pendent even of the tuning fork. He will soon learn to recall the pitch note c' at will. Those who are studying the old notation will like to see the Standard Scale represented on the staff. It stands thus:

:r nest, :t,

d' :t.l

1.,s1.t
dust re turn - est,
f.,m:f.rd :d

C1 B A G F E D

But a man's voice, taking the o from the tuning fork, would sing the scale an octave lower, thus :

C B1 A, G F E D1 C

$ :d' s.m And the grave t1 1,

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2 Not enjoyment and not sorrow
Is our destined end or way,
But to act that each to-morrow
Finds us further than to-day.

3 Art is long, and time is fleeting,

And our hearts, though stout and brave,

Still, like muffled drums, are beatir.g
Funeral marches to the grave.

4 Trust no future, howe'er pleasant

In the genitive and dative singular,-namely, ci, the e is short Let the dead past bury its dead,

when it follows a consonant, as rẽi, fiděi, and long when it Act, act, in the LIVING PRESENT,

follows a vowel as diei, faciēi. Heart within, and God o'er head.

Only two words in this declension,-namely, res and dies,

have all the cases in both the singular and the plural; all other 5 Let us then be up and doing,

words are without the genitive, dative, and ablative plural. With a heart for any fate;

Species is commonly added to res and dies, as having all
Still achieving, still pursuing,
Learn to labour and to wait.

the cases, but Cicero pronounces the genitive and dative of

species as not good Latin. NOTE.-The pupil will now pitch his own key-note as indicated Of these nouns--namely, acies, an edge, line, or sword; facies, in the title. If, however, he is not yet provided with a tuning fork, an appearance ; glacies, glass ; effigies, an effigy or likeness; let him take dou at a rather low pitch. A stroke beneath two or progenies, a progeny or offspring; series, a series; and spes, more potes, shows that they are to be sung to one syllable of the hope ; only the

nominative and accusative plural are found

in good prose writers. words, or “glurred.” The comma, after a note, gives it a quarter

VOCABULARY. of an a.iquot ;-the dot and comma, three quarters. Be careful in singing this correctly. Exercise yourself in singing the two noles Spes, ei, f. hope ; solatium, i, n. solace, comfort ; tempus, Gris, a. first with a dot only, and then with a dot and comma between them. time; aerumna, ae, f wretchedness, misery; conditin, onis, f. a state The tune is Mr. Burnet's copyright. It may be found harmonised condition; adversus, a, um, against ; vita, ae, f. life ; res adversae, for lour voices, in “ People's service of Song." All the early ex. adverse things, adversity, misfortune ; certus, a, um, certain fired; incer!

tus, a, um, uncertain ; dulcis, e, sweet ; dubius, a, um, doubtful; hu. ercises in this course are given in two-part harmony, because we mánus, a, um, human; vanus, a, um, empty, vain ; felicior, felicius, ste persuaded that, by two-part harmony, the ear is best taught to gen. oris, happier; afflicto I, I beat down, afflict, grieve ; récreo 1, 1 understand that which is more complex. These exercises should recreate, quicken, refresh; amitto 3, I lose ; oppono 3, 1 set against ; facile, be sung by "equal voices ;" that is, by two male voices, or by two adv. easily; miser, a, um, uretched. female or children's voices. It will not sound quite so well if the

EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH. air (or upper part) being sung by a female voice, the lower part is sung by a male. For the male and female voice are naturally an Spes est incerta et dubia ; vis spei est magna in animis hominum; Octave apart, and the intervals cannot be so "close" and sweet.

nonne magna est vis spei in animo tuo ? facile indulgent spei ra.

nae pueri; spem feliciorum temporum non debemus amittere in (When you have traced and solsaed this tune from the modulator aerumnis vitae ; O spes, dulci solatio animos miserorum bominum perfectly, your next step will be to " figure" it ;--that is, sing it to recreas! spe vanâ saepe fallimur; res humanae sunt incertae et the word "one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight. One, dubiae ; conditio rerum humanarum est dubia; rebus adversis virtwo, three, four, five, six, seven, &c." As you know these words tutem debes opponere ; sapiens non extimescit res adversas ; 0, res cery familiarly, your attention will not be distracted by them (as humanae, quam saepe animos hominum fállitis ! animus sapientis it might be by other words) while you try to strike the intervals non afflictatur rebus adversis. correctly, without that help to the memory which the solfa syl. Lubies give. You may afterwards sing the words; but remember

ENGLISH-LATIN. that this tune must be sung with spirit (abrupt decision) or not at all. A curve over, or under two or more notes, indicates a slur.

The hope of life is uncertain; the hope of a long life is vain ; I In previous exercises we have had a black note (crotchet) to cor refresh my mind with hope ; the wise man is not easily beaten respond with an aliquot or pulse of the measure. In this tune, we down in wretchedness; adversity beats down the minds of brave have used an open note (a minim) for the aliquot. We prefer men; the minds of brave men are beaten down by adversity; by using the crotchet as the standard aliquot; but, as it is not always the solace of hope the mind of a sage is refreshed; we ought not Bo used, we have made this change to indicate that fact. It makes to lose virtue in the miseries of life ; the wretchedness of the conno difference to the music. There are still four pulses to the dition beats down the man; he loses the hope of a happier time. measure, and they move at the rate indicated by the metronome.)

VOCABULARY.
Fides, ei, f. fidelity; amicitia, ae, f. friendship; exemplum, i, n.

an example; salus, Atis, f. health, safety; ver, veris, n. spring; LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. VIII.

adventus, us, m. advent, coming ; portus, ûs, m. an harbour, port; By John R. BEARD, D.D.

incorruptus, a, um, incorrupt; rarus, a, um, rare, seldom ; seréous,

a, um, serene, fine, bright; tutus, a, um, safe ; verus, a, um, true; NOUNS, SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE-Continued.

tristis, e, sad; avšlo 1, I fly away; convoco 1, I call together;

exspecto 1, I expect, await; servo 1, I keep; conquiesco 3, I am All the nouns of the fifth declension end in es in the nomina- at peace; debeo 2, I ove ; cito, adv. quickly ; cupide, adv. desiringly; tive singular. This ending arises from the addition of the ter- etiam, conj. also. mination s to the characteristic vowel of the stem,-namely, e, which thus becomes es. This characteristic vowel é appears

EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH. in all the cases. The ablative ending ind is blended with the Amicitiae fides animos recreat in aerumnis vitae ; verae amicitiae 7 of the stem. All the nouns of this declension are feminine, exempla rara sunt; amicorum fidei debemus salutem in adversis except dies, a day, and its compound, meridies, mid-day, the rebus ; verus amicus etiam in aerumnis amici servat fidem ; fides south. Dies, in good prose, is used as a feminine only when it etiam miseris portum parat; paratur mihi portus tutus ; incorsignifies generally a time, or duration, or a fixed day, an appointed ruptus amicus rarus est in rebus adversis ; in fide amicorum con. time ; as dies dicta, dies constituta, an appointed day; longa quiescit ; veris adventus suavis est; cito avolat dies; dies sereni dies, a long period ; damnosa dies, a time of suffering; dies pe- rari sunt in vere; die constitutê milites in urbem convocat; cert8 rexigua, a very brief period. In the plural, dies and meridies die amici in domum meam convocantur ; tristes sunt dies miseare masculine FIFTH DECLENSION,

ENGLISH-Latin.
Sign El in the Genitive Singular.

True friends keep fidelity in the miseries of life; the fidelity o!

friendship is not a vain hope; is the fidelity of an incorrupt friend CASE-ENDINGS AND EXAMPLE.

a rare example ? in adversity we owe (are indebted for) a part to

true friends; the solace of true friendship calls together friends; Cases. Singular. Cases. Plural.

fine days quickly fly away ; on a certain day the generals call todies, a day

dies, days

gether (their) bands; the soldiers are called together by the king Gen. e-i diei, of a day

dierum, of days. on an appointed day; I await the coming of spring desiringly; i diei, to a day

diebus, to days sad day in spring is rare. diem, a day

dies, days dies, O day

dies, 0 days We have now gone through the five declensions; and here die, by a day

e-bu. diebus, by days present, in a tabular view, the several variations :

rorum.

Nom

e-g

وق

e-rum
e-bus

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Aco.
Voc.
Abl.

Dat. Aco. Voo 41

e-m

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In this summary view, many facts regarding gender, number, and case, are of necessity omitted. They may be found in the works to which reference has already been made. It seems, however, desirable to add, that grammarians recognise in Latin what is called a common gender. Those nouns are said to be of the common gender (c.), which may be applied indifferently, either to a male or a female. Such nouns are hospes, a guest; hostis, an enemy; incola, an inhabitant; parens, a parent; sacerdos, a priest or priestess; testis, a witness; bos, a bull or a cow; canis, a dog or a bitch; lepus, a hare; mus, a mouse, &c.

GENERAL EXERCISES ON THE FIVE DECLENSIONS.

VOCABULARY.

Húmidus, a, um, humid, wet; hiems, hiomis, f. winter; divitiae, arum, f. riches; ultimus, a, um, the last; lepus, õris, m. a hare; caducus, a, um, falling, frail; pavidus, a, um, fearful, timid; barbarus, a, un, barbarous; sermo, ónis, m. speech; Látinus, a, um, Latin; Graecus, a, um, Greek; exoptatus, a, um, wished for, desired; quies, quietis, f. rest, quiet: tumidus, a, um, tumid, swelling; profundus, a, um, deep; inspiratus, a, um, unhoped for; nox, noctis, f. night; frigidus, a, um, cold; magnificus, a, um, magnificent; ligneus, a, um, wooden; commodus, a, um, convenient; glacies, ei, f. ice; lubricus, a, um, slippery; nemo, neminis, c. no one; felix, felícis, happy; credulus, a, um, credulous, too believing; palus, palúdis, f a marsh; clarus, a, um, clear, distinguished; gelidus, a, um, cold; gradus, ús, m. a step; potens, potentis, powerful; nunquam, adv. never; avárus, a, um, avaricious; fames, is, f. hunger; sitis, is, f. thirst; rotundus, a, um, round: infidus, a, um, unfaithful; sempiternus, a, um, everlasting; tardus, a, um, slow; contentus, a um, satisfied; limpidus, a, um, limpid, bright; exiguus, a, um, short, narrow; acutus, a um, sharp; humus, i, f. the ground or soil; eximius, a, um, eminent, remarkable; morosus, a, um, morose, illtempered; semper, adv. always.

LATIN-ENGLISH.

Est mihi amicus fidus et carus; infidus est servus tuus; terra est rotunda; vera amicitia est sempiterna; fames et sitis sunt molestae; avárus nunquam est contentus; rex est potens; gradus tuus tardus est; virtus patris tui est eximia; fons est clarus et gelidus; nomen clarum est ducibus; amnis limpidus delectat omnes; cervo sunt alta cornua; res est magna et insolita; hic sunt vastae paludes; opes credula fallit pueros; hominibus exigua est dies; nemo semper felix est; glacies est lubrica; pons ligneus custoditur; non omnes milites sunt fortes; magnificae porticus defenduntur; portus est commodus; dentibus acutis edimus; nox est longa et frigida; bonus laudatur, improbus vituperatur; senectus saepe est morosa; insperata salus venit; mare est vastum, profundum, tumidum; quies valde exoptata facile amittitur; sermonem Latinum discimus; nonne doces Graecam linguam? gentes barbarae remotae sunt; lepores pavidi evolant; fos est caducus; hora ultima venit; incertae sunt divitiae; mores antiquos amat mater mea; verba tua sunt dura; quam humida est humus! non facile in hieme agri arantur.

ENGLISH-LATIN.

Faithful friends are loved; I have great riches; they lose wished-for friendship; the ground is wet; wet ground injures; hares have sharp teeth; with sharp teeth we all eat; thy soldiers are brave; are thy father's soldiers brave? they delight in (abl.) credulous hope; the horns of the bull are strong; the virtues of the king are remarkable; how beautiful is the portico; you ought to learn Latin; men fear the last hour; the house is guarded by a strong band; avaricious men are avoided; ill-tempered women are never loved; the ill-tempered are troublesome; is friendship eternal? hope is eternal; how slow are thy steps! ice is slippery in winter; no one loves hunger and thirst; quiet quickly flies away; the harbour is convenient for ships; the fearful are never safe; art thou satisfied with the speech of thy father? they strike a powerful prince; falling flowers are gathered (lego 3); he gathers flowers in the march; the Greek language is beautiful; swelling seas are often found; the rest and solace of true friend-hip are wished for; no one is always happy.

To how large an extent Latin words enter into the composition of our present English is strikingly seen in the last vocaThese words found therein have their English bulary. representatives.

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MAN.

We wish to make our lessons so simple and plain, that you may thoroughly understand them. In treating of digestion, we showed you that the process begins with taking our food into the mouth. It is there masticated or chewed; in being chewed, it becomes mixed with the saliva of the mouth, until it takes on the character of a soft pulp. It is then swallowed; passes down the oesophagus into the stomach, where it comes in contact with the gastric juice. By the action of this fluid, it is converted into chyme. This chyme passes gradually into the duodenum, where it meets the bile and the pancreatic juice, undergoes a complete chemical change, and reappears in the form of a white milky liquid, known by the name of chyle. This is taken up by the lacteals, and by them poured into the thoracic duct or canal, which is in communication with the greater portion of the absorbent vessels of the body. In this canal the chyle becomes mixed with the lymph, and is thence conveyed into the vein which passes under the left clavicle, and mingling with the venous blood, is carried to the heart and lungs to receive its vital and life-giving properties.

If the food which we eat is thus at last converted into blood, and if it be the blood which builds up every individual part of the body, it is of great importance that our food should be good

and wholesome. The blood can contribute to growth and common egg-shell, which is nothing more than so many layer health only as it exists in a pure and healthy condition. If of fibrous tissue enveloping the albumen, and forming that thus precious vital fluid be itself diseased, it cannot fail to com- thin membrane which comes between the outer shell and the municate the disease to the various parts or organs which it inner substance. These fibres constitute the first and simplest has to supply with their appropriate nutriment. For example: forms of anima tissue. If this solid earth, which we wait -If a fit of passion may suddenly and immediately occasion with so firm a step, be but an aggregation of particles or atoms, such a change in the milk of a nurse as to render it a rank held together by the one great law of attraction, our bodies are poison to the little dependant infant, there is nothing to con- nothing more than a mere combination and union of elements tradict the theory, that the blood itself may undergo such under the law of organisation. Nor is it difficult to become changes as to convert it from a wholesome nutriment and in some degree acquainted with these elementary or compestimulus to vital action, into a most violent poison, fatal nent parts, with their physical, chemical, and vital properues. even to life itself. Another example:-In vaccination, a Since the growth of the cell is dependant on its absorbing surgeon introduces into the arm of a child a very minute por- certain particles of matter from the fluid which surrounds 11, tion of virus, which in some way or other, not well known,-in this nutrient fluid, in the process of organisation, or befare affects and alters the whole of the blood; and this morbid the process begins, we must look for the components of the state of the blood continues for a length of time. Or, again, animal structure, with their essential or peculiar properties. suppose a student in the course of dissection should prick his finger, the putri matter thus introduced may so effectually get into his system as to poison the blood and occasion death itself. It follows that a man may wilfully and knowingly induce disease, and injure his system. A drunkard is never a healthy man. Some men may more easily and for a longer period resist the effects of intemperance than others; but that the free use of ardent spirits is prejudicial to health is a truth which all the facts of physiology but too clearly demonstrate. An intemperate man does everything to contravene nature. He is working against God, and against the most beneficent laws of his universe. The great Creator has introduced into the blood all those elements which are adapted to preserve it pure and uncorrupt. What other end can we conceive to be inIvolved in the fact, that in the blood is to be found a certain portion of saline matter? The presence of such an agent in the circulating fluid must be regarded as a beautiful and beneficent provision to prevent its decomposition. Were the blood to decompose in the body, it would cease to possess any vital property; and, deprived of its vitality, it could no longer minister to the nutriment and growth of a single structure.

But the blood is not more dependant on the character of the food which we eat, than on the purity of the air which we breathe. The heart, from which the blood issues in a condition to nourish the body, is situated between the right and the left lung, and with the lungs fills up the whole cavity of the chest, as may be seen by the accompanying cut. Each lung is made up of a countless number of cells or vesicles, which

The blood is a liquid of a beautiful red colour, and of a peculiar odour. In some animals this odour is very marked. Take blood from a cow, and by the smell of the fluid you can tell from what animal it has been drawn. In its living state, the blood is a transparent liquid, Colding in suspension certain little bodies, of which some are colourless, but the greater portion of which have a red colour, and are known by the name of blood-globules. Now, to under. stand how these little bodies are adapted to nourish and build up the body of the strongest and most powerful, we shall try to set before you the compo. nent parts of this precious fluid. Let us open a globule. vein, and take from the body a portion of blood. If we allow it to remain at rest for ten or fifteen minutes, it begins to congeal and take on a more solid form like that of a soft jelly. The fluid has become a solid, and this is the only change which is yet palpable to our senses. After a few hours we and that the clot has a greater degree of consistence, and, as the effect of this contraction, is surrounded with a transparent yellow fluid, which is named serum. Now what is there in this blood to produce this coagulation? Why does it not remain in a fluid state, as when first drawn from the vein? There must be some peculiar law to account for this change. In itself, and as it is seen flowing in the veins of a living creature, it appears a colourless fluid, with minute red particles which give the blood its beautiful scarlet hue; and so long as it is in a fluid state it holds in solution a particular substance called fibrine, which, in its ultimate composition, differs little or nothing from albumen, or the white of an egg. This substance is distributed through the whole body, but is found chiefly in the blood, because the blood, in its course and flow, supplies to every individual part of the complex structure the materials of its growth and development. Take the blood from the living structure, and the fibrine remains no longer in solution. Instead of being diffused, it coagulates and contracts, till it has pressed out the serum by the mutual attraction of its own particles. Now if we look at this clot or congealed blood through a microscope, we shall find that it presents a peculiar arrangement. It is not a mere aggregation or promiscuous accumulation of particles, but a beautiful disposition of fibres crossing one another in every direction. This arrangement may be seen in the

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Blood

are always full of air derived by inspirations from the atmo sphere which surrounds us. These cells communicate freely the one with the other; and it is in these air-cells of the lungs that the dark venous blood, by coming into contact with the oxygen, is converted into arterial. Impure air, therefore, cannot but be prejudicial to the quality of the blood; and in the degree in which the blood is affected, must the body, with all its peculiar functions, be more or less disordered. No one should sleep in a room into which air has no admission, for i is possible that during the night he may exhaust the whole of the vital air necessary for respiration contained in the apart ment, and the consequence must be suffocation. Nor should we leave our sleeping-room in the morning without throwing open the window and allowing a free current to pass through it. Not only is it important to eat food which is wholesome and easy of digestion, but to breathe the freest and the purest air. No one should choose a house in a crowded, confined, and thickly-peopled neighbourhood. The atmosphere of such a neighbourhood is always more or less impure. Every inspi ration which we take, or every breath which we draw, we take a portion of this air into the lungs, and the blood in its pas sage through the lungs so filled, must to a certain extent be come tainted, and may set up disease in the system. Hence the importance of daily exercise in the open air. The farther we can get away from the smoke, and dust, and surcharged atme

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