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1. Wotre beau-frere est il plus àgé que le mien? 2. Le vötre est plus jeune que le mien. 3. Quel age a votre bellemere? 4. Elle après de cinquante ans. 5. Quelle heure est il maintenant? 6. Il est six heures passées. 7. Etes vous certain de cela; 8. Oui, Monsieur, j'en suis certain. 9. Est il plus de deux heures d votre montre? 10. Il n'est que midi a ma montre. 11. Avez vous plus de cinq ans, mon enfant? 12. Je n'ai encore quatre ans. 13. Avez vous plus de six verges d'indienne? I4. J'en ai moins de trois metres. 15. Combien d'aunes de ruban votre beau-pere a-t-il? 16. Il n'a guère de ruban, il n'en a qu'une demi-aune. 17. Estil midi moins un quart 18. Il est plus tard, Monsieur, il est midi et quart. 19. Quel jour du moisavons nous? .. 20. Nous avons le six octobre. 21. N'est-ce pas le huit février que...? 22. Non, Madame, c'est le huit mars. 23. Combien de jardins a votre cousin-germain 24. Il n'en a qu'un, mais illest très beau. 25. Il en a plus de dix. ExERCISE 38. 1. How old is your brother-in-law 2. He is o years old. 3. Is your sister-in-law older than mine?_4. No, Sir, my sister-in-law is younger than yours. 5. Is your son twenty-five years old? 6. No, Madam, he is only sixteen. 7. t day of the month have we to-day? 8. We have the eleventh. 9. Have you the twentieth volume of Chateaubriand's works 10. No, Madam, we have the eleventh. 11. What o'clock is it, Sir? 12. It is only twelve o'clock. 13. Is it not later? 14. It wants a quarter of one. 15. It is a quarter after five. 16. How many yards of this holland (toile d'Hollande, f.) have you? 17. I have ten ells and a half. 18. I have six metres of it, and sixteen yards of Italian silk. 19. Is your mother-in-law song. than your father-in-law 20. She is younger than he. 21. Are you twenty years old? 22. No, Sir, fin only nineteen and a half. 23. Are you sure o that it is ten o'clock? 24. Yes, Madame, I am sure of it. 5. Is it twenty minutes of ten ? 26. No, Sir, it is a quarter before twelve (midi). 27. How many houses have you ? 28. I have only one, but my sister-in-law has two. 29. Have you mine (f) or yours? 30. I have neither yours nor mine, I have your son-in-law's. 31. Has your mother-in-law five yards of that printed calico?. 32. She has . two yards of it. 33. What o'clock is it by (a) your watch? 34. It is half-past four by my watch. 35. It is more than seven o'clock by mine (à la mienne).
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.—No. IX. RULE OF SIMPLE DIVISION. IN commencing the operations required in the rule of simple division, the student will do well to bear in mind the remarks made on the multiplication table in page 38, No. 3, especially those which relate to its use in this rule. In commencing the process of dividing any large number by one of the nine digits, it will be of importance to remember the definition of division; viz., that it is the process by which we find how many times one number is contained in another. Suppose, for example, we wished to know how many times 9 is contained in 32768. It would be necessary first to know how often 9 is contained in the larger part of this number— viz., 32000 (768 being the smaller part); now, on consulting the multiplication table, we find on looking down the vertical column, having 9 at the top, that 27 is the nearest number to 32, the number of thousands, and as 9 is contained 3 times in 27, therefore 9 is contained 3 thousand times in 27 thousand; consequently it is contained in 32 thousand, 3 thousand times, with 5 thousand over. As this remainder 5000 does not contain 9, one thousand times, it is evident that we have found how many thousand times 9 is contained in 32000,—viz., 3 thousand times. Now, the remainder 5000, being added to the smaller part of the original number, makes it 5768. It will be necessary in the second place, to know how often 9 is contained in the larger part of this number,-viz., 5700 (68 being now the smaller part of it); on consulting the multiplication table, again, we find in the 9's vertical column, that 54 is the nearest number to 57, the number of hundreds, and as 9 is contained 6 times in 54, therefore 9 is contained 6 hundred times in 57 hundred; consequently it is contained in 57 hundred, 6 hundred times, with 3 hundred over. As this remainder 300 does not contain 9, one hundred times, it is plain that we have found how many hundred times 9 is contained in 5700,—viz., 6 hundred times. Now, the remainder of 300, being added to the smaller part of the second number, makes it 368. It will be necessary in the third place, to know how often 9 is contained in the larger part of this number, viz., 360 (8 being now the smaller part of it); on consulting the 9's column of the multiplication table again, we find that 36 the number of tens is in that column, and that it contains 9 four times; therefore 9 is contained in 36 tens, the number of times denoted by 4 tens, that is forty times, and there is no remainder. In the fourth place, the smaller part of the last number divided,—viz., 8, does not contain 9; therefore it is said to contain it 0 time and 8 is over. Collecting all the different numbers of times that 9 is contained in the different parts of the number 32768, in succession,-viz., 3 thousand times, 6 hundred times, forty times, and 0 time, or 3640 times in all, we have thus found how many times 9 is contained in 32768, and what remainder is over, viz.,8. Applying the names given to the different numbers in this operation, the dividend is 32768, the divisor is 9, the quotient is 3640, and the remainder is 8. As the remainder 8, ought if it could be done, to be divided by 9, the unperformed division is denoted by the
8 expression T in accordance with the definitions in page 36, No. 3. - -o-o: 8 - ing : **=3340; and this is as gonvenient a mode of repre
Indeed the expression for the whole operation is the follow
senting the process as any that could be adopted. The general principle involved in the preceding operation is simply this: that is a number be divided into its several parts, and if the quotient of each of these parts divided by another number be found, the quotient of the former number divided by the latter will be equal to the sum of the quotients of its different parts divided by the same. These considerations and principle are the foundation of the following rule for the division of large numbers by any one of the nine
Rule 1.-Write down the dividend or number to be divided, and draw a line under it; place the divisor on the left of the dividend with a bar or vertical line between them; and place the successive figures of the quotient under the line as they are found. . Find the quotient of the divisor and the number represented by the first figure; or, if necessary, the first two figures of the dividend on the left, by consulting the multiplication table or the memory, and put it under the line in its proper place, that is immediately under the place of the rank to which it belongs; if millions, under millions; if the usands, under thousands; if hundreds, under hundreds, &c. If there be a remainder, then carry it, (that is, add it) as so many tens to the next figure (considered for the moment, as units)" in the dividend, and find the quotient of the divisor and this number, in the same manner as before, and put it also in its proper place under the line; if there be a remainder in this case also, proceed as before directed, until all the figures of the dividend have been exhausted by this process. But, if there be no remainder over, at any figure of the dividend, then, having put down under the line, the quotient belonging to that figure, find the quotient of the divisor and the number represented by the next figure of the dividend, or if necessary the two next figures, as at first; carefully observing, that if two figures are necessary to obtain a quotient, a cipher or 0 must be placed under the line, immediately below the first of the two figures in question, to indicate that no part of the quotient is composed of figures belonging to this rank, and to keep the other figures of the quotient in their proper places. Lastly, if there be no remainder when all the figures of the dividend have been exhausted by this process, the quotient is then complete, and the one number is said to be exactly divisible by the other; that is, the dividend is a multiple of the divisor; it is also said to be a multiple of the quotient. If there be a remainder, the quotient is incomplete, and the one number is not exactly divisible by the other; that is, the dividend is neither a multiple of the divisor, nor of the incomplete quotient. To render the quotient complete, it is necessary to annex to it an expression denoting the quotient of the remainder by the divisor, an expression which is usually called a fraction; that is, a fragment or part remaining over and above the whole number expressed by the quotient. Since the quotient in division ALways expresses the number of times, that the divisor is contained in the dividend, if there be a fraction, that is, a fragment or part remaining over in any case, it must be considered as a fraction or part of a time; hence, in such cases, the quotient is not complete unless the whole number of times, and the fraction of a time, over and above that whole number of times, be properly expressed. ExAMPLE 1.-Divide 32768 by 9. Divisor 9J 32768 dividend.
Quotient 3640–8 remainder.
MoDE or OPERAtron.
Here, beginning with 32 the first two figures of the dividend on the left, because the figure 3 does not contain 9, we find the quotient of 32 by 9 to be 3 times, and 5 remainder ; putting down 3 under the line, below the figure 2 in the dividend, which is its proper place, as explained above, carry 5 as tens to the next figure 7, which makes 57; then the quotient of 57 by 9 is 6 times, and 3 remainder; now putting down 6 under the line, below the figure 7 in the dividend, which is its proper place, as explained above, carry 3 as tens to the next figure 6, which makes 36; again the quotient of 36 by 9 is 4 times, and no remainder; now putting down 6 under the line, below the figure 6 in the dividend, which is its proper place as explained above, we have nothing to carry to the next figure 8; then the quotient of 8 by 9 is 0 time, and 8 remainder; therefore putting down 0 under the line, below 8 in the dividend, which is its proper place, as explained above, all the figures of the dividend are now exhausted, and the whole of the quotient is now 3640, and 8 remainder. This quotien is incomplete, and therefore it is necessary to express the remainder by the
fraction * which still indicates the division of 8 by 9, or the quotient arising from the same. The complete quotient is consequently 36.0% ; that is, the number 9 is contained in the number 32768 so many times as this quotient denotes, that is 3640 The
number 327 68 is therefore not exactly divisible by 9, neither is it a multiple of 9, or of 3640, the incomplete quotient. The term multiple is restricted to whole numbers as explained in page 36, No. 3. Example 2. —Divide 5760680049 by 8. Divisor 8.J 5760680049 dividend
Quotient 720085006–1 remainder
* Beeause ten units or ones of any rank make only one unit or one of the next bigher rank, and rice tersá.
METHod or OPERATIon.
Here, beginning with 57, the first two figures of the dividend on the left, as before; the quotient is 7 and remainder 1; putting down 7, under the line, below the second figure of 57, and carrying 1 to the next figure of the dividend,-viz., 6, you have 16; the quotient is here 2, and remainder 0; putting down 2, under the line, below 6, and having nothing to carry, you proceed to the next figure of the dividend,-viz., 0; the quotient is here 0, which being put down, under the line, as before, proceed to the next figure of the dividend,—viz.,6; the quotient here is again 0, and remainder 6; putting down 0, under the line, as before, carry 6 to the next figure of the dividend,-viz., 8, and you have 68; the quotient here is 8, and remainder 4; putting down 8 under the fine, as before, and carrying 4 to the next figure of the dividend,-viz., 0, you have 40; the quotient here is 5, and remainder 0; putting down 5 under the line, as before, proceed to the next figures of the dividend; the quotients obtained from them in the same manner as the preceding, will be 0, 0, 6, and last remainder l; now these being put under the line in their proper places, you obtain the whole number of the quotient, viz., 720085006, and remainder l; whence the quotient, in its complete state, is 720085006).
In this rule, as in the former rules of arithmetic, an abridged mode of procedure may be adopted; thus, in the above example, we have omitted mentioning the divisor, as it is quite understood, and stands before the eye at the commencement of the operation; this in itself is a great saving of time and thought, viz., the mere keeping it before the eye, and working with it without naming it; the next saving would be, merely to name the quotients in succession, without naming the figures to be divided; for all that is to be remembered is the first figure of each; that is, the figure to be carried, when there are two; as when there is only one, it also stands right before the eye in the course of operation. The student, however, will not be able to avail himself fully of these instructions till he has perfectly committed to memory the multiplication table, page 37, No. 3. When he has done so, he will proceed as follows: Divisor 8, quotient figures 7, 2, 0, 0, 8, 5, 0, 0, 6; remainder l ; answer 720085006§ as before.
ExERcises on THE PREcEDING Lesson.
I. Divide each of the numbers contained in the bottom square on page 58, No.4, successively by the nine digits.
2. Divide each of the numbers 10.1042169; 4285714285714; and 76897684321 successively by the nine digits.
3. For students who have learned the Extended Multiplication Table, on page 107, No. 7, as far as 12 times 12, this exercise may be added: Divide the numbers mentioned in the preceding exercises by the divisors 10, 11, and 12.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR.—No. VIII. ADJECTIVES.
The word Adjective is taken from the Latin adjicio, to add to. An adjective, sometimes called an adnoun, is a word added to nouns to describe them particularly; to point out the nature, property, or quality of any person, place, or thing; as, for example, a good man; a large town; a beautiful garden; a fine house. An adjective, therefore, cannot stand by itself, but must be used in connexion with some noun. If you were in the street with a friend, and were to say to him, “There goes a good—" and were to add nothing more, your friend would not know whether you meant a good man, or a good horse, or a good carriage. And if you were to say, “There goes a man,” your meaning would not be very definite. But if you add the noun man to the adjective good, and say, “There goes a good man,” he would immediately understand that you meant to point out to him some individual eminent for the goodness of his character. Still, as several men might be passing at the same time, he might not know which man you meant; here you could employ another adjective, and say, “Thattallman.” Suppose there were two tall men; you might make yourself still better understood, by saying, “That one in the blue coat." Adjectives, we repeat, are added to nouns to denote the quality; as a great general; a happy thought; a good journey; a bad habit. Or, to denote the form; as a square table; a round building; a long form; a three-cornered stool. Or, to denote the number, as
one man; the second chapter; &c. Adjectives are subject to change in form. The mode of spelling them, however, does not undergo any change on account of number, gender, or case. The changes are for the purpose of **** * to the nature of the noun, the meaning continues the same. An apple is an apple, and a house is a house, whether it be large or small, old or new. By *parison, is meant the altering of the quality or quantity, to denote a greater or less degree of either; and these alterations are called degrees of a parison. Of these degrees there are three; the positive, the comparative, and the superiative. The posities is the simple form of the adjective, and expresses the actual quality, without any increase or dimination; as, good. scies, happy, great, hard, short, wide, &c. - an increase or decrease of the quality, *:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: expresses :----- hoopoest, greatest, hardest, shortest, - &c. *::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: the presence sa-e ity or property, ; as three blocks of stone may all be hard, may be harder than the first, and the third hardest
all. The comparative degree of the adjective is usually formed by adding rarer, or the adverb more to the positive; or by changing preceded by a consonant into ier; thus:
The superiative degree of the adjective is usually formed by adding storest, or the adverb most to the positive; thus:–
Wise Wiser, or more wise Wisest, or most wise Great Greater, or more great Greatest, or most great Hard Harder, or more hard Hardest, or most hard Happy Happier, or more happy Happiest, or most happy
Either of the above forms of the superlative may be employed, but both the forms, as, more tower, more harder, most happiest, must never be used together.
When the positive degree ends in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, the consonant is doubled in the comparative and superiative; as, hot, hotter, hottest. Where there are two vowels, the consonant is not doubled; as clear, clearer, eledress.
The signification of the positive is sometimes lessened by the use of the termination ish; as cold, caldish; black, blackish; mild, mildish; but when the positive ends in e, that letter must be omitted; as white, whitish. The positive may be lessened also, by placing the words lessor leartbeforeit; as, less cold; least important. The word rather has nearly the same effect; as, rather cold; rather better. But ink and rather, having the same moaning, ought not to be used in the same sentence; though we often hear persons say improperly, “’To rather coldish;” or, “He’s rather wild
isk.” As, however, it is not ..I. to express the exact degree of a quality by any one of the degrees of comparison, certain
adveros are employed to denote it more precisely. Thus we say, much good may it do you; I am tery well; this is by far the best; you are too particular, &c. The word rather, noticed in the preceding paragraph, is of this class. The words, a little, are also employed for the same purpose; as, He is a little better. Some adjectives are compared irregularly, by a partial or total change of the positive; thus:–
Good Better Best
Bad Worse Worst
Little Less Least
Much More Most
Near Nearer Nearest, or next Old Older, or elder Oldest, or eldest Late Later Latest, or last
Sometimes the comparative of late is written latter: the latter of two refers either to time or place; later to time only.
In some words the superlative is formed by adding the word most to the end of them; as:
adjectives ending in law generally express want; aspeaniless, that is, oritheat spe-y.—The termination of ly, being a contraction of like, expresses resemblance, or manner: when added to nouns, it changes them into adjectives; as, from God, godly; or from -., -say; or from Mesren, heavenly; that is, godlike, &c. Andy, added to adjectives, changes them into adverbs; as from Piratyus, - ; ingenious, ingeniously, Some adjectives are derived from proper names, either of persons or of countries. Thus from Moses, we get the word Mosaic; from Ne-ton, Ne-to-is-i from Cheere, Ciceronian, &c. These latter words we apply either to the systems of these celebrated men, or to some individual of like spirit; or who, in some remarkable respects, resembles them. So from the word India, we form the word Indian; from Aneries, 4-trican; from Paris, Parisian; from Norway, Norwegian, &c. Every adjective has relation to some noun, either expressed or implied. Thus in the New Testament weread of “the Christians,” meaning the followers of Christi or when we speak in general terms of “the young,” or “the old," we mean young or old men; or when we say “the lame,” “the blind,” “the industrious,” “the idle,” “the righteous,” “the wieked,” we mean persons whose characters are of such a description. Sometimes the adjective becomes amoun, and has an adjective joined to it, as, “the chief good," or “Evil be thow my good." In other instances the noun either becomes an adjective, or supplies its place, by being joined to another noun, as, Bird-cage, sea-water, land-crab, bar-iron. It adds greatly to the variety and beauty of language when adjectives are introduced as nouns, as in the following sentence;—“Good may be done by the wicked, but the good alone can be good." The adjective generally goes before the noun; as, a good man, a bad child, ill habits, &c.; but there are cases in which it is placed after the noun; for instance, when we wish to speak emphatically, as Alexander the Great, or Charles the Bald; or when something is made to depend on the adjective, as, “food entenient forme;" or for the sake of greater harmony in a sentence, as, "O goodness infinite! O power divine!” For the value of distinction many grammarians arrange the leading varieties of adjectives thus:– 1. Common Adjectives: these simply denote quality; as, a good woman; a ripe orange; evil things; learned sirs. 2. Possessive Adjectices: these denote possession; as, my house; our father; your sister; his brother. 3. Demonstrative, or definitive adjectives: these point out the precise thing to which relate. Of this class are this and that, with their plurals these and those; former and latter; and sometimes the indefinite adjectives, one and other, and another; also, you and yonder. As, for example:“Body and soul must part; This wings its way to its Almighty source; That drops into the dark and noisome grave." “Warnings point out danger; gnomons" time; As these are useful when the sun is set, So those, but when more glorious reason shines.”
“The coolness of the former was a check to the ardour of the latter.” “The one daughter vanquished by a single blow; the other by efforts successively repeated.” “In yon cool grot reclining.” “In yonder grave a Druid lies.”
4. Indefinite adjectices : these express the subject in a general or indeterminate manner. Of this kind are the words some, other, any, one, all, such. Of these adjectives, two only admit of being
• Gnomon. An index; the pin or hand, the shadow of which points out the hour on a sundial.
varied; one takes the possessive case; as, one, one's; other is thus declined:
- - Plural. Nominative Other Others Possessive Other's Others' Objective Other Others
The plural others represents both the adjective and the noun; as,
“Be you to others just and true
Here others means other persons. 5. Distributive Adjectives: these denote several persons or things individually. In this class are the words each, every, either, neither. Each and every refer simply to all the persons of any number; as, “Each domestic was satisfied, for every guest was liberal.” Either implies one or the other of two only; as, “We must take either this road or that, for there are but two.” Neither means not either; as, “Two accounts of the affair have been given, but perhaps neither of them is right.” 6. Wumeral Adjectives: these denote something relating to number in the object or objects spoken of; as, three volumes, many persons, the seeond part, the fourteenth chapter. Numeral adjectives are either cARDINAL, as one, two, ten, fifty, a hundred; or onnis Al, as first, third, twentieth, hundredth; or INDEFINote, as a, an, any, all, every, many, some, several, few, only, no, both, each, &c. There are other numeral adjectives which do not belong to either of these classes, though they express numbers definitely; as, double, triple, threefold, a hundredfold. 7. Pronominal or pronoun adjectives: these relate to profession or property; they are, my, thy, his, her, our, your, their ; from the pronouns, I, thou, he, she, it, we, you, they. 8. Verbal or participial adjectives: this is the name given to verbs ending in ing or ed, and some others; as, a learned youth, a running brook, a broken window; a pleasing picture, &c. QUESTIONs on THE FoEEGoING LEsson. What is an adjective Can an adjective stand by itself Aresdjectives subject to change inform 2 In what way are adjectives changed in form 2 What is expressed by degrees of comparison? The positive * The comparative * The superlative 2 l o: comparative be “wiser,” what are the positive and superative What is the effect of the termination “ish” on the positive? Why are adverbs sometimes employed to express degree ? Are an adjectives compared regularly Give an instance of irregular comparison. What is the effect of adding “most” to words r Are adjectives ever derived from nouns? If so, in what way are they formed? Are there any cases in which adjectives become nouns Does an adjective always go before a noun? Why is an adjective sometimes placed after a noun? How do grammarians class the leading varieties of adjectives 2 Give a specimen of the common adjective; of the possessive; of the demonstrative; of the indefinite; of the distributive; of the numeral, cardinal, and ordinal; of the pronominal; of the verbal.
HINTS TO SOME READERS.
PERsevenance is a virtue, essential to the man who wishes to pass the limit of mediocrity. The victory is not always gained by the strong; the constant and persevering, though possessed of little or no talent, have often in the race of human life overtaken the more fortunate by birth and education, and like the tortoise in the fable, outstript them while asleep. Ordinary men, as an excuse for not attempting great things, declare that they have not the necessary abilities, instead of tryiug what they can do with the abilities they possess. This excuse is made so often, that I believe instances may be found in every town and village in Great Britain. It may be useful to relate for the benefit of such, the following anecdote:—I was acquainted when young, with a tall, awkward-looking lad of about 17 years of age, who could not read the alphabet; he was of extremely poor parentage, and having no regular employment, it seemed as if his hopes of worldly success, were very small. He formed an intimacy, however, with a person who could read and write a little, and after some time, he wished that person to teach him to read. His wish was complied with: and this tall awkward had at last became a merchant, had a warehouse of his own, and did a very good trade in Manchester goods. After he had learnt to read, he taught himself writing and arithmetic, got employment, and speedily emerged from his original obscurity into his present position. He was entirely unassisted, and totally dependent on his own resources, from
beginning to end. . Although this is the most remarkable, yet it is not the only case which has come under my own observation; and there has no doubt been many such cases, which were never particularly noticed by any one. But although many men have a disposition to push themselves forward in the world, they will not use the means; they stand discontentedly watching the vigorous operations of some of their fellows, and refuse to give themselves the slightest inconvenience; whereas if they only followed their example, they might soon obtain all that they want, and probably reap an harvest of reward far above what they sought. Every man may exert himself to the utmost, in his own particular trade or profession, if he chooses, I say, abandon without scruple or hesitation, every habit, association, or place of resort, which your con science tells you is evil and degrading; do not stop to make fine distinctions to suit your taste, but abandon all; form good habits, study your business as far as it can be studied; employ all your leisure in reading and writing, or in profitable and invigorating exercise; rise early, and retire to rest before the approach of midnight, and you will find ere long, that you are reaping the benefits of perseverance in good resolutions. The head which you formerly laid down in pain and restlessness on your pillow, will be free from excitement and feverish aches i your body, formerly kept in a state of continual weariness or disease, will be a source of pleasure from the enjoyment of vigorou. bralth , and your prospects, which were formerly darkened to the view, will gradually brighten up, infusing fresh life into your veins, and cheering you to still further exertions, which will undoubtedly be amply recompensed. Solomon says, “the hand of the diligent maketh rich,” and “the hand of the diligent shall bear rule;" but to the listless, the dissipated and the inactive, he says, “thy poverty shall come upon thee as an armed man,” and “the slothful roasteth not the meat which he took in hunting "orin other words, the good designs which he conceives, will wanish when they are not put in execution, and others who have picked them up, will profit by them. Perseverance is an imperative duty and an exquisite pleasure: selfdenial and action alone are wanted, and when exercised, they will infallibly be rewarded. A poet says, “Intrepid virtue triumphs over fate, The good can never be unfortunate; And be this maxim graven in thy mind,
The height of virtue is, to serve mankind." F. W.
LIVES AND Works of THE PAINTERs or ALL NATIons.—On July the 1st, John CASSELL will publish the first part of a magnificent work, in imperial quarto, under the above title. Many years have been already devoted to a preparation for this work, the publication of which has been commenced most successfully in France. Drawing have been made, and exquisite engravings have been executed, by the first artists, under the superintendence of that distinguished connoisseur, M. ARMENGAUD, of Paris. Popular memoirs of the Painters, accompanied with notes of a more special and technical nature, have been prepared, in the intervals of his official labours, by M. CHARLEs BLANC, late Director-inchief of the Gallery of the Louvre at Paris. These memoirs will be translated by Mr. PETER BERLYN. The general editorship will be intrusted to Mr. M. Digby WYATT, architect. Each Monthly Part will consist of sixteen pages of letter-press, with numerous illustrations inserted in the type, together with several finished and separate engraviñgs on wood, and will appear on the first of every month, at 2s. each, and will be supplied through every bookseller in town or country. THE ILLUSTRATED Exhip ITOR AND MAGAZINE of ART —The First Volume of this splendidly embellished work, handsomely bound, price 6s. 6d., or extra cloth gilt edges, 7s. 8d., will be ready July 1, and will contain upwards of Two Hundred Principal Engravings, and an equal number of Minor Engravings, Diagrams, &c. The literary matter will be of the most varied and interesting description, and the volume, considering the enormous cost of its production, will certainly be one of the cheapest ever issued from the press, The EMIGRANT'S HANDBook, a Guide to the Various Fields of Emigration in all Parts of the Globe, is now ready, price 6d. CoMPLETION OF JOHN CASSELL's LIBRARY.-This invaluableWork is now complete, in 25 Volumes, 7d. each in paper covers; double Volumes, cloth, 1s. 0d., on when 3 Wols. in 1, 2s. 8d. The entire Series may be had, bound in cloth, 19s, or arranged in a Library Box, 25s.Contents-HIsroR1cal Works :-The History of England. By Dr. R. Ferguson, 4 vols. History of Scotland. By Dr. R. Ferguson. 3 vols. History of Ireland. 3 vols. The History and Sources of the Greatness of the British Empire. By Benjamin Parsons. 1 vol. The History of France. 3 vols. ScrenTrric Wonks :-The Natural History of Man. By J. Kennedy. 2 vols. The Wonders of the Heavens. By F. S. Williams. 1 vol. The History of the Steam-Engine. By Professor Wallace. 1 vol. Voyages and TRAvels:-Sallings over the Globe. 2 vols. Footprints of Travellers in Europe, Asia, Africa, and
America. 2 vols.
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A-to-oes.--It has been established, by recent observations, that a few hours after incubation commences, a blood vessel issues from each side of the embryo, and branches into numerous smaller ones, which unite at their termination, and become a boundary on the covering of the yolk. The chick is the centre of this network of vessels, and as it increases so do they multiply, until they nearly pervade the membrane of the yours the vessels carry the yolk into the body of the chick; and thus there is a supply for its sustenance and growth. The yolk is therefore, the oxi, and not the sore of the chicken.
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