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LESSONS IN BOTANY.

the Jasminum officinale is nothing more than that sweetly stance for a stamen, or stamens; and that the other letters fragrant flower the common white jessamine, under another connected with it are nothing more than indicative of succesappellation.

sive numbers; as monandria, one stamen, triandria, three stamens, When the use of spring-guns became illegal, a gentleman &c. A knowledge of this will carry us through eleven classes who wished to protect his trees and flowers had a board placed of the Linnæan system. in his garden, with the inscription “ Terrofiokaibloudomenoi The classes, it mast also be remarked, are subdivided into sct on these premises;" and by the awful length and myste- orders, in denoting which the termination gynin is of frequent rious appearance of this word, kept off many an intruder. occurrence. Literally, it means female, but it stands, in this And yet, after all, it meant nothing. Not so is it with the instance, for a pistil ; while the preceding part of the word, as terms adopted by men of true science ; they mean something, monogynia, digynia, or trigynia is formes exactly in the way just and generally the meaning is well worth having. Dicotyledon noticed, by adding, in each case, he name of a number, or Monocotyledon is a term of somewhat formidable aspect; There are some persons, but the reader who has observed the explanation given of it

“ Who allium call their onions and their leeks ;" in Lesson No. 1., has an idea as well as a name, and the means but we are not of that number. We prefer the simple English of understanding and of making an important distinction in the structure of plants.

names of plants, and shall generally use them. Many of these Among the reasons for the use of such names in Botany, one

are connected with old times and customs; and often do they may be stated. The words of some language or other must convey some idea of the uses of the plants to which they are become current, and hence the question has arisen, which given.

CLASS I.--MONANDRIA. shall it be? Suppose it to be French, or German, or Spanish, or Portuguese, it is evident that to the many it would remain

Plants bearing flowers with One Stamen only. an unknown tongue. But the Latin and Greek languages are

ORDER I. MONOGYNIA, One Pistil. employed in this and some other sciences, that the same appellations of plants may be recognised by students of differ

Of this kind our ditches and muddy ponds produce one ent nations, and that they may be able to read the works example that may be easily procured. It is called mare's-tail, written on these subjects without the trouble and expense of and has neither calyx nor blossom. Its single stamen is translating and printing in a variety of languages. We shall terminated by an anther slightly cloven, behind which is the not make any further demand in this respect on our readers pistil, with its awl-shaped stigma, tapering to a point. The than is absolutely necessary; but we wish them all to remem

stem is straight and jointed, and the leaves grow in whorls, or ber that the power of acquiring words apparently hard, is circles round the joints; at the base of each leaf is a flower, generally increased in proportion as it is tasked, and that an

so that the number of flowers and leaves is equal. Its season effort which, at first sight, looks as it were impracticable, be- of flowering is the month of May. comes, after due repetition, perfectly easy. Many a working

ORDER II. DIGYNIA. Two Pistils. gardener, if asked, could give them such a string of apparently difficult names of plants and flowers, which it is absolutely

Three British annual planls, known by the name of the necessary for him to know, as would leave this fact beyond all water starwort. They have two petals, curved inwards, possible dispute.

but no calyx. They are scientifically called callitriche, from two Two names are especially prominent in connexion with Greek words meaning beautiful hair. systematic botany; they are those of Linnæus and Jussieu. Linnæus, a native of Sweden, who flourished about a century

CLASS II.-DIANDRIA. ago, was the first person who facilitated the study of plants by

Plants bearing flowers with Troo Stamens. anything deserving the name of a system,

He founded his

ORDER I. MONOGYNIA. One Pistil. arrangement on the structure of the flowers. Jussieu took another basis for the system of which he is the father, involving

The privet is a shrub well known in the hedges in many a more minute and difficult investigation. Each system takes parts of England, and when mixed with others it makes à the name of its founder, and is called the Linnæan or Jus- pleasing variety in our gardens. It bears a white blossom, sieucan; but frequently the former is described as the artificial and the latter as the natural system. We do not enter on a criticism of the respective merits of the two, but simply state that we shall adopt the classification of Linnæus in preference to that of Jussieu, as the better adapted to our present purpose, as likely to be more acceptable and attainable, and also as equally useful to those for whom the present series of botanical lessons is designed.

We have already described those two important parts of a fower, the stomen and the pistil (see Lesson No. II.), and with these it becomes the student to have a thorough acquaintance, as upon some circumstances connected with them Linnæus founded twenty-four classes or divisions, in one of which every individual of the thousands of plants in the vegetable kingdom may be placed. That the system is complete it were absurd to contend. “For a long time," says the great Swedish botanist, “ I have laboured to establish it; I have made many discoveries, but I have not been able to perfect it; yet while I live I shall continue to labour for its completion. In the mean time I have published what I have been able to discover; and whosoever shall resolve the few plants which still remain shall be my Magnus Apollo. Those are the greatest botanists who are able to correct, augment, and perfect this method, which those who are unqualified should not attempt." Linnæus did well, but that much remained for others to do is evident when we know that the number of species with which he was acquainted was probably not an eighth of those with which botanists are now familiar.

The reader will observe that we now enter on a course in which the letters andria will form a principal part of several

Germander Speedwell. words, and no difficulty whatever will be felt if it be re- and generally fowers in June. A single petal forms its corulia membered that literally meaning male, it stands in this in- or blossom, which is funnel-shaped. The leaves grow in

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pairs. Ei se sometimes tariegated with stripes of yess ar'ecstased acticesibe Airisse Sez, cé suchy, and of the south 3. Tre berries are been address to give a darasie of lies:

sebe geaiz part si tbe lia an peninsula, per esigur **l by the data ca

her sere Trees 7 crore o tze Evers bieb grace the Ladee-bark in Previous to be listene epoce, the Greeks believed in the Aste zerrage speedwe, czecines caid ca:'s-eye, existerse of Estos so izbacited the ecentries situated be and eye-cright. Thas Ebenezaz Exict sass

band the regions where the same appeared to them to rise and Bize eredit! loreest ever of all test

to set. They isizsed a base soos lived in perpetual In red Engsst! Forer whose bedge-size gade

dices, aber die lisacrisu, a werd evidently Is 3: en s'ar's w: bears does Do

derised ake Hezim Cinensis (proncanced Kimeriria) Thee, eixird sailer of the task where plats

ad sintys dar sen. Is pe perisa as they became acThe fushen co the emera'i ante, sed etrays

qrase a uze regizos as ser esgasered by the sun, The dazzing rill, ezeannine of the road."

i testis, as the mito be keer word vere extended by The notebed leaves of this piani, in shape not unlike the rise ad discoverT,' we trussgested trze Cisnerians and kates of s rose, but growing opposite to escă ocher cette the dark abodes to i grazie distance. In those early times, stem, secily markibis species. We have in our Seids, the Caseians were posed to inhabit the borders of the woods, ad redzes, thirteen species of the speed veil, bat oe Bises

sea, za the Taras Bebers, in Itais, and on the the

zerade with three of a kinds boce in April. The eas: ad west, where the scale as supposed to terminate. 1983 boom from spring to antud. Toe ush, the duck-Teeds, The people who were supposed to are the iarbes: borib, were and the sages beiðng to the same order.

cabec Hyperverests, because they were placed beyond Borea,

or as the ertreme rarti; and those who lived the farthest south, ORDE3 II. DIGIXIA. Tuo Pietila.

were added Eksopista, literals, paternt,-because they were The sweet-scented spring-grass. It has a spied paniele, sztuared incre directly under the sun's rays; their county lay and flowers on short stalks. I: Ao sers in May; grows in scoth of Egypt, sed was a ter vards called Ethiopit mb Egypto, pastures and meadows, and is about a foot biza. This pian or Etkispus under Egypt; wder, erizursigijing farther to is a true grass, bat is separated on account of its saving only the scu:h than the inter country. Tbe szeients generally be. two stamets. The pleasant smell of new-zade hay is chiens lieved tha: Africa ad Asia, or rather Ezbicţia and India, were owing to this plant.

united by land stafsribe to the south; and they consequently

considered the Ethiopians at Indians » Deiz neighbours. CLASS III.-TRIANDRIA.

This is the ground on which bosh Virgil and Lucan have supPlants bearing fowers with Three Stamens.

posed the Je to take its rise in the frostiers of India. ORDER I MOSOGTXIA. One Pista.

A: the Homerie epoch the Greeks generis considered that The crocus, having six equal segments, resembling petals, posed to be eestras divided by the Easte, or Black Sea,

the earth existed in the form of a disi. Teis disk was supwhich blossoms in spring. "Another plant is known as the the Egeas, and the Mediterrazean into two parts, the one autumnal crocus.

north and the other south; these parts were at a later period The valerian, a numerous species of shrubs or under shrubs, with very variable leares, and most reddish white Avis, names weich had been previously understood in a more

designated by Aaarinander under the names of Europe and Howers. Twelve species are European, and fur are British. The officinal, or great wid valerian, gto us abundanty by the the eas:, and the struts of Herenies, or Giraltar, on the west,

restricted serse. The river Phuis in Celehis, or Pontus, on sides of rivers, and in ditches, and most woods, in Gres were supposed to mark ite

limits of the world. The country a volatile oil. I: is used by rat-catchers to destroy rais. Ties of the Commerianus, who were afterwards coafounded with the

Cizbri; and of the Water sans, so ealed becanse they were also employed in medicine, in the form of infusion, decoction,

supposed to be icazer-ived than other mortals; Elysian, a and tincture. The yello» iris is a beautiful Bower in June. It is often

happy country which had no existence but in the fantasies of called Aag-sedge, and corn-flag, and in Scouad is samed the panes of Atlantis

and Meropis

, were the object of the philo

de mird; the fertunate Isies, which at a later period, under water-skeggs. Many people in rural districts value iss loaz phie ficticas of Piato and Theopompus; the country of the acrid roos as a cure for the toothache. It is also used for dyeing a black colour, and for making ink. This flower is and of the Grypcns , who guarded the precious metals of the

frinsspi, who saw so clearly because they had only one eye; sometimes found in moist woods. The common purple iris is the fleur de lnce, and it derives its name from Louis VII., kias vith monsters and prodigies; all these and many other ingenious

Rışican mountains ; Cekhis, the country of magie, peopled of France, who, when setting forth on his crusade to the Holy tables, the cfspring of ide imaginations of the poets Homer Land, chose it as his heraldic emblem.

and Hesiod, or rather of the people among whom they O2DBB II. D:GTXIA. Tico Pustis.

lired, were mixed up with notions purely geographical, The grasses and the corn-plasts, which were described in and constituted the world at that period a scene of marrels, Lesson IV.

a receptacle of agreeable delusions and formidable mysteries. O2D23 IIL TEIGINIU. Tree Pistals.

During the historie ages of Greece, cosmological systems The water chiek weed; the jagged chick weed; the allseed. was a sphere ; his disciple Anarimander taught that it was

were multiplied to an endless extent. Thales said that the earth a cylinder. Leucippus said that it was a drum, and Heraclides

that it was a boas. Maar and curious were the notions the LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.—Xo. II. ancient philosopbers held concerning the globe until royages SOTIONS OF THE POETS.

of discovery were begun. Herodotus made a great step in the

descriptive geography of certain regions, especially in the east Barn in 1744 his poems in the tenth century before the of Europe. Yes, notwithstanding his voyages into the three CA 2 763 to have been acquainted with Greece, parts of the old world, he sills his narrative with childish tales TAG EUR, and of Crete, and the coast of Asia on and dreamy details. He only knew the names of Arabia, Na biex Maragean. Within these limits, he Iberia (or Spain), Celtica (or Gaal), the islands of Albion Ey 13 2276; and he was, no doubt,

personally (Great Britain), and the Cassiterides (or Scilly Isles). He Bosowane w of the scenes which he describes. His had correct notions on Africa, and particularly on Egypt, but wu, s.7877, un tat ide geographical knowledge of the the western part of this continent was unknown to him beyond Grus va tcst time more limited than that of the Egyp. Tripoli

. His details on India, besides their uncertainty, are 2.284 in the tree de Muses, who lived seven centuries before intermingled with fabies taken from the legends or popular I. Or. :be kah, ibe Greeks cn'y knew the valley of the creeds of the extreme East. Among the tales more or less 54, and the part of Asica bich esterds from Egypt to the ingenious, we must not forget the ants that were as large ** 2 faz a Cape Bus and the ecumencement of the Auss as tores, and that colleeted heaps of gold mixed with sand! Lati; ard, on the east, tłe Syrian desert, Asia Herociorus appears to have been unacquainted with western 1.4%, Mesopotasuz, and Persia. They possessed only very Europe. He does not speak of Massilia (Marss iles), a city founded by the Phocians a century before he was born. | the distance between the two places, Alexandria and Syene, Rome, which had been increasing in grandeur for about three and found it 5,000 stadia. Accordingly, he multiplied this hundred years before his time, is not even mentioned by name. number by 50, and found the measure of the earth's circum. Of Italy

he only knew the south of that part anciently called ference to be 250,000 stadia. Making allowance for the errors Magna Græcia. The extreme west of Africa was equally un- which he committed, for want of the delicate instruments of known to the Greeks. Yet the Phenicians had made diseo- observation, which we possess in modern times, this was a veries in the Atlantic Ocean, and the periplus (sailing round) or tolerable approximation to the truth. Syene, indeed, was not coasting voyage of Hanno was executed considerably before on the same meridian as Alexandria, but on one nearly 30 east Herodotus. The African voyage of the Carthaginian admiral, of the meridian of that city; and instead of being exactly on with the thirty-thousand persons which he had on board his the tropic, it was about half a degree north of that line. vessels, is acknowledged to be authentic; opinions only differ Eratosthenes affirmed the spherical figure of the earth, and as to the point where his maritime course terminated. Some asserted that the immensity of the ocean would not prevent will have it that, after having cleared the pillars of Hercules vessels from going to India by continually shaping their course (the Straits of Gibraltar), he went as far as the Gulf of westward. Guinea; while others limit his exploratory voyage to the Hipparchus, who flourished about sixty years later than mouth of the Senegal river. Gossellin fixes the limit at Eratosthenes, laid the foundation of astronomical geography, Cape Nun.

by endeavouring to determine the latitudes and longitudes of Pytheas, a citizen of Marseilles, performed a voyage to the places by observations on the heavenly bodies.

He conNorih, before the time of Alexander the Great. He dis- structed a catalogue of the fixed stars, and taught the projeccovered Albion, or Great Britain, and always sailing in a tion of the sphere on a plane surface. Agatharchides, president northern direction, he reached the mysterious place called of the Alexandrian library, who flourished rather before Ultima Thule, which he saw covered with ice, enveloped in Hipparchus, wrote a treatise on the navigation and commerce mist, and as it were immersed in a horrible chaos. But what of the Red Sea, and an account of Egypt and Ethiopia. He was Thule? This is a question which has puzzled all his was the first who gave a correct description of the Abyssinians ; torians and geographers. Some have considered with good he mentions the gold-mines wrought by the ancient kings of reason that this country was Jutland or the coasts of Norway Egypt on the coast of the Red Sea, the process of working called Thulemark; or perhaps Iceland, as Pytheas sailed them, and the sufferings of the miners. He speaks, also, of through the Scandinavian seas, and his remarks relating to the tools of copper found in these mines, supposed to have the coasts of the Baltic have been acknowledged exact. been used by the native Egyptians before the conquest of Others have claimed this appellation for the Shetland Isles on that country by the Persians. The voyages of Eudoxus of the north of Scotland.

Cyzicus added new information to what was already gained Aris!otle, the great Greek philosopher and naturalist, main- respecting the East. He visited Egypt in the reign of Ptolemy tained that the earth was of a spherical form, and he even Evergetes, about 130 s.c. He made two voyages to India, stated the measure of its circumference at four hundred and afterwards accomplished the circumnavigation of the thousand stadia (a Greek itinerary measure, equal to about African continent. Strabo, who gives an account of his 600 feet). Indications of the existence of Madagascar have voyages and discoveries, attempts repeatedly to throw disbeen noticed in his writings. As to Ceylon, he mentions it credit on the truth of his statements; but they have been under the name of Taprobane, and that a long time before the confirmed by those of later times. age of Ptolemy. The limits of the world according to Aristotle were, on the east, the Indus; on the west, the T'artessus, QUESTIONS ON THE PRECEDING AND FORMER LESSON. or the Guadalquivir; on the north, the Riphæan mountains, Albion and Ierne (Ireland); on the south, Libya, in which he ing the earth does it include ? What is the form of the earth?

What is Geography? How many kinds of information respecte places the river Chremetes, which rises out of the same moun. What proportion does the highest mountain on its surface beur to tains as the Nile, in order to disembogue itself in the Atlantic its diameter ? Had the ancients any proper knowledge of its form? ocean ; an idea which leads to the supposition that he con- What appearance does the surface of the earth present to the founded the Nile with the Niger. He admitted that the human view taken on the most extended scale? What appearance Caspian sea was a great inland lake, having no communication do the heavens present ? State some of the natural notions with any other sea.

which mankind form respecting the heavens and the earth." The conquests of Alexander the Great, led to the most dis- What were the early notions of the Hebrews regarding the tinct and extended motions of the ancient world. The most structure of the earth and the heavens ? Where are we to look for remarkable geographical fact of his reign, was the exploration the origin of geographical knowledge? To what source are we of the Indus. Å fleet of 800 vessels, under the command of indebted for the earliest account of the known divisions of the Nearchus, descended this river, and went along the coast of world? What were the geographical boundaries alluded to by Asia to the bottom of the Persian Gulf. The expedition of Ezekiel, as referring to the farthest limits of that knowledge in his Alexander opened the eyes of the Greeks, but produced at that What country is considered to be referred to in Scripture under time, no results of any consequence to the science of geography. the name of Tarshish? What country did the Romans understand What was gained by his exploratory voyage, was lost by the under the name Africa Propria? What were the two different dismemberment of his empire; and the historians of the royages to Tarshish, and how are they comprehended under the period relapsed into their former ignorance.

same name? What country is understood by the name Ophir ? By degrees, however, geography assumed the dignity of a How was gold transported from Ophir to Jerusalem ? science. Eratosthenes, who flourished in the second century

What countries are understood by the names, the Isles, the before the Christian era, composed a treatise on the subject. Isles of the Gentiles, the Isles of the Sea, &c. ? What country was He was a native of Cyrene in Africa, and the keeper of the known by the name of Sheba ? What by Dedan? To what river were Alexandrian library. "By means of instruments erected in the cities and empires flourished on the banks of this river? With

the names of the river and the great river applied? What famous museum of the city of Alexandria, he found the obliquity of what countries did they trade? What is meant by the north in the ecliptic, to within half a degree of the truth. He was Scripture? What were its products mentioned by Ezekiel ? the first who attempted to determine the circumference of the With what parts of the world were the Greeks acquainted in the earth by the actual measurement of an arc of one of its great time of Homer, as appears by his writings? What notions had circles. By means of sun-dials, he found that Syene, near a they of the world previous to his epoch? Who were the Cim. cataract of the Nile, which was situated, as he thought, on the merians ? the Hyperboreans ? the Ethiopians ? and the Marobians ? same meridian as Alexandria, was immediately under the What country was Elysium? the Fortunate Isles ? and Colchis? tropic of Cancer, so that at the time of the summer solstice, who were the Arimaspi? and the Gryphons ? the sun was vertical to the inhabitants of Syene, and the Greeks? With what countries was Herodotus acquainted ? What

What notions regarding the form of the earth had the later gnomon had no shadow at noon. Thus, having measured the cities were in existence unknown to him? Who first made disangle of the shadow of the gnomon at Alexandria, also at the coveries in the Atlantic Ocean? What is meant by the Periplus of time of the summer solstice, he found the distance of the sun Hanno? What were the discoveries of Pytheas of Marseilles ? In from the zenith at noon, to be 7° 12', or one-fiftieth part of the what did the geographical knowledge of Aristotle consist? What escumference of a great citale, viz. 360°. He then computed addition did the conquests of Alexander make to the science of

geography? When did it assume the dignity of a science, and who wrote a treatise on the subject? How did Eratosthenes ascertain the approximate circumference of the earth? Who laid the foundation of astronomical geography? Who gave the best account in early times of Egypt, Ethiopia, and Abyssinia? Who made the first voyages to India from Egypt, and circumnavigated

Africa?

IMAGINARY QUANTITIES.

A VERY ingenious and useful work on Algebra has just been put into our hands, written by J. R. Young, Esq., late Professor of Mathematics in the Royal Academical Institution, Belfast. In order to enable our more advanced readers to form some opinion of its merit, as an Elementary work, we give the following extract:—

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"Imaginary or impossible quantities, are those expressions which indicate an even root of a negative quantity; the arithmetical extraction of such a root being almost an impossibility, because no even power of any number, whether positive or negative, can ever be negative. Imaginary quantities thus differ essentially from other surd expressions; the root indicated in each of these latter cannot be accurately exhibited, solely because the quantity under the radical sign differs from a complete power; yet a complete power may always be assigned which shall differ from the incomplete one by a quantity less than any that can be proposed, so that the defect mentioned is never of any practical consequence. But an imaginary quantity admits of no arithmetical representation either accurately or approximately: the bare idea of arithmetical value is altogether excluded from it; the symbol -4 implies an operation upon the -4 of impossible performance; so that if such a symbol were to occur in the answer to any question, we should at once conclude that the solution to that question, in real numbers, is an impossibility; and, consequently, that the conditions to be satisfied are incompatible or contradictory. Imaginary quanti ties thus subserve a very important purpose: whenever they present themselves as here supposed, they effectually apprise us of concealed absurdities among the conditions upon which our reasoning has been based, or which we are aiming to satisfy, and which might otherwise involve us in bewilderment or error. They are thus necessary to give completeness and certainty to our algebraic results, and on these grounds alone are valuable items in our system of symbols. But independently of this office of imaginary quantities, by which they inform us of the fact when the sclution of a question is impossible, algebraists turn them to important account as direct instruments of investigation; frequently introducing them with great advantage into inquiries having reference only to real quantities, and terminating only in real results.

"In his first steps in the study of algebra, the learner naturally looks upon the new symbols of quantity to which he is introduced as nothing more than the familiar figures of arithmetic in disguise. It is not easy, nor would it be prudent to correct this too limited notion at the outset; the more comprehensive scope of the symbolic language of algebra gradually unfolds itself to him as he proceeds, till he at length comes to combine his characters and contract his expressions without any thought towards the numerical processes bearing the same names as those which enter into his symbolical combination. In fact, the important truth discovers itself by degrees, that the thing called algebra is a science in which symbols of any interpretation whatever are subjected to certain prescribed laws of combination, in obedience to which various operations may be performed and various results obtained without any reference to the particular characters of arithmetic. This latter science is no doubt suggestive of the symbolical science of algebra; and the learner sufficiently sees that its laws of combination actually become those of arithmetic, when the particular symbols of the latter replace the more general symbols of the former. In fact, he further sees that, till these general symbols are so replaced by those of arithmetic, many of the so-called operations of algebra are but operations indicated, not operations executed. If we have to multiply a by b, we write ab or axb, and say that the thing is done; although, in truth, nothing is done, although something, by the sign of operation, is inarcated; we have no idea of the actual formance except each symbol, or the multiplier at least, be interpreted by a number; yet if the so-called product ab is to be divided by b, there is no doubt that the result is a, whatever the multiplier b may have been: whether a number or something having no arithmetical meaning. It is true that in the latter case the term 'multiplier' might be objected to as not sufficiently significant, but a similar objection might be made to nearly every term introduced from arithmetic into algebra: the terms have a more comprehensive meaning as well as the symbols

per

"In the instance just adduced, namely a, an operation is ap parently performed on pure symbols irrespective of all interprs tation; yet if we really look at what has actually been done, se shall see that it amounts to nothing: when bis written by the mis of a a certain operation, called multiplication by b, is directed ta be performed on a; except b be a number, we cannot obey ha direction; bat by writing 6 underneath, the direction is re-caled, so that a, which would be the result of the operations of mate cation and division in arithmetic, is here written down free of them effect being to leave a untouched. It is not necessary that we operations, because they neutralise one another: their combine should be able to assign the effect of the combination as and tam

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the effect upon this of the combination; it is enough that know, from the general laws of these combinations, that the second destroys the first and sets a free.

"It is more especially this recognition of the neutralising infes of certain algebraic combinations on one another, apart from a mere arithmetical considerations, that readers what are here ca impossible or imaginary quantities so available in algebra, a instruments of investigation, though not admissible into arithmet a, whether b be real or imaginary."

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GLOSSARY.

Most of our writers have aimed at plainness and clearness of expression. A few words may need explanation. Let it be membered, however, that we do not wish to save our readers t trouble of thinking; and also that many technical terms can better explained by their connexion with the subject than by any brief definition. Several words which occur in this part are explained in the Glossary in No. 5, page 78.

s., substantive; s.pl., substantive plural; e.a., verb active; t.n., verb neuter; a., adjective. ABSORPTION, . the act of swallowing up, or imbibing. APPELLATION, . a name, title, term.

APPRECIATE, v.a. to estimate, to value.

ARBITRATION, s. the settlement of any dispute by pers mutually chosen by the parties.

APPALLING, a. frightful, terrifying.

AUTOMATON, S. a machine which has apparently the pow of moving itself.

BRACK'ISH, a. saltish, like sea-water.

CARDINAL, a. principal, chief, eminent.

CATASTROPHE, s. a final event, generally of an unhapp! character.

CONCUSSION, s. the act of shaking; a shock.
COR'OLLARY, s. an inference, a deduction, surplus.
DISCRIMINATION, s. a distinction; act of distinguishing one
thing from another; a mark.

DOCILITY, s. aptness to be taught; teachableness.
ELUCIDA'TION, s. an explanation, or exposition.
EMER'GE, v.n. to rise out of, to issue from.

the world, dividing the globe into equal parts, north and south.
EQUATOR, 8. a great circle, equally distant from the poles of
EXPIRATION, 8. the act of breathing out; an end; death
FEROCIOUS, a. savage, fierce, cruel, rapacious.

of no moment.
FRIVOLITY, s. unimportance. FRIVOLOUS, a., slight, triffing.

GERMINATION, s. the act of sprouting; growth.
IMPREGNATE, v.a. to make prolific, or fruitful.

IN'DICATE, v.a. to point out, to show.

supernatural ideas. INSPIRATION, s. a drawing in of the breath; an infusing d

INUNDATION, s. an overflow of water; a deluge.

vegetation. JUNGLE, 8. land overgrown with trees, brushwood, and rank

MAGNAN'IMOUs, a. great minded, brave.

MAM'ALUKE, or MAM'ELUC, 8. an Egyptian horse-soldier.
MERCENARY, s. a hireling :-a. selfish, base.

PHENOMENON, s. a natural appearance; also any extraordinary appearance in the works of nature.

Sphinx, &c.; thus, Fenicia, Frygian, Sfinx, &c.
PH is sounded as F in such words as Phenicia, Phrygia
PRECARIOUS, a. uncertain, dependant.

PRECISION, a. exact limitation, great nicety.
PRECURSOR, 8. a forerunner, a harbinger.
PROBLEM, 8. a question proposed for solution or explanation
PROTU BERANCE, s. a swelling above the rest.
PROTRUSION, 8. the act of thrusting forward.

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PSAMMETICUS, PTOLEMY:-in all words beginning with Ps or plants called fungi. Pt, the Pis silent; pronounced Sammeticus, Tolemy.

RECEPTACLE, s. a place to receive things in.

RECOGNITION, s. an acknowledgment.

RESPIRATION, s. the act of breathing; relief by breathing.
SALUTARY, a. wholesome, healthful, safe.
STA'DIUM, s. a race-course; a space for combatants; also, the
eighth part of a Roman mile.

TAL'ENT, s. a certain weight or sum; the Jewish talent was 125 pounds in weight; a talent of gold was worth £5,475; a talent of silver, £375 6s.

TEME'RITY, S. rashness, unreasonable contempt of danger. THEOREM, s. a position laid down as an established truth; a given principle.

TRANSMIGRATION, s. a passage from one state, place, or body, into another. The philosopher Pythagoras, and his followers, believed that when a man died his soul passed into other bodies, including those of brute beasts. He pretended that his soul had lived in the bodies of several persons of preceding ages, whom he specified by name.

TROUBADOUR, s. a poet, or travelling minstrel.
UNDULATION, s. a rising and falling motion, like that of the

waves.

CORRESPONDENCE.

LEEDS CO-INSTRUCTION SOCIETY.

MR. S. VESLEY, of Kirkgate, Leeds, on behalf of Call-lane Mutual Improvement and Phonetic Society, most of whose members are subscribers to this work, writes to inform us, that as soon as our periodical was announced, they all determined to profit by its lessons, and to study them as we should see fit to give them out. He states that they have not been disappointed, but on the contrary highly gratified with our attempt to place at so reasonable a price, such valuable information within the reach of all. They have now a room adjoining Call-lane Chapel, Leeds, capable of accommodating about 100 persons, and by paying one penny per week, they are able to meet all expenses, and purchase the periodicals which are published at this office, and about a dozen others. They meet every Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday evenings, at eight o'clock, and close at half-past nine; on each evening they have writing, arithmetic, &c.; they have also a grammar | class, taught by Mr. Elisha Waite, on the plan and from the pages of the EDUCATOR; and a phonographic class on Wednesday evenings, under the care of our correspondent; while the other branches are under the care of Mr. Daniel Rider, cloth merchant, of the same town; and the Rev. Jabez Tunnicliffe is their president.. We are requested to give these statements in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, as it is believed that there are a number of our subscribers in the town who would be glad to join the society if they knew of its existence; and thus to increase its efficiency, by enabling it to employ able teachers for the different departments, which may appear in this work. The increase in the number of its members, would also enable the society to form themselves into classes for the study of those branches which would be most useful to them in their different employments, as they are fully aware of the advantages to be derived from union and co-operation. The society has not mustered a library of books yet, but this is in progress. To the Editor.

DEAR SIR,-I am much pleased to observe the success which is attending your labours in connexion with the POPULAR EDUCATOR, and am further gratified to observe that you propose to make arrangements for the delivery of Penny Lectures to the working classes, on the various subjects which are treated upon in the EDUCATOR. I think this suggestion a very valuable one, and likely to be greatly conducive to the elevation of the working classes. I am much accustomed to lecture to working men on various topics, such, for example, as phonography, temperance, electricity, astronomy, physiology, &c, and will be very glad to do as much as I possibly can to forward your scheme in this locality.

By the way, will you oblige by giving in your answers to correspondents some explanation of the phenomena frequently observable in meadow-fields,-viz., well defined rings of various sizes, from 1 foot to 6 feet in diameter, formed sometimes of beautifully-coloured long grass. and at other times of discoloured or short yellow grass; these rings are sometimes called fairy rings, which appellation is, perhaps, not very philosophical, and yet it is, nevertheless, about as much as is generally known respecting these remarkable circles.—I am, yours respectfully, 26, Granger-street, Newcastle-on-Tyne, T. P. BARKAS

VOCABULARY, s. a small dictionary, or list of words with explais nations of their meaning. ZOOLO'GICAL, a. describing living creatures; pertaining to library.] animals.

May 16, 1852. [FAIRY RINGS have been ascribed to various causes, the most satisfactory one appears to be that of Dr. Wollaston, who traces them to the

"During their growth," he says, "they so entirely absorb all nutriment from the soil beneath, that the herbage is for a while destroyed, and a ring appears, bare of grass, surrounding the dark ring. In the course of a few weeks, after the fungi have ceased to appear, the soil where they stood grows darker, and the grass soon vegetates again with peculiar vigour, so that I have seen the surface covered with dark grass, although the darkened soil has not exceeded half an inch in thickness, while that beneath has continued white with spawn, for about two inches in depth. The extent occupied by the spawn varies considerably, according to the season of the year, being greatest after the fungi have come to perfection, and is reduced to its smallest dimensions, and, in some instances, may not be discernible before the next year's crop begins to make its appearance.]

DEAN-STREET CO-INSTRUCTION SOCIETY.

SIR, I have the pleasure of informing you that there is a co-instruction society of young men, called the Soho Mutual Instruction Society, held at Little Dean-street, Soho. It is managed by a president vice-president, secretary, librarian, and eight committee-men. The members meet every quarter to appoint fresh officers and examine the books. Your valuable work, the POPULAR EDUCATOR, is much admired; a great number the members take it weekly.-I am, Sir, yours, &c., May 16, 1852. D. V. J.

[We observe, from a bill enclosed, that the subscription to this society 4d. per month; and that the classes are for reading, writing, grammar, spelling, arithmetic, mathematics, and French, with the use of a

EDUCATIONAL NOTICES.

A correspondent at Chatham states his willingness to devote one or two evenings a week to explain the English and the French languages, and arithmetic. He has been for twenty-seven years a national schoolmaster, and has had about 2,500 children under his charge He finds that fully five out of every six of that number have left school under fourteen years of age to go to work, and that their arithmetic and other mental acquirements are entirely forgotten, so that at the age of twenty years they can barely read and write. He offers his services to the new scheme with no other desire or expectation than the pleasure of succeeding in his undertaking.

Mr. Strachan, of Aberdeen, the author of an Introduction to Arith. metic; that is, to the four simple and compound rules, has sent us a copy, in which we find the proof of the simple rules by casting out the nines. The proof of subtraction is in principle the same as Mair's.

Mr. E. P. Hill, of Islington, states that from the appearance of our first number he has had an evening class for teaching French on the plan laid down in this work, and he hopes to be useful in promoting our scheme of education. He intends to teach the Latin and the German (as soon as it appears) on the same principle.

Mr. Simpson, of Low Torrie, proposes the simplest method of proving subtraction by casting out the nines; namely, cast them first out of the minuend, and note the result; then cast them out of the subtrahend and remainder, as if they were two numbers in addition, and note the result; the two results should be the same, if the operation of subtraction be right.

OF

LITERARY NOTICES. FINE EDITION OF THE POPULAR EDUCATOR.-EDUCATION FAMILIES.-No publication has ever been welcomed with such tokens of approval from heads of families as this last of JOHN CASSELL'S works. An EXTRA EDITION, at 1d. per number, or in Monthly Parts, in a neat wrapper, at 7d., or when Five Numbers, 8td., is now published, which is issued without the weekly headings. Persone wishing for this edition must be careful to order the "Extra Edition." The whole of the Numbers may now be obtained, or the first Twc Parts.-l'art I., 7d.; Part II., 8.

THE ILLUSTRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART.-The First Volume of this splendidly embellished work, handsomely bound, price 6s. 6d., or extra cloth gilt edges, 78. Cd., will be ready July 1, and will contain upwards of Two Hundred Principal engravings, and an equal number of Minor Engravings, Diagrams, &c. COMPLETION OF JOHN CASSELL'S LIBRARY.-This invaluable Work double is now complete in 26 Volumes, 7d. each in paper covers; The entire Series Volumes, cloth, 1s. 6d., or when 3 Vols. in 1, 28. 3d. may be had, bound in cloth, 198. 6d., or arranged in a Library Box, 258.

The EMIGRANT'S HANDBOOK, a Guide to the Various Fields of Emigration in all parts of the Globe, is now ready, price 6d.

THE PATHWAY, a Monthly Religious Magazine, is published on the 1st of every month, price twopence-32 pages enclosed in a neat wrapper. Vols. I. and II., neatly hound in cloth and lettered, price 28. 3d. each, are now ready.

PORTFOLIOS for enclosing 26 numbers of THE POPULAR EDUCATOR, price 1s. 6d., may be procured at our office. These Portfolios are so constructed as to form, upon the completion of each volume neat Case for binding the same, which will be done at a trifling exp by any bookbinder.

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