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from the Nile, or to artificial irrigation. It is doubtful whether more than four hundred years before the exodus of the any other country receives so regular a supply of moisture children of Israel from Egypt, and, therefore, could not be from above. Even the sands of the desert partake largely of unknown in Egypt itself, Those mills were worked by slota the dew of heaven, and in a certain degree of the fatness of the earth. In all this sandy desert, palm-trees are very abundant, and their presence is a never-faising indication of water below the surface. Wheresoever they are found, a brackish and muddy pool may be speedily found by digging a well near the roots. The natives are chiefly engaged in the care of these trees, tying up their blossoms with bands formed of the foliage, to prevent their being torn off, and scattered with the wind."

As the waters of the Nile subsided, they left behind them a species of loam, which so enriched the land, that it required but little tillage, and made Egypt the most fruitful country on the face of the earth. The fact that the Egyptians sometimes ate the Ethiopian plant, known by the name of ENSENTE, whose stalk when boiled, has the taste of the best wheaten bread not perfectly baked, and which, if eaten with milk or butter, is wholesome, nourishing, and easily digested, -or that they at other times did eat the Lotus, or water-lily, whose root, of the size and shape of an apple, is of an agreeable

AN EGYPTIAN MILL. flavour, and the seed of whose flower, which resembles that of the poppy, they baked and made into a kind of bread; shows or the lowest grade of servants. In the East this duty develre that they were dependant on plants for their subsistence on the women. When at Nazareth, our own countryman, It, Agriculture had made considerable progress in the time of Clarke, says." We saw two women grinding at the Joseph, and such was the estimation in which husbandry was seated upon the ground, opposite each other, they held be held among the Egyptians, that the sceptre of the Pharaohs tween them two flat round stones. In the centre of the upper was in the form of a plough. This proves that the plough stone was a cavity for pouring in the corn, and by the tided must have been among the implements which were used this an upright wooden handle for moving the stone. As the in the pursuits of the field. Bo, perhaps, was the sickle, operation began, one of the women with her right hand pushes as it is still found among the ruder tribes of man, made this handle to the woman opposite, who again sent it to her of wood or bone. The field being reaped, the next step was companion, thus communicating a rotatory and very to separate and secure the grain. To effect this, the sheaves motíon to the upper stone, their left hands being all the white were spread out upon a spot of hard and smooth ground employed in supplying fresh corn as fast as the bran and fe in the open air, and oxen or some other animals were made to escaped from the sides of the machine." On reading this tread over the heap for a shorter or longer period of time as who is not reminded of the words of our blessed Saviour, vba might be required. Hence it was that the ox, the laborious in foretelling the impending doom and coming destruetion of companion of man in tilling the ground and in treading out the Jerusalem, he says—"Two women shall be grinding at the corn, was held so sacred, that whoever was guilty of killing mill; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left!" one was punished by death, And hence it is, moreover, that

By what method the Egyptians converted their meel in the figure of this animal, whose services were deemed so bread, we know not, Their bread might consist of a simple

admixture of flour and water, or this four and water migh
be boiled, and thus correspond to the farro of the Italians,
the porridge of the Scotch; or it might be baked into odka
The process of baking was very simple. Having taken
flour and water, with a little salt, and made it into a
this dough was laid in thin cakes on the hearth, covered
with hot
ashes, and allowed

to remain in that state for the time. It was thus that Sarah prepared the bread whit Abraham set before the angels who came to him on an eta of divine love.

Who are the men whom we should hold as the great benefectul
of their race and of the world?
Why is agriculture entitled to the first place among the art!
How was the earth sown after the flood
To what did the Egyptians owe the fertility of their land?
In what way did the overflowing of the Nile benefit the soil?
What proof have we that the Egyptians used the plough?
What other implements of husbandry had they?
How did they

prepare their grain so as to make it fit for us!

Why was the ox held so sacred among that people ? essential to the nourishment and life of man, is so frequently What peculiar homage was paid to this animal? found among the mysterious symbols and sacred engravings

By whom were the mills worked among the Egyptians, and by of that ancient people, and that one of their most famous whom in the East ? temples was dedicated to its worship.

Is there any passage of Scripture which bears on this fact! The grain being thus trodden out, the next process was to

Describe the early process of baking bread. winnow it; which was done either by making a current of air

What proof have we to confirm this to pass over it, or by shaking it in a coarse sieve made of the

For what end did angels visit this our world? filaments of the papyrus plant, or of the most delicate species of rush. It is not unlikely that it was sometimes used with- LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. VIII. out being subjected to any sifting process whatever-that the meal and the bran were eaten together as they are by some

By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D. 'unpolished nations at the present day. The practice of roast

Section XVIII. ing the grain before it is eaten belongs to the earliest times. 1. The relative pronoun, que, whom, which, that, and the The action of the fire served not only to detach the grain conjunction, que, that, are never omitted in French, and me from the husk, but gave to it a very pleasant flavour; and in be repeated before every verb depending on them. (10.) later times, when grinding came into use, it rendered the Les crayons que j'ai sont meilleurs The pencils (elách) Thouse, more like process much more easy. Hand-mills were used in Palestine que ceux que vous ayez.

than those who go for



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2. Ne, before the verb, and que after it, are used in the vate de soie ou ma cravate de mousseline? 8. J'ai l'une et sense of only, but.

l'autre. 9. Avez vous huit kilogrammes de canelle? 10. Non, Je n'ai qu'un ami.

I have but one friend.

Monsieur, je n'en ai qu'un demi kilogramme. 11. Combien de 3. L'un et l'autre, means both ; les uns et les autres, these francs avez vous, Monsieur? 12. Je n'ai qu'un demi franc, and those, the latter and the formor.

mais mon ami a un franc et demi. 13. Ďotre seur a-t-elle

vingt cinq centimes? 14. Oui, Monsieur, elle a un quart de Vous avez l'un et l'autre.

You have both.

franc. 15. N'avons nous pas le premier août? 16. Non, 4, CARDINAL AND ORDINAL NUMBERS AS FAR AS TWENTY, Monsieur, nous avons le six septembre, 17. Est-ce aujourd'hui [$ 22, 23.)

le dix? 18. Non, Monsieur, c'est le onze. 19. Votre frère aCardinal.


t-il la première place? 20. Non, Monsieur, il a la dixième. Un, m, une, 1. One. Premier, m, e, f, First.

21. Votre menuisier a-t-il beaucoup d'outils ? 22. Oui, Moo.

Secoud, m. e, f, Deux,

} Second. Monsieur, il en a beaucoup. 23. Cet ouvrage a-t-il dix Deuxième,

volumes ? 24. Non, Monsieur, il n'en a que neuf. 26. J'ai Trois, Three. Troisième,


le sixième volume des euvres de Molière et le premier volume
Quatrième, Fourth.

de l'histoire de France de Michelet.



1. Is that cinnamon good ? 2. That cinnamon is better than


yours and your brother's (R. 1]. 3. What day of the month Neuf,



is it to-day? 4. It is the sixth. 5. Has your father twenty


francs? 6. No, Sir, he has only six francs fifty centimes. 7.



How many volumes has your work? 8. It has many, it has I reize, Thirteen, Treizième,


fifteen. 9. Has the joiner read (lu) the second volume of Quatorze, Fourteen. Quatorzième, Fourteenth.

Michelet's history of France? 10. Yes, Sir, he has read the Quinze, Fifteen.

Quinzième, Fifteenth. second volume (of it). 11. Has your friend, Molière's works? Seize, Sirteen. Seizième,

Sixteenth. 12. He has only two volumes of them. 13. Have you my Dix-sept, Seventeen. Dix-septième, Seventeenth. cloth coat or my velvet coat? 14. We have both. 15. We Dis-buit, Eighteen.

Dix-huitième, Eighteenth. have this and that. 16. How much cinnamon have you? 17. Dix-neuf, Nineteen. Dix-neuvième, Nineteenth.

We have two kilogrammes. 18. How many centimes has the Vingt, Twenty. Vingtième. Twentieth.

merchant? 19. He has twenty-six. 20. Have you the third 5. The cardinal numbers are used, in French for the day of or the fourth place ? 21. I have neither the third nor the the month, except the first, for which the ordinal number pre-fourth, I have the tenth. 22. Are you not ashamed to-day? mier is substituted :

23. No, Sir, I am not ashamed, but I am atraid. 24. Have Le dix août, le cinq juillet, The tenth of August, the fifth of July. you a quarter of a franc 25. No, Sir, but I hare half a frane. Le premier du mois prochain, The first of next month.

26. Have we the sixth of July! 27. No, Sir, we have the 8. The verb avoir, to have, is used actively ( 26 (1)] for fourth of March. 28. Has your uncle sis children? 29. No, the day of the month. The verb être may also be used :

Sir, he has only one. 30. Have you ten kilogrammes of meat ? Quel jour du mois avons vous ? What day of the month have we?

31. I have only five kilogrammes. 32, Is the butcher's meat Nous avons le vingt. We have the twentieth,

good! 33. It (elle) is not very good. 34. How many kilo. C'est aujourd'hui le dix. To-day is the tenth.

grammes have you (of it)? 36. I have only two, but my 7. Before the word onze, the article le or la is not elided. brother has four.

SECTION XIX. [$ 146.) :Nous avons le onze de décembre, We have lüt is) the tenth of December. ally in French, in the same manner

as the

verb to be is used in

1. For the time of the day, the verb être, is used unipersonRésums or EXAMPLES.

English for the same object. The word heure, sing. heures,

plur, represents the English expressions, o'clock, or time, and L'ouvrier a-t-it les outils que vous Has the workman the tools which you must always be expressed. avez ? have 1

Quelle heure est il ?

What o'clock (time) is it? Les maisons que j'ai sont elles aussi Are the houses which I have as good

Il est une heure,

It is one o'clock. boones que celles que vous avez? as those which you have

Il est dix heures.

It is ten, it is ten o'clock. Combien de francs avez vous ? How many francs have you ? Je n'ai que dix francs, mais mon I have only ten francs, but my brother midnight, or twelve at night. Douze heures is never used excep:

2. Midi is used for twelve o'clock in the day, and minuit, for frère en a plus de ringt. Arons nous le quartorze du mois ? Have we the fifteenth day of the in the sense of twelve hours. month!

Est il midi? Est il minuit? Is it noon? Is it midnight? Non, Monsieur, nous n'avons que le No, Sir, we have only the eleventh. 3. Et quart, et demie ($ 84 (2)], answer to the English ex. onze.

pressions, a quarter, half-past, after, &c. Lequel de ces deux volumes avez Which of those two volumes hrve you ? vous ?

I est neuf heures et quart. It is a quarter after ninc. J'ai l'un et l'autre. I lue both.

Il est midi et demi.

It is half after twelve. Avez vous la première place ou la Have you the first or the second

Il est une heure et demie.

It is half after one. deuxième ? place 1

4. Moins un quart, moins vingt minutes, answer to the J'ai la première, et mon frère a la I have the first, and my brother has English expressions, a quarter before, twenty minutes before, &c, deuxième.

the second.

Il est dix heures moins un quart. It wants a quarter of ten. EXERCISE 35,

Il est neuf heures moins dix minutes. It is ten minutes before nine.

5. The word demi, preceding the word heure, does not vary. Aujourd'hui, to-day. Février, m. February. Outil, m. tool. Canelle, f. cinnamon. Franc, m. franc.

Placed after it, it is variable ($ 84 (2)).

Ouvrage, m work,
Centime, m. centimem Histoire, f. history.

Une demi heure.
Oeuvres, f works.

Half an hour. the 100th part of a Italien, m Italian. Place, f. place.

Une heure et demie.

An hour and a half. frano.

Kilogramme, m. kilo- Quart, m. quarter. 6. The verb avoir is used actively (8 43 (2) (3)) in French Combien, how much, how gramme - about troo Septembre, m. Septem- in speaking of age, and the word an, year, is always expressed.

Quel âge avez vous !

How old are you 1 i.e. What age Cravute, I cravate Menuisier, m. joiner. Volume, m. voluune.

have you? Deini, hall. Mousseline, f. muslin.

J'ai plus de vingt ans.

I am more than twenty. 1. Le cheval que vous avez est il bon ? 2. Il est meilleur 7. Plus de, moins de, are used for more than, less than, before que celui que vous avez et que celui de notre ami. 3. Coinbien a number. d'enfants avez vous ? 4. Je n'en ai qu'un, mais l'Italien en a Avons pour plus de dix mètres de Have we more than ten metres (yards) plus que moi. 5. Avons nous le dix septembre? 6. Non, cette toile d'Hollande ?

of this holland (Holland line): Monsieur, nous avons le neuf février. 7. Ayez vous ma cra- Vous en avez moins de six aunes. You have low than six ells of the


metre a


LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-No. IX. I n'est pas encore deux heures. It is not yet two o'clock.

RULE OF SIMPLE DIVISION. Et il une heure et dernie?

Is it half past one! Il est midi et quart ou midi et demi. It is a quarter or half-past trelre. In commencing the operations required in the rule of simple divi. Il est buit heures moins un quart. i urants a quarter of eight. sion, the student will do well to bear in mind the remarks made on Quel âge votre fils a-t-il ? How old is your son ?

the multiplication table in page 38, No. 3, especially those which Il n'a que dix-huit ans.

He is only eighteen years old. relate to its use in this rule. In commencing the process of divi. Votre beau-frère n'a-t-il pas plus de Is not your brother-in-law more thar. ding any large number by one of the nine digits, it will be of impor. dix-neuf ans ?

nineteen years old

tance to remember the definition of division ; viz., that it is the Ha belle soeur n'a pas moins de My sister in-law is not less than

process by which we find how many times one number is contained dix-huit ans et demi.

eighteen years and a half. Est il plus de dix heures à votre Is it more than ten o'clock by your times 9 is contained in 32768. It would be necessary first to

in another. Suppose, for example, we wished to know how many montre ?

ucatch Il n'est que neuf heures à mon It is only nine by my clock. know how often 9 is contained in the larger part of this numberhorloge.

viz., 32000 (768 being the smaller part); now, on consulting the Votre fils est il plus âgé que le Is your son older than mine! multiplication table, we find on looking down the vertical column, mien ?

having 9 at the top, that 27 is the nearest number to 32, the numIl est plus jeune que le vôtre. He is younger than yours.

ber of thousands, and as 9 is contained 3 times in 27, therefore 9

is contained 3 thousand times in 27 thousand; consequently it is EXERCISE 37.

contained in 32 thousand, 3 thousand times, with 5 thousand over. Agé, -e, old. Cela, that. Jour, m. day.

As this remainder 5000 does not contain 9, one thousand times, Aune, f. ell, Cinquante, fifty Maintenant, nou.

it is evident that we have found how many thousand times 9 is conBeau-frère, m. brother. Cou-in-germain, m. first Mars, m. March.

tained in 32000,-viz., 3 thousand times. Now, the remainder in law.


Métre, Beau-fils, m. son-in-lmo. Enfant, m child, French measure about 5000, being added to the smaller part of the original number, Beau-père, m. father-in- Février, m. February. three French feet.

makes it 5768. It will be necessary in the second place, to know lavo. Horloge, f. clock. Mois, m. month.

how often 9 is contained in the larger part of this number,-viz., Belle-mère, 8 mother-in-Indienne, f. printed Ruban, m ribbon. 5700 (68 being now the staller part of it); on consulting the mul. lau.

Tard, late.

tiplication table, again, we find in the 9's vertical column, that 54 Belle-soeur, f. sister-in- Jeune, young.

Verge, f. yard.

is the nearest number to 57, the number of hundreds, and as 9 is law

contained 6 times in 54, therefore 9 is contained 6 hundred times 1. Votre beau-frère est il plus âgé que le mien? 2. Le in 57 hundred; consequently it is contained in 57 hundred, 6

As this remainder 300 vôtre est plus jeune que le mien. 3. Quel âge a votre belle hundred times, with 3 hundred over. mère ? 4. Elle a près de cinquante ans. 6. Quelle heure est does not contain 9, one hundred times, it is plain that we have il maintenant: 6. n est six heures passées. 7. Etes vous found how many hundred times 9 is contained in 5700,- viz., 6 certain de cela ? 8. Oui, Monsieur, j'en suis certain. 9. Est hundred times. Now, the remainder of 300, being added to the il plus de deux heures à votre montre? 10. Il n'est que midi smaller part of the second number, makes it 368. It will be à ma montre. 11. Avez vous plus de cinq ans, mon enfant ? necessary in the third place, to know how often 9 is con12. Je n'ai pas encore quatre ans. 13. Avez vous plus de tained in the larger part of this number,—viz., 360 (8 being six verges d'indienne? 14, J'en ai moins de trois mètres. now the smaller part of it); on consulting the 9's column of 15. Combien d'aunes de ruban votre beau-père a-t-il ? 16. Il the multiplication table again, we find that 36 the number of n'a guère de ruban, il n'en a qu'une demi-aune. 17. Est il tens is in that column, and that it contains 9 four times; theremidi moins un quart ? 18. Il est plus tard, Monsieur, il est fore 9 is contained in 36 tens, the number of times denoted midi et quart. 19. Quel jour du mois avons nous ? 20. Nous by 4 tens, that is forty times, and there is no remainder. In the avons le six octobre. 21. N'est-ce pas le huit février que...? fourth place, the smaller part of the last number divided, - viz., 22. Non, Madame, c'est le huit mars. 23. Combien de jardins 8, does not contain 9; therefore it is said to contain it 0 time a votre cousin-germain? 24. Il n'en a qu'un, mais il est très and 8 is over. Collecting all the different numbers of times that beau. 25. Il en a plus de dix.

9 is contained in the different parts of the number 32768, in suc.

cession,-viz., 3 thousand times, 6 hundred times, forty times, and EXERCIBE 38.

0 time, or 3640 times in all, we have tbus found how many times 9 1. How old is your brother-in-law? 2. He is fifty years is contained in 32768, and what remainder is over,-- viz., 8. Applyold. 3. Is your sister-in-law older than mine? 4. No, Sir, ing the names given to the different numbers in this operation, the my sister-in-law is young’r than yours. 5. Is your son dividend is 32768, the divisor is 9, the quotient is 3640, and the twenty-five years old 6. No, Madam, he is only sixteen. remainder is 8. As the remainder 8, ought if it could be done, 7. What day of the month have we to-day? 8. We have the to be divided by 9, the unperformed division is denoted by the eleventh. 9. Have you the twentieth volume of Chateaubriand's works! 10. No, Madam, we have the eleventh. 11. expression in accordance with the definitions in page 36, No. What o'clock is it, Sir?' 12. It is only twelve o'clock. . 13. 3. Indeed the expression for the whole operation is the follor. Is it not later! 14. It wants a quarter of one. 15. It is a quarter after five. 16. How many yards of this holland (toile ing :

and this is as convenient a mode of repred' Hollande, f.) have you? 17. I have ten ells and a half. 18. senting the process as any that could be adopted. The general I have six metres of it, and sixteen yards of Italian silk. 19. principle involved in the preceding operation is simply this: that Is your mother-in-law younger than your father-in-law? 20: if a number be divided into its several parts, and if the quotient She is younger than he. 21. Are you twenty years old : 1 of each of these parts divided by another number be found, the 22. No, Sir, I am only nineteen and a half. 23. Are you sure quotient of the former number divided by the latter will be equal to (sür) that it is ten o'clock? 24. Yes, Madame, I am sure of it. the sum of the quotients of its different parts divided by the same. 25. 'Is it twenty minutes of ten ? 26. No, Sir, it is a quarter These considerations and principle are the foundation of the follore before twelve (midi). 27. How many houses have you? 28. ing rule for the division of large numbers by any one of the nine I have only one, but my sister-in-law has two. 29. Have you digits. mine (f.) or yours? 30. I have neither yours nor mine, I have your son-in-law's. 31. Has your mother-in-law five yards of and draw a line under it; place the divisor on the left of the

Rule 1.-Write down the dividend or number to be divided, that printed calico? 32. She has only two yards of it. 33. dividend with a bar or vertical line between them; and place What o'clock is it by (à) your watch? 34. It is half-past the successive figures of the quotient under the line as they are four by my watch. 35. It is more than seven o'clock by found. Find the quotient of the divisor and the number repre. mine (à la mienne).

sented by the first figure ; or, if necessary, the first two figures of The French metre is exactly 39.871 inches Imglish measure : It is the memory, and put it under the line in its proper place, that is

the dividend on the left, by consulting the multiplication table or therefore longer than the English yard by about 34 inches, or more immediately under the place of the rank to which it belongs ; if accurately 3 inches.

millions, under millions; if thousands, under thousands; if bun.







dreds, under hundreds, &c. If there be a remainder, then carry

METROD OF OPERATION. it, (that is, add it) as so many tens to the next figure (considered Here, beginning with 57, the first two figures of the dividend on for the moment, as units)* in the dividend, and find the quotient of the left, as before, the quotient is 7 and remainder 1 ; putting the divisor and this number, in the same manner as before, and down 7, under the line, below the second figure of 57, and carrying put it also in its proper place under the line; if there be a re- 1 to the next figure of the dividend, - viz., 6, you have 16; the mainder in this case also, proceed as before directed, until all the quotient is here 2, and remainder 0; putting down 2, under tko figures of the dividend have been exhausted by this process. But, line, below 6, and having nothing to carry, you proceed to the if there be no remainder over, at any figure of the dividend, then, next figure of the dividend,-viz., 0; the quotient is here 0, which having put down under the line, the quotient belonging to being put down under the line, as before, proceed to the next that figure, find the quotient of the divisor and the number figure of the dividend, -viz., 6; the quotient here is again 0, and rerepresented by the next figure of the dividend, or if neces- mainder 6; putting down 0, under the line, as before, carry 6 to sary the two next figures, as at first ; carefully observing, the next figure of the dividend,-viz., 8, and you have 68 ; the quoChat if two figures are necessary to obtain a quotient, a cipher or tient here is 8, and remainder 4; putting down 8 under the line, O must be placed under the line, immediately below the first of as before, and carrying 4 to the next figure of the dividend, -viz., 0, the two figures in question, to indicate that no part of the quotient you bave 40; the quotient here is 5, and remainder 0; putting is composed of figures belonging to this rank, and to keep the other down 5 under the line, as before, proceed to the next figures of the figures of the quotient in their proper places. Lastly, if there be dividend; the quotients obtained from them in the same wanner as no remainder when all the figures of the dividend have been ex- the preceding, will be 0, 0, 6, and last remainder 1; now these bausted by this process, the quotient is then complete, and the one being put under the line in their proper places, you obtain the number is said to be exactly divisible by the other; that is, the divi- whole number of the quotient,-viz., 720085006, and remainder 1; dend is a multiple of the divisor; it is also said to be a multiple of whence the quotient, in its complete state, is 720085006). the quotient. If there be a remainder, the quotient is incomplete, In this rule, as in the former rules of arithmetic, an abridged and the one number is not exactly divisible by the other ; that is, mode of procedure may be adopted ; thus, in the above example, the dividend is neither a multiple of the divisor, nor of the incom- we have omitted mentioning the divisor, as it is quite understood, plete quotient. To render the quotient complete, it is necessary to and stands before the eye at the commencement of the operation ; annex to it an expression denoting the quotient of the remainder by this in itself is a great saving of time and thought,-viz., the mere the divisor, an expression which is usually called a fraction ; that keeping it before the eye, and working with it without daming it; is, a fragment or part remaining over and above the whole number the next saving would be, merely to name the quotients in sucexpressed by the quotient. Since the quotient in division ALWAYS cession, without naming the figures to be divided ; for all that is to expresses the number of times, that the divisor is contained in the be remembered is the first figure of each ; that is

, the figure to be dividend, if there be a fraction, that is, a fragment or part re- carried, when there are two; as when there is only one, it also maining over in any case, it must be considered as a fraction or stands right before the eye in the course of operation. The student, part of a time; hence, in such cases, the quotient is not complete however, will not be able to avail himself fully of these instructions unless the whole number of times, and the fraction of a time, over till he has perfectly committed to memory the multiplication table, and above that whole number of times, be properly expressed. page 37, No. 3. When he has done so, he will proceed as fol. EXAMPLE 1.--Divide 32768 by 9.

lows: Divisor quotient figures 7, 2, 0, 0, 8, 5, 0, 0, 6; reDivisor 9J 32768 dividend.

mainder ); answer 7200850063 as before. Quotient

EXERCISES ON THE PRECEDING Lesson. 3640-8 remainder.

1. Divide each of the numbers contained in the bottom square on MODE OF OPERATION. Here, beginning with 32 the first two figures of the dividend page 58: No. 4. successively by the nine digits.

2. Divide each of the numbers 101042169 ; 4285714285714; on the left, because the figure 3 does not contain 9, we find the and 76897684321 successively by the nine digits. quotient of 32 by 9 to be 3 times, and 5 remainder ; putting down 3. For students who have learned the Extended Multiplication 3 under the line, below the figure 2 in the dividend, which is its Table, on page 107, No. 7, as far as 12 times 12, this exercise may proper place, as explained above, carry 5 as tens to the next figure be added : Divide the numbers mentioned in the preceding exer7, which makes 57; then the quotient of 37 by 9 is 6 times, and cises by the divisors 10, 11, and 12. 3 remainder; now putting down 6 under the line, below the figure 7 in the dividend, which is its proper place, as explained above, carry 3 as tens to the next figure 6, which makes 36; again the quotient of 36 by 9 is 4 times, and no remainder ; now putting

LESSONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR.–No. VIII. down 6 under the line, below the figure 6 in the dividend, which is

ADJECTIVES. its proper place as explained above, we have nothing to carry to the next figure 8; then the quotient of 8 by 9 is o time, and 8 The word Adjective is taken from the Latin adjicio, to add to. remainder; therefore putting down 0 under the line, below 8 in An adjective, sometimes called an adnoun, is a word added to the dividend, which is its proper place, as explained above, all the nouns to describe them particularly; to point out the nature, profigures of the dividend are now exhausted, and the whole of the perty, or quality of any person, place, or thing; us, for example, quotient is now 3640, and 8 remainder. This quotien is incom- a good man; a large town; a beautiful garden; a fine house. An plete, and therefore it is necessary to express the remainder by the adjective, therefore, cannot stand by itself, but must be used in

connexion with some noun. If you were in the street with a friend, fraction which still indicates the division of 8 by 9, or the and were to say to him, “There goes a good—” and were to add quotient arising from the same. The complete quotient is conse- nothing more, your friend would not know whether you meant a

good man, or a good horse, or a good carriage. And if you were quently 3640-, ; that is, the number 9 is contained in the num. to say, "There goes a man,” your meaning would not be very defi. ber 32768 so many times as this quotient denotes, that is 3640 nite. But if you add the noun man to the adjective good, and say,

" There goes a good man,' he would immediately understand that times and (eight-ninths) of a time, or 3640.-

. times. The

you meant to point out to him some individual eminent for the number 32768 is therefore not exactly divisible by 9, neither is it goodness of his character. Still, as seceral men might be passing a multiple of 9, or of 3640, the incomplete quotient. The term mul- at the same time, he might not know which man you meant ; here tiple is restricted to whole numbers as explained in page 36, you could employ another adjective, and say, " That tall man.” Sup. No. 3.

pose there were two tall men; you might make yourself still better EXAMPLE 2.--Divide 5760680049 by 8.

understood, by saying, “That one in the blue coat." Divisor 8 ) 6760680049 dividend

Adjectives, we repeat, are added to nouns to denote the quality;

as a great general; a happy thought; a good journey ; a bad habit. Quotient 72'085006-1 remainder

Or, to denote the form ; as a square table; a round building; a

long form ; a three-cornered stool. Or, to denote the number, as Because ten units or ones of any rank make only one unit or one of the one man ; the second chapter ; &c. next bigher rank, and tice tersá.

Adjectives are subject to change in form. The mode of spelling




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them, bowever, does not e dergo may change on accoudt of Dumber,

Ctter, ettermost, or farthest

Under, wondermost, o lovcert gender, or case. The changes are for the purpose of separum;

Cpper, tepper mort, or Anghest to the nature of the nous, the meaning continues the same. As

Fore, foremost, or first apple is an apple, and a bouse is a boase, beibe it be large or mail, old or sen.

Some adjectives are derived from bots, and are formed in By comparison, is meant the altering of the quality or quantity, various ways; as, for example: to denote a greater or less degree of either : and tbese alterations

By adding to the Domn; us from hesith, healthy are called degreu of comparison. Of these degrees there are three;

hesten, heerendy the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.

oak, aken The positive is the simple form of the adjective, and expresses


nind mindful the actual quality, without any increase or dimination; as, good,

trousie, troublesome sim, happy, great, hard, short, wide, &c.

childish The comparative expresses an increase or decrease of the quality,

child, childless as, better, sur, happier, grester, harder, shorter, rider, &c. Observe that the adjectives ending in law generally express

The reperistise expresses the quality in the bigbest or lowest want ; as penniless, that is, without a penny.-The termination of possible degree; us, best, wiecti, heppsest, grestest, hardest, skortest, 10, being a contraction of doce, espresses resemblance, or Banner : widest, &c.

when added to nouns. it changes them into adjectives; as, from Press soy of the above adjectives to any nota, and it will be God, godly: or from man, mary; or from hesten, heavenly ; that seen that they denote the presence of the same quality of property, is, godlike, &e. And ly, added to adjectives, changes them into but in ditierent degrees; a three blocks of stobe más all be hard, adverbs; as from piestipul, plentifully; ingenion, ingeniously. but the second may be harder than the first, and the third hardesi

Some adjectives are derived from proper names, either of persons of all. The comparative degree of the adjective is usually formed by Nereton, Neretonien; from Cicero, Ciceronian, &c. These latter

or of countries. Thas from Moses, we get the word Mosaic; from edding, or , or the adverb more to the positive ; or by changing words we apply either to the systems of these celebrated men, or to preceded by a consonant into ier; thus:-

some individual of like spirit; or wbo, in some remarkable respects, Poritise. Comparatire.

resembles them. So from the rord India, we form the word Wiser, or more vise

Indian; from America, American ; from Paris, Parisien; from
Greater, or more great

Norrey, Norwegian, &e.
Harder, or more hard

Every adjective has relation to some noun, either expressed or
Happier, or more happy implied. Thes in the New Testament we read of " the Christians,"

meaning the followers of Christ : or when we speak in general Tbe esperistice degree of the adjective is usually formed by add. terms of the young." or the old," we mean young or old men ; ing it or est, or the advero most to the positive; thus:

or when we say "the lame," " the blind," is the industrious," Porities. Compsrstine.

Superlatice "the idle, " " the righteous," " the wicked, " we mean persons whose Wise Viser, of more wise Wisest, or most wise

characters are of such a description. Great Greater, or more great Greatest, or most great Sometimes the adjective becomes 1 noun, and has an adjective Hard Harder, or more hard Hardest, or most bard joined to it, as, " the chief good," or " Brit be thou my good." In

Happy Happier, or more happy Happiess, or most happy other instances the noun either becomes an adjective, or sopplies Either of the above forms of the superlative may be employed, iand-crab, bar.iron. It adds greatly to the variety and beauty

its place, by being joined to another noun, as, bird-cage, sea-soater, but both the forms, u, more siet, sore harder, most happiest, of language when adjectives are introduced as nouns, as in the must never be used together. When the positive degree ends in a single consonant, preceded good alone can be good."

following sentence :-"Good may be done by the wicked, but the by a single vowel, the consonant is doubled in the comparative and raperlative; as, hot, hotter, hottest. Where there are two vowels, bad child, i habits, &c.; but there are cases in which it is placed

The adjective generally goes before the noun; as, a good man, a tbe consonant is not doubled ; as clear, clearer, clearest. The sgnification of the positive is sometimes lessened by the use as Alexander the Great, or Charles the Bald; or when something

after the noun; for instance, when we wish to speak emphatically, of the termination isk; as cold, coldish ; black, blackish; mild, is made to depend on the adjective, as, " food comrenient for me ;" or mildish, but when the positive ends in e, that letter must be for the sake of greater barmony in a sentence, as, "O goodness omitted; us white, whituh. The positive may be lessened also, by infinite! O power dirine !" placing the words les or least before it ; as, les eslt; least importani. The word rather has nearly the same effect; as, rather cold; rather leading varieties of adjectives thus:

For the value of distinction many grammarians arrange the better. Bat ish and rather, baring the same meaning, ought not to be used in the same sentence; though we often bear persons woman; a ripe orange ; ecil things; learned sirs.

1. Common Adjectices : these simply denote quality; as, a good say improperiy, “'Tu rather coldish;" 03, He's rather wild

2. Possessive Adjectices : these denote possession ; as, my house ; ish." As, however, it is not always possible to express the exact degree

our fatber; your sister ; his brother. of quality by any one of the three degrees of comparison, certain precise thing to which they relate. Of this class are this and that,

3. Demonstrative, or definitire adjectires : these point out the adverbs are employed to denote it more precisely: Thus we say, with their plurals these and those ; former and latter; and sometimes much good way it do you; I am very well; this is by far the the indefinite adjectives, one and other, and another; also, you and best; you are ton particular, &c. The word rather, noticed in yonder. As, for example :the preceding paragraph, is of this class. The words, a little, are also employed for the same purpose ; as, He is a little better.

“ Body and soul must part; Some adjectives are compared irregularly, by a partial or total

This wings its way to its Almighty source; change of the positive; thus :

That drops into the dark and noisome grave."

" Warnings point out danger; gnomonse time; Prettire. Comparative.


As these are useful when the sun is set,

So there, but when more glorious reason shines."


" The coolness of the former was a check to the ardour of the

latter." " The one daughter vanquished by a single blow; the

Nearest, or next other by efforts successively repeated." ." In yon cool grot reclin01d

Oider, or elder Oldest, or eldest ing." "In yonder grave a Druid lies."

Latest, or last 4. Indefinite adjectives : these express the subject in a general or Sometimes the comparative of late is written latter : the letter indeterminate manner. Of this kind are the words some, other, of two refers either to time or place ; later to time only.

any, one, all, stch. Of these adjectives, two only admit of being In some words the superlative is formed by adding the word mout to the end of them; 28:

Gnomon. An indes; the pin or hand, the shadow of which points out

the hour on a sundial.

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