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LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-No. I.

nation. Hence grammar is a science of imitation. The grammarian, like the sculptor, takes a model, and having

[In compliance with the wishes and suggestions of a numerous studied its parts and qualities, endeavours to reproduce the class of readers, who are anxious to make themselves perfect whole. Authority, in consequence, is the great principie in the English tongue, by combining the study of English recognised in grammar. The authority of such ́men ́s Grammar with that of English Composition and English Macaulay, Mackintosh, Addison, Dryden, Shakspeare, is, in Literature, we have made an important change in our plan. grammar, paramount and supreme. What they do we must These different branches will now be united under one head, follow, and we must follow it because it is their practice. so that they may be more easily and speedily learned together Their words, their forms of speech, their constructions must than they could be apart. The care of this combined depart- be ours. They are our masters, we their scholars. They give ment has been committed to Dr. Beard, as will appear by his laws, we obey the laws they give. Scarcely less than imfirst lesson, which follows this announcement. We have no plicit and unqualified ought the obedience to be; for grammar doubt that our students will derive from these Lessons as merely declares what is customary, and what is customary in much benefit with regard to the English language as they a language is known by what is customary among its best have hitherto done with regard to the Latin. In future, writers. therefore, the Lessons on English Grammar, in a separate form, will be discontinued.]

Yet some degree of latitude may be permitted. Grammar, as the science of language depends upon the laws of thought. Now the laws of thought, which find their systematic expression in what is termed logic, are a compact and consistent whole. In every such whole, principles are found and a certain harmony prevas. Consequently in grammar, which in some sense is the mirror of a language, there exist principles and harmony. It is conceivable that the discovery and the observance of those principles may be gradual. ff so, well as Shakspeare wrote, Macaulay may write better in regard to grammar. But if improvement is possible, the use of reasoning, by which all improvements are made, is not banished from the science of grammar. Even in this science of imitation, then, obedience must not be blind and passive. Regard to amelioration may be combined with alle giance. We may attempt to improve what we imitate. We may aim at an ideal perfection. Imbibing the spirit of the great masters of our language, we may yield to the impulse which urged them forward in pursuit of unlimited excellence. Nevertheless, we must keep close by their side. In our loftiest aspirations we must keep our feet firmly set on the solid earth. We cannot wisely attempt to improve usage unless under the teachings of analogy. First, we must ask, “What is customary?" Having clearly ascertained what is customary, we may entertain the question, "What ought the usage to be?" And, in attempting to answer that question, the specific laws and capabilities of the language, as well as the general laws of thought and utterance, must be consulted. The neglect of usage occasions all manner of imaginary laws and fanciful constructions. The neglect of logic perpetuates the mistakes and short-comings of past ages. It is only in the union of the two that the perfect grammarian is found; and in such a union as secures for both usage and logic their proper share of observance. Usage, however, is the sovereign power in language; logic has only a small and subordinate province.

A MANUAL OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND
LITERATURE,

COMPRISING AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH COMPOSITION.
By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D.

ABOUT to write a series of lessons in English, I think it desir-
able to let the readers of the POPULAR EDUCATOR know what
they may expect. In general, then, I intend to exhibit the
facts of the language and the productions of the language.
The facts of the language, if systematically presented, will
involve the laws of the language; and the productions of the
language, historically treated, will comprise the literature of
the language. The facts of the language and the productions
of the language thus regarded, will obviously lead the careful
student to a knowledge of the language. Nor without both
the facts and the productions can any one possess an acquaint-
ance with the language. A knowledge of any language im-
plies a familiarity with its literature, and a familiarity with
the facts or laws of its construction. You cannot have the
one without the other, any more than you can know the prin-
ciples of Grecian art, unless you have studied its master-
pieces. Apart from the literature of a language, you cannot
know its grammar; apart from the grammar of a language
you cannot know its literature. The literature of a language
is the organic life, whose laws grammar has to learn and ex-
pound. The grammar of a language is merely a systematic
exposition of the laws observed in the composition of its litera-
ture. Hence you see that an acquaintance with the literature
of a language should precede the study of its grammar. Indeed
the productions of a language are earlier than its grammar.
Men pronounced sentences, delivered speeches, composed and
Bang poems, long before they had any idea of the rules of which
grammar is made up. First was the thought; then came the
utterance, and out of many utterances at last grew the science
of grammar. Grammar has no other function than to learn
and set forth the laws of a language, which have been already
observed by some great writer or great writers. Long poste-
rior to Homer was the criticism which in Greece gave birth
to grammar.
The knowledge of the grammar of a language, then, does
not involve a knowledge of the language itself. Still less are
the two identical. Grammar is only one branch of the tree.
Important as grammar is, it is scarcely the most important of
the branches which combine to form the knowledge of a lan-
Grammar is only a means to an end. It is a path-
guage.
way to the temple. The temple itself is the treasure of great
thoughts which constitutes the literature, and which we have
termed the productions of a language. It is for this treasure
that a language is worth the labour of study; and in regard
to literary treasures, no language will repay attention more
fully than the English.

Disregard to these fundamental principles has occasioned numerous failings and errors.

From what has been said, it is also clear that the grammar of a language is to be learnt in its literature. Grammar is no arbitrary thing. Its rules are not inventions. Its forms are not optional. They are both merely general statements of facts facts sacer sized by the careful perusal of what we term classical authors; that is, authors of high and universai repuse. The office of grammar is to make a systemumise report of the wages observed in writing by the great unda of a aj

Lindley Murray, Blair, Cobbett, possessing each many excellences, have more or less failed to expound, as they really exist, the facts of the English language, and given rules as well as sanctioned forms of speech which have no other source, than the undue predominance of the logical faculty in their own minds.

To another class of writers on English grammar we owe a yet greater departure from its usages and laws. English grammar was first expounded by classical scholars. Familiar with the forms and usages of the Greek and Latin tongues, and holding them to be perfect in character, if not of universal obligation, they introduced those forms and usages into the manuals of English Grammar, and so made complex and dif cult one of the simplest and easiest grammars in the world Hence came into our grammatical books, cases, tenses, and constructions, which have no corresponding realities in our literature. With such things the student of English grammar has nothing to do, and the sooner our manuals are disem barrassed of them the better. Studying, as we shail do, the grammar of the language in its productions, we shall be under the guidance and the control of fact, and take special care to report as a usage and establish as a rule nothing but what has its sanction in unquestionable authority.

Let it then be observed that it is the English language that we are about to study. Consequently it is the qualities and

the laws of that language that it will be our business to ascer- not the size and strength of that animal. Bewick says that tain. If we were studying Sanscrit or Hebrew, then the he recollects one killed in the county of Cumberland, which qualities and the laws of the Sanscrit and the Hebrew should measured, from the nose to the end of the tail, upwards of five we be in search of. Disregarding thein, we are equally to feet. disregard the qualities and the laws of the Latin. The best At Barnsboro', a village between Doncaster and Barnsley, of Latin grammars would be a very bad English grammar, in Yorkshire, there is a tradition of a serious conflict that ocand a usage in Latin is no authority for the introduction into curred between a man and a wild cat. It is said that the fight English of a similar usage. The same remark may be made commenced in an adjacent wood, that from thence it was rein relation to the Anglo-Saxon ; in an undue regard to which moved and waged in the porch of the church, and that each Latham with all his merits, and they are very numerous and of the combatants died from wounds received during the very great, has not wholly avoided error.

struggle. The event is commemorated by a rude painting in The principles now set forth determine the mode of my the church. The story is sustained by the danger that is inproceeding. I shall not copy forms and rules from the writings volved in attempts to destroy the wild cat. For when hard of former grammarians. I shall not out of my own head pressed, or enraged by a wound too slight to disable it, it darts devise forms and rules. I shall rather take the language as it hercely on its antagonist, aiming chiefly at his face and eyes, is, and inquire into its qualities and laws. Beginning with and using furiously its claws and teeth. the simplest enunciations of thought, I shall aid the student

THE DOMESTIC CAT. to analyse them, and from such analysis to deduce for himself the fundamental facts and principles of the English tongue, It appears from an ancient law of one of the Welsh princes, This process must be gone through three times : first, in regard that in his time a domestic cat was a rare and valuable anito the forms of the language or its grammar ; secondly, in mal. A penny for a kitling before it could see, which was regard to the productions of the language or its literature; doubled from that time till it caught a mouse, and quadrupled and thirdly, as an appendage to the last, in regard to the origin for a mouser, were very high prices, considering the relative and progress of the language or its history. If the reader value of money at that time. A person who had stolen the attentively accompany me over this extended field, he will cat that guarded the prince's granary, was to forfeit a milch possess a full as well as accurate acquaintance with the ewe, its fleece and lamb, or as much wheat as, when poured English language.

on the cat while suspended from the tail, with the head I must add that it is for Englishmen I write. I write also touching the floor, would form a heap high enough to cover for the uneducated and for the young. Having these facts the tip of the former, before my mind, I shall study plainness and simplicity. Yet The Domestic Cat is too familiar to require description; do I hope to be able to write in such a manner that scholars but it has certain peculiarities which must be noticed. Its may not disdain to cast an eye on these pages. However that whiskers consist not only of long hairs on the upper lips, may be, I shall make it my first object and my last so to ex. but also of four or five others standing up from each eyebrow, press my thoughts as to be fully understood, if not also readily and also two or three on each cheek : all of which, when followed by the now large and meritorious class, who are en- erected, form, at their extremities, so many points of a circle, deavouring to educate themselves. To labour for such is to equal, at least, in extent, to the circumference of the ani. ine a very great pleasure. I ask for their confidence, and will mal's body. It is supposed that with a little experience cats endeavour to reward their attention.

can tell by means of this gauge, whether any aperture, as among ledges or shrubs, is sufficiently large to allow them

l'hat cats are able to see in the dark, though generally supLESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY.–No. III.

posed, is not absolutely true. It is certain, however, that THE WILD CAT,– THE DOMESTIC CAT, - AND THE they can see with much less light than most other animals. LYNX.

For this their eyes are peculiarly adapted ; as the pupils

are capable of being contracted or dilated, according to the The wild cat is found throughout Europe, wherever it can degree of light falling upon them. Thus in the daytime, secure an asylum in extensive woods. It is common in the the pupil of the cat's eye is always contracted, sometimes forests of Germany, Hungary, Russia, and the western parts into a mere line, because it is with difficulty that this animal of Asia ; and though scarce in the British islands, it is not yet can see by a strong light; but in the twilight the pupil reabsolutely extirpated. The mountains of Scotland, of the sumes its natural roundness, and the eye possesses its fullest northern counties of England, and of Wales and Ireland, are power of vision. its chief strongholds, the larger woods being its place of resort The cleanliness of these animals has frequently been the and of concealment during the day.

topic of remark. They wash their faces, and generally be. It is generally admitted that the wild cat of the British hind tz eir ears, every time they eat. And here there is a islands is specifically distinct from our domestic race. It remarkable exercise of instinct ; for as they cannot lick their often happens, however, that individuals of the domestic breed faces with their tongues, they first apply saliva to the inside betake themselves to the woods, or to extensive preserves of of the leg, and then repeatedly rub them over with it. The game, where, finding an abundant supply of food, they con- cat is equally concerned to keep her progeny clean, as any tinue there, leading an independent life. But these must not one may notice where there are kittens. be confounded with the genuine wild cat, which is clearly dis- One tendency of these animals is illustrated by the following tinguished from the other species. The wild cat stands higher amusing anecdote. The celebrated Charles James Fox was on its limbs than the tame; its body is more robust; the tail one day walking up Bond-street with George IV., when is shorter, and instead of tapering, terininates somewhat Prince of Wales, when he laid his royal highness a wager abruptly; and it is almost invariably tipped with black. The that he would see the greater number of cats as they went soles of the feet are also black. The fur of the wild cat is full onwards, though the prince might take which side of the and deep ; in the face it is of a yellowish-grey colour, passing street he liked. On reaching the top of the street, Mr. into greyish-brown on the head ; the general colour of the Fox had seen thirteen cats, but the prince not one, which led body is dark grey, a dusky black stripe running down the him to inquire the cause of so singular a fact. Mr. Fox spine, while beautiful transverse wavings of an obscure blackish replied, * Your royal highness took, of course, the shady side brown, adorn the sides; the tail is ringed with the same tint. of the street as the more agreeable ; I knew that the sunny

In its chosen retreats, the wild cat lurks on the branches of side would be left to me, and that is the one that cats always large trees, in the hollows of decayed trunks, and in the clefts prefer.” and holes of rocks. As night comes on, it issues forth to seek The fondness of the cat for warmth is indulged whenever it its prey: it commits sadhavoc on hares, rabbits, grouse, can enjoy its favourite place in cold or chilly weather before partridges, and all kinds of game; young lambs and fawns are the fire. There it not only sleeps cozily, but often stretches by no means safe from its attacks, and of all our native beasts out its limbs when awake in manifest enjoyment. The same of prey, it is the most fierce and destructive. It was called feeling which is there gratified has obtained it many enemies, by Pennant, the British tiger," and it has all the ferocity, if from its nestling, when it can, about infants in beds and

to pass.

cradles. To suppose that it does so to "suck the breath" of plished is considered. The distance from Glasgow to Edinburgh the little one is a vulgar error, which sound knowledge will is forty miles ; and as the cat could only carry one kitten at a effectually dispel.

time, if she brought one of them part of the way, then went "Playful as a kitten ” has become a proverb. The first toy l back for the other, and thus conveyed them by turns, she it finds is the tail of

must have travelled, its mother, who

at least, one hundred seems to move it

and twenty miles; about as she sits or

while her sagacity reclines before the

must have sugfire to amuse her

gested the necessity offspring; and as she

of journeying in the walks away, the

night, with many little romp will

other precautions for bound after it, and

the safety of her continue perhaps its

young. Her strong gambols in high glee.

attachment to her If set before a look

former circuming-glass, a kitten

stances, is equally appears surprised

remarkable." and pleased ; it

Of the sagacity of makes several at

the cat, the following tempts to touch its

is one among many new acquaintance,

examples : - At a and, failing to do so,

time when insects, it looks behind the

in consequence of glass, and finding

the cold, flew low, nothing there, seems

and swallows were not a little per

forced to hawk for plexed. Again it

their prey by skimturns to the image

ming the surface of of itself, tries to

the ground, a wily touch it with its

cat stretched herself foot, looks perhaps

on a sunny grassagain and again sud

plot, with iner legs denly behind the

extended as if she glass, stretches out its paw in various directions as if making were dead. The flies in consequence, collected about her, experiments; and as the motions are repeated by the figure in and the swallows not dreaming of any harm, pounced the glass, the kitten seems at length to conclude it is a play- down on the fies, when grimalkin seeing her prey within mate.

reach, made a rapid spring, and just when she pleased, struck How careful the cat is of her young is matter of common down with her paws, a poor unsuspecting bird. A good observation; but the following fact cannot fail to interest the marksman knows how difficult it is to shoot a swallow on the reader :- “A

wing; yet the lady residing in

cat, in this cuGlasgow, had a

rious instance, handsome cat

found her patisent to her from

ence, cunning, Edinburgh, in

and activity rea close basket,

warded. which was

"To live like placed in

cat and dog" is carriage. She

a proverb for a was carefully

life of ceaseless watched for two

conflict; but months, but

often do these having had two

animals live toyoung ones at

gether in peace. the end of that

The following is time, she was

a very remarkleft to herself.

able case.

M. It was not long,

Wenzel says, however, before

“I had a cat she disappeared

and dog, which with both her

became so atkittens. The

tached to each lady prizing the

other, that they cat highly,

would never wrote to her

willingly be friend in Edin

asunder. When burgh, lament

ever the dog got ing the loss of

any choice morthe animal;

sel of food, he and, about a fortnight after

THE LYNX.

was sure to di

vide it with the cat was

his whiskered missed in Glasgow, her well-known mew was heard at the friend. They always ate socially out of one plate, slept in street-door of her old mistress. There she was with both her the same bed, and daily walked out together. kittens,--they looked plump and well, but their mother was ex- “ Wishing to put this apparently sincere friendship to the tremely thin; and no wonder, when the task she had accom- proof, I one day took the cat by herself into my room, while I

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had the dog guarded in another apartment. I entertained the cat in a most sumptuous manner, being desirous to see what sort of a meal she would make without her friend, who had hitherto been her constant table companion. The cat enjoyed the meal with great glee, and seemed to have entirely forgotten the dog. I had had a partridge for dinner, half of which I intended to keep for supper. My wife covered it with a plate, and put it into a cupboard, the door of which she did not lock, The cat left the room, and I walked out on business. My wife, meanwhile, sat at work in an adjoining apartment.

"When I returned home, she related to me the following circumstances:-The cat having hastily left the dining-room, went to the dog, and mewed uncommonly loud, and in different tones of voice; which he from time to time answered with a short bark. They then went both to the door of the room where the cat had dined, and waited till it was opened. One of my children opened the door, and the two friends entered the apartment. The mewing of the cat excited my wife's attention. She rose from her seat, and stepped softly to the door which stood ajar, to observe what was going on. The cat led the dog to the cupboard which contained the partridge, pushed off it is us, that is the positive, or ordinary form of the adjective. Look at the terminations of the adjective. In the first case the plate which covered it, and, taking out my intended sup- In the second case, it is ior, that is the comparative. In the per, laid it before her canine friend, who devoured it greedily. Probably the cat, by her mewing, had given the dog to under-third case, it is issimus, that is the superlative. You thus see stand what an excellent meal she had made, and how sorry she that what in the English is expressed by more is in Latin exwas that he had not participated in it; but, at the same time, pressed by ior; and what in the English is expressed by most had given him to understand that something was left for him is in Latin expressed by issimus. Remember, then, ior is the in the cupboard, and persuaded him to follow her thither. form of comparison, issimus is the superlative form. Since that time I have paid particular attention to these might thus obtain for yourself the rule, and say that to the animals, and am perfectly convinced that they communicate stem of the positive add ior, and you have the comparative; and to each other whatever seems interesting to either." to the stem of the positive add issimus, and you have the superlative. Such in reality is the rule. These two endings ior, m. and f. ius, n.; and issimus, a, um, are to be added to the stem of adjectives and participles, in order to convert the positive degree into the comparative and the superlative. I subjoin some instances:

You

THE LYNX.

Another animal of the feline race is the lynx, of which we give an engraving. Its cas are terminated with a tuft of hairs invariably black. The names given by the Turks and the Persians to the lynx are founded on this peculiarity. This animal was formerly spread over the Old World, was common in France, and has but recently disappeared from Germany. It is found in Spain, and in the north of the European continent. America certainly produces two species, of which one, the Canadian lynx, is a fine creature.

The aspect of the lynx is rather gentle than savage, and indeed appears to be less ferocious than most of the species of the same genus. It walks and leaps, or bounds like a cat, and hunts martens, ermines, squirrels, and other creatures. Its skin is changed by climate and season, and in high latitudes, particularly in winter, the fur is much finer and thicker, and more esteemed. When of a pale colour, with tolerably distinct spots, the fur is extremely valuable. The Russians sell the skins of lynxes to the Chinese at a rate varying from about sixteen shillings to five or six pounds each, exclusive of the fore-feet, which are also valuable, and sold separately. Many thousand skins of the Canadian lynx have been imported in one year by the Hudson's-bay Company. Among ike hunters of America the lynx is called the wild cat.

highest of the three. The higher is called the comparative de gree, and the highest is called the superlative degree. Accordingly, there are three degrees of comparison, the positive, the comparative, the superlative. It has been denied that the positive is a degree of comparison. The term may not be rigidly correct, but it is in use, and no better substitute has been offered. Our business is not so much to criticise as to explain; and consequently only then must we enter into criticism when it smooths the way to explanation.

LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. IX.
By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D.
DEGREES OF COMPARISON.

WHEN two objects are compared together, the ideas involved
in the word more and most come into prominence. Thus we say,
"the father is more learned than the son;""Cicero is the most
learned of the Romans." The question which we have to
answer is, how are such forms of thought expressed in the
Latin? Observe that at the bottom of more learned and most
learned is the quality learned; for no one can be more learned or
most learned without being learned. This ground quality is
something positive, a real definite quality. Hence in grammar
it is called the positive degree. It is the first step. A higher
step is indicated by our word more; and the highest by most.
You thus see that besides the positive there are two other
degrees, of which the one is the higher, and the other the

Now these three forms of speech which I have just given, stand in Latin, thus:

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Pater est doctus
Father is learned

Pater est doctior
Father is more learned

Pater est doctissimus
Father is most learned

Comparative.

last-ior, more joyful
pudic-ior, more modest
imbecill-ior, weaker
lev-ior, lighter
fertil-ior, more fruitful
divit-ior, richer
prudent-ior, more pru-
dent

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Positive.
Laet-us, joyful
Pudic-us, modest
Imbecill-us, weak
Lev-is, light
Fertil-is, fruitful
Dives
rich
Divit-is S
Prudens pru-
Prudent-is dent

Amans

Amant-is J loving amant-ior, more loving
Felix

Felic-is } happy felic-ior, happier

Superlative.

laet-issimus, most joyful
pudic-issimus, most modest
imbecill-issimus, weakest
lev-issimus, lightest
fertil-issimus, most fruitful
divit-issimus, richest

prudent-issimus, most prudent

amant-issimus, most loving

felic-issimus, happiest

If, however, the adjective ends in er, rimus is used instead of issimus, for the sake of sound; as, miser, unhappy, miserable; miser-ior, more unhappy; miser-rimus, most unhappy; pulcher (pulchr-i), beautiful; pulchr-ior, more beautiful; pulcher rimus, most beautiful. In like manner, vetus (g. veter-is), old, veterrimus, oldest; the comparative veter-ior is rarely used; also nuper-us, late; (no comparative;) nuper-rimus, latest.

The six adjectives which follow, take limus in the superla. tive;-namely, facil-is, easy; difficil-is, not easy, difficult; similis, like; dissimil-is, unlike; gracil-is, thin; humil-is, humble thus, facil-limus, most easy; simil-limus, most like; gracil-limus, most thin; humil-limus, most humble. In full, thus:Facil-is, easy; facil-ior, easier; facil-limus, easiest; &c. There are some compound adjectives which form their comparatives and superlatives, by endings different from these. Such adjectives are those which in the positive end in dicus, ficus, and volus; for instance, maledicus, magnificus, benevolus. I have called these compound adjectives because they are composed each of two words. Maledicus is formed from male, badly (in an evil manner), and dico, I speak; and consequently denotes an evil-speaker; magnificus is formed from magnus, great, and facio, I do; and consequently denotes a great doer; benevolus is formed from bene, well, and volo, I wish; and consequently denotes a well-wisher. To form the comparative of these, add to the stem entior, and to form the superlative, add entissimus; thus:

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Cases.
Nom.
Gen.

Comparative.

maledic-entior, mere
abusive
magnific-entior, more
magnificent
benevolentior, more
benevolent

IRREGULAR FORMS OF COMPARISON.

Comparative.
melior, better

pejor, worse
major, greater
minor, less

plus (n.), more
plures (m. and f.)
plura (n.)

Superlative. maledic-entissimus, most

abusive

magnific-entissimus, most
magnificent
benevolentissimus, most

benevolent

}

Many Latin adjectives do not take any of these forms of comparison. Such are adjectives which have before the termination us; as idone-us, fit. These are formed by prefixing magis, more; and maxime, most; as, magis idoneus, more fit; maxime idoneus, most fit; so, pius, pious; magis pius, more pious; maxime pius, most pious. in the same way, form nearly all adjectives and participles ending in Icus, Imus, inus, ivus, ōrus, undus, andus, and bundus.

N. altius

Superlative. optimus, best

ENGLISH-LATIN.

1

In the English meanings added to facilis above, I have given the forms easy, easier, easiest. Here you see changes made at the end of the positive, similar to those you have just been Nothing is worse than the pretence of love; the sun is ret instructed to make in the Latin. First, the positive easy is great; the sun is greater than the moon; the life of men is very changed into easi, and then to this, as the stem, we add er short; the richest are often the unhappiest; the poorest are some times the happiest; the labour is very easy; my labour is exce for the comparative, like the Latin ior, and est for the super-than yours; the customs (character) of men are very unlike; the lative, like the Latin issimus. This similarity of forms indi- king is very free in giving; the worst men are not often happy cates in the two languages a sameness of origin. As too, in good men are happy; very good men are happiest; God is the English, we use more and most, so do the Latins use, magis, happiest of all; the best men are sometimes despised by the worst, and maxime, to denote the comparative and the superlative. the health of my friend is very weak; thy father's garden is very Magis and maxime must be used for this purpose, in the case beautiful; thy son's garden is more beautiful; the labour is very of adjectives which do not admit the termination forms. difficult; the walls of the city are very low (humilis); mot (plurimi) men love their native country; nothing is better that virtue; the port is very much visited; God is the greatest, bes and wisest of all; the customs (or character) of the Lacedemer aca were very simple; the horse is very swift; ravens are very blackj thy father is very benevolent and very liberal; thy brother bus a very beautiful house; a very beautiful house is built by y brother; virgins must (debeo) be very modest; thy sister is mart modest than thy brother; the ape is like men; is the ape vert much like men? of all animals the ape is most like men; nothing

Besides expressing the formal degree of comparison, the Latin superlative signifies a very high degree of the quality involved in the positive, as doctissimus, very learned; pater tuus est doctissimus, thy father is very learned. So in English,

Milton uses wisest

Latin comparatives are declined like adjectives of two termi-is sweeter than friendship; the Lacedemonians were very brave. nations, and according to the third declension. Thus, positive light is very quick; light is quicker than sound. altus, high, makes comparative altior, higher; altior is masculine and feminine, the neuter is altius.

EXAMPLE OF A COMPARATIVE.-DECLENSION III.

Singular.

pessimus, worst
maximus, greatest
minimus, least

"the wisest heart
Of Solomon he led by fraud, to build
His temple right against the temple of God."

plurimus, most
plurimi, very many

Plural.

Cases. M. F.
Nom. altiores
Gen.

N.

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-No. V.

"I SHOULD like to botanise," is the expression of a writ which we are concerned to gratify. We shall glance, therefore, at systematic botany, by which alone the discrimination or recognition of a plant can be secured. Without such ability, even a knowledge of the properties of the vegetabe tribes would be of little or no use. For want of this acquaint ance with them, persons have lost their lives by mistaking noxious and poisonous plants for wholesome herbs; and others have administered what they deemed to be salutary and restoring medicines, but which have proved to be dead. poison. It will consequently be evident that the study d systematic botany is one of great utility, associated with ob sa-jects of peculiar interest.

negro); simia, ae, f. an ape; Syracusae, arum, f. Syracuse; murus. i,
m. a wall (E. R. mural); Homérus, i, m. Homer; labor, óris, m. labour
adulti, ónis, f. flattery (E. R adulation); similitudo, fuis, renes
(E. R. similitude); crus, cruris, n. the leg (from the knee to the are
beatus, a, um, happy; beneficus, well doing, beneficent; celeber, bris,
bre, sought after, visited (E. R. cclebrity); brevis, e, short (E. R. bre
vity); vale 2, I am strong, I am worth (E R valid); contemno 3!
despise, contemn; affinit is, átis, f. relationship (E. R. afinity); liberal-
tas, atis, f. liberality; lux, lucis, f. light; ratio, ónis, f. reason (E. R.
ratio); simulatio, ózis, f. simulation, pretence, hypocrisy; sol. gelis,
the sun (E. R. solar); soni us, ûs, m. a sound; accommodátus, a,
satel (E. R. accommodate, commodions); garrulus, a, um, talization
(E. R. garrulity); munificus, a, um, free in giving, liberal (E. R. -
nificent); secundus, a, um, favourable (E. R. to second); res secunde,
favourable things, that is, good fortune amabilis, e, worthy to be bored
(E. R. amiable); nihil (not declined), nothing; quam, conj. them
non nunquam, adv. sometimes.

EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

Nihil est naturae hominis accommodatius quam beneficentia; nihil est amabilius quam virtus; lux est velocior quam sonitus, nihil est melius quam sapientia; multi homines magis garruli s quam hirundines; pauperes saepe sunt munificentiores quam dvites; in adversis rebus saepe sunt homines prudentiores quam in secundis; divitissimorum vita saepe est miserrima; simuar amoris pejor est quam odium; nihil est mehus quam ratio; #. major est quam terra: luna minor est quam terra; omnium beatis simus est sapiens: Homerus omnium Graecarum poetarum veterrimus; adula est pessimum malum (evil); urbs Syracuse maxima et pulcherrima est cmnium Graecarum urbium; pesua homines sunt maledici; omnium hominum maledicentissimi fratres tui; in amicitia plus valet similitudo morum quam affinitas, I soror tua amabilior est quam mea.

Dat.

Ace.

Voc.
Abl.

M. P.
altior

altioris

altióri

altiórem altior

altius altius altióre (i)

Dat.

Acc. altiores
Voc. altióres
Abl.

altiórum
altioribus

altióribus

altióra

Some persons may anticipate difficulty from observing the hard and outlandish names employed in botany; but it should be remembered that this science is not the study of names but of an admirable and most important branch of the economy of nature; and even the use of a hard name does not necessarily imply that the thing itself is difficult to br understood. Aloysia citriodora is a hard name, yet multitudes who would consider it to be so are well acquainted with the shrub to which it is applied-the sweet-scented verbena; and

altiórn
altióra

VOCABULARY,

Beneficentia. ae, f. well doing, kind action (E. R. beneficence); luna, ae, f. the moon (E. R. lunar); pauper, pauperis, a poor man (E. R. pauper); natura, ae, f. nature; sapientia, ae, f. wisdom (E. R. pient); odium i, n hatred (E R. odious); amor, óris, m. love (E. R. amorous); hirundo, hirundinis, f a swallow; Lacedemonius, i, m. a Lacedemonian; simplex, simplicis, simple; mos, moris, m. custom; in the plural, character (E. R. morals); velox, velócis, swift (E. R. velocity); corvus, i, m. a raven; niger, nigra, nigrum, black (E. R.

These comparatives and superlatives are evidently formed in the regular way, from such nouns as maledicens, magnificens, and benevolens, two of which, at least, are in use in the language, and have the same meaning

as the other positives above given.

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