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geography? When did it assume the dignity of a science, and

ab who wrote a treatise on the subject? How did Eratosthenes ascer. " In the instance just adduced, namely = 2, an operation is up tain the approximate circumference of the earth? Who laid the

parently performed on pure symbols irrespective of all interpes toundation of astronomical geography? Who gave the best account in early times of Egypt, Ethiopia, and Abyssinia? Who tation; yet if we really look at what has actually been door made the first voyages to India from Egypt, and circumnavigated shall see that it amounts to nothing : when b is written by the ti

of a a certain operation, called multiplicati n by b, is direetes sa Africa?

be performed on a ; except b be a number, we cannot obey's direction; but by writing 6 underneath, the direction is re-caled

so that a, which would be iht result of the operations of suite IMAGINARY QUANTITIES.

cation and division in arithmetic, is bere written down free of the A VERY ingenious and useful work on Algebra has just been effect being to leave a untouched. It is not necessary them

operations, because they neutralise one another : their com put into our hands, written by J. R. Young, Esq., late Pro- should be able to assign the effect of the combinativa ab ea t22 fessor of Mathematics in the Royal Academical Institution, Belfast. In order to enable our more advanced readers to form the effect upon this of the combination õ; it is enough that some opinion of its merit, as an Elementary work, we give the know, from the general laws of these combinations, that she following extract:

second destross the first and sets a free. " Imaginary or impossible quantities, are those expressions

“It is more especially this recognition of the neutralising ini seng which indicate an even root of a negative quantity; the anthmetical of certain algebraic combinations on one another, apart frus : extraction of such a root being almost an impossibility, because no mere arithmetical consideratious, that readers what are bere cam even power of any number, whether positive or negative, can ever impossible or imaginary quantities so available in algebra, s be negative. Imaginary quantities thus differ essentially from instruments of investigation, though not admissible into arithaes cannot be accurately exhibited, solely because the quanti: y under 7 =a, whether o be real or imaginary." the radical sign differs from a complete power; yet a complete power may always be assigned which shall differ from the incom. plete one by a quantity less than any that can be proposed, so that the defect mentioned is never of any practical consequence. But an

GLOSSARY. imaginary quantity admits of no arithmetical representation Most of our writers have aimed at plainness and clearess either accurately or approximately : the bare idea of arithmetical expression. A few words may need explanation. Les is be value is altogether excluded from it ; the symbol -4 implie, an membered, however, that we do not wish to sure our readers operation upon the — 4 of impossible performance; so that if such trouble of thinking; and also that many technical terms as die a symbol were to occur in the answer to any question, we should better explained by their connexion with the subject than be at once conclude that the solution to that question, in real num. brief detinition. Several words which occui la inis pars are es bers, is an impossibility; and, consequently, that the conditions to plaitied in the Glossary in No. 5, page 78. be satisfied are incompatible or contradictory. Imaginary quanti. ties thus subserve a very important purpose: whenever they pre

8., substantive ; s.pl., substantive plural; 0.a., verb actire, sent themselves as here supposed, they effectually apprise us of

0.n., vérb neuter; a., adjective. concealed absurdities among the conditions upon which our reason. ABSOR'PTION, o. the act of swallowing up, or imbibing. ing has been based, or which we are aiming to satisfy, and which APPELLATION, 1. a name, title, term. might otherwise involve us in bewilderment or error. They are APPRECIATE, v.a. to estimate, to value. thus necessary to give completeness and certainty to our algebraic ARBITRATION, s. the settlement of any dispute by pena results, and on these grounds alone are valuable items in our mutually chosen by the parties. system of symbols. But independently of this office of imaginary APPA'LLING, a. frighisul, terrifying. quantities, by which they inform us of the fact when the solution AUTOM'ATON, 8. a machine which has apparently the power of a question is impossible, algebraists turn them to important of moving itself. account as direct instruments of investigation; frequently inuo. BRACK'ISH, a, saltish, like sea-water. ducing them with great advantage into inquiries having reference CAR'DINAL, a. principal, chief, eminent. only to real quantities, and terminating only in real results. Catas'tuOPHE,' s, a final event, generally of an unhappy

"In his first steps in the study of algebra, the learner naturally character. looks upon the new symbols of quantity to which he is intro- Concus'ston, s. the act of shaking; a shock, duced as nothing more than the familiar figures of arithmetic in COROLLAUY, 8. an inference, a deduction, surplus, disguise. It is not easy, nor would it be prudent to correct this DiscuiMiN'ATION, 8. a distinction; act of distinguishing se too limited nution at the outset ; the more comprehensive scope thing from another; a mark. of the symbolic language of algebra gradually unfolds itself to Doci’LITY, 8. aptness to be taught; teachableness. him as he proceeds, till he at length comes to combine his cha- ELUCIDA'TION, 8. an explanation, or exposition. racters and con'ract his expressions without any thought to. EMERGE, v.n. to rise out of, to issue from. wards the numerical processes bearing the same names as those EQUATOR, 8. a great circle, equally distant from the poles of which enter into his symbolical combination. In fact, the im- the world, dividing the globe into equal parts, north and south. por tant truth discovers itself by degrees, that the thing called EXPIRATION, s. the act of breathing out; an end; death. algebra is a science in which symbois of any interpretation FERO'cious, a. sarage, fierce, cruel, rapacious. whatever are subjected to certain prescribed laws of combina- Frivo’lity, 8. unimportance. Fui'volors, a., slight, trifting tion, in obedience to which various operations may be performed of no moment. and various results obtained without any reference to the par. GERMINATION, 8, the act of sprouting; growth. ticular characters of arithmetic. This latier science is no doubt IMPREO'NATE, v.a. to make prolific, or fruitful. suggestive of the synabulical science of algebra ; and the learner INÓDICATE, v.a. to point out, to show. Bufficiently sees that its laws of combina'ion actually become INSPIRA'TION, s. a' drawing in of the breath ; an infusing 3 those of arithmetic, when the particular symbols of the latter re- supernatural ideas. place the more general symbols of the former. In fact, he further INUNDA’TION, s an overflow of water ; a deluge. sees that, till these general symbols are so replaced by those of JUN'OLE, a. land overgrown with trees, brushwood, and rask arithmetie, many of the so-called operations of a gebra are but vegetation. operations indicated, uut operations erecuted. If we have to MAGNAN’IMOUS, 4. great minded, brave. multiply a by b, we write ab or a xb, and say that the thing is done ; MAM'ALUKE, or MAM’ELUC, s. an Egyptian horse-soldier. although, in truth, nothing is done, although something, by the MERCENARY, 8. a hircling :-a. selfish, base. sign of operation, is indicated; we have no idea of the actual per- Pile OM'ENON, 8. a natural appearance; also any extraordinary formance except each symbol, or the multiplier at least, be inter appearance in the works of nature. preted by a number; yet is the so-called product ab is to be divided Pu is sounded as F in such words as Phenicia, Phrygian by b, there is no doubt that the result is a, whatever the multiplier Sphinx, &c.; thus, Fenicia, Frygian, sf nx, &c. ó may have been : whether a number or something having no PRECA'RIOUS, a, uncertain, dep niant. arithmetical meaning. It is true that in the latter case the term PRECI'NION, a, exact limitation, great nicety.

muitiplier' might be objected to as not sufficiently significant, but Precur'box, s, a forerunner, a harbinger.
a similar objection might be made to nearly every term introduced
from arithmetic into algebra: the terms have a more comprehensive

Prox'LEX, 8. a question proposed for solution or suplanadian

PROTU'RERANCE, s. a swelling above the rest. meaning as well as the symbols

PROTRU’S108, s. the act of thrusting forward.

Psaume'nicus, PTOL'EMY :-in all words beginning with Ps or plants called fungi. " During their growth," he says, "they so entirely Pl, the Pis silent; pronounced Sammeticus, Tolemy.

absorb all nutrimeut from the soil beneath, that the herbage is for a RECEP'TAOLE, S. a place to receive things in.

while destroyed, and a ring appears, bare of grass, surrounding the dark RECOGNITION, s, an acknowledgment.

ring. In the course of a few weeks, after the fuugi huve ceased to RESPIRA'TION, s. the act of breathing ; relief by breathing. appear, the soil where they stood grows darker, and the grass soon vegeSAL'UTARY, a. wholesome, healthful, safe.

tates again with peculiar vigour, so that I have seen the surface covered STA'DIUM, s. a race-course; a space for combatants; also, the with dark grass, although the darkened soil has not exceeded half an eighih part of a Roman mile.

inch in thickness, while that beneath has continued white with spawn, TAL'ENT, s, a certain weight or sum; the Jewish talent was 125 for about two inches in depth. The extent occupied by the apawn pounds in weight; a talent of gold was worth £5,475; a talent of varies considerably, according to the season of the year, being greatest silver, £375 6s.

after the fungi have come to perfection, and is reduced to its smallest TEMBʻRITY, 8. rashness, unreasonable contempt of danger. dimensions, and, in some instances, may not be discernible before the

Tue'OREM, s. a position laid down as an established truth; a next year's crop begins to make its appearance.) given principle.

DEAN-STREET CO-INSTRUCTION SOCIETY. TRANSMIGRATION, s. a passage from one state, place, or body, SIR,—I have the pleasure of informing you that there is a co-ininto another. The philosopher Pythagoras, and his followers, be struction society of young men, called the Soho Mutual Instruction lieved that when a man died his soul passed into other bodies, Society, held at Little Dean-street, Soho. It is managed by a president including those of brute beasts. He pretended that his soul had vice-president, secretary, librarian, and eight committee-men. The lived in the bodies of several persons of preceding ages, whom he members meet every quarter to appoint fresh officers and examine the specified by name.

books. Your valuable work, the POPULAR EDUCATOR, is much admired ; TROU'BADOUR, s. a poet, or travelling minstrel.

a great number the members take it weekly.-I am, Sir, yours, &c., UNDULA'TION, s. a rising and falling motion, like that of the

May 16, 1852.

D. V. J. waves.

(We observe, from a bill enclosed, that the subscription to this society VOCAB'ULARY, 8. a small dictionary, or list of words with expla. is 4d. per month; and that the classes are for reading, writing, gramnations of their meaning.

mar, spelling, arithmetic, mathematics, and French, with the use of a ZOOLO'GICAL, a. describing living creatures; pertaining to library.] animals.


A correspondent at Chatham states his willingness to devote one or

two evenings a week to explain the English and the French languages, LEEDS CO-INSTRUCTION SOCIETY.

aud arithmetic. He has been for twenty-seven years a national schoolMR. S. VESLEY, of Kirkgate, Leeds, on behalf of Call-lane Mutual master, and has had about 2,500 children under his charge He finds Improrement and Phonetic Society, most of whose members are sub- that fully five out of every sic of that number have left school under scribers to this work, writes to inform us, that as soon as our periodical fourteen years of age to go to work, and that their arithmetic and other was announced, they all determined to profit by its lessons, and to mental acquirements are entirely forgotten, so that at the age of twenty study them as we should see fit to give them out. He states that they years they can barely read and write. He offers his services to the new have not been disappointed, but on the contrary highly gratified with scheme with no other desire or expectation than the pleasure of sucour attempt to place at so reasonable a price, such valuable information ceeding in his undertaking. within the reach of all. They have now a room adjoining Call-lane Mr. Strachan, of Aberdeen, the author of an Introduction to Arith: Chapel, Leeds, capable of accommodating about 100 persons, and by metic; that is, to the four simple and compound rules, has sent us a paying one penny per week, they are able to meet all expenses, and copy, in which we find the proof of the simple rules by casting out the purchase the periodicals which are published at this office, and about a nines. The proof of subtraction is in principle the same as Mair's. dozen others. They meet every Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Mr. E. P. Hill, of Islington, states that from the appearance of our Friday evenings, at eight o'clock, and close at half-past nine ; on each first number he has had an evening class for teaching French on the evening they have writing, arithmetic, &c.; they have also a grammar plan laid down in this work, and he hopes to be useful in promoting our class, taught by Mr. Elisha Waite, on the plan and from the pages of scheme of education. He intends to teach the Latin and the German the EDUCATOR ; and a phonographic class on Wednesday evenings, (as soon as it appears) on the same principl under the care of our correspondent; while the other branches are Mr. Simpson, of Low Torrie, proposes the simplest method of proving under the care of Mr. Daniel Rider, cloth merchant, of the same town ; subtraction by casting out the nines; namely, cast them first out of the and the Rev. Jabez Tunnicliffe is their president.. We are requested to minuend, and note the result; then cast them out of the subtrabend give these statements in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, as it is believed that and remainder, as if they were two numbers in addition, and note the there are a number of our subscribers in the town who would be glad result; the two results should be the same, if the operation of subtracto join the society if they knew of its existence; and thus to increase tion be right. its efficiency, by enabling it to employ able teachers for the different departments, which may appear in this work. Tho increase in

LITERARY NOTICES, the number of its members, would also enable the society to FINE EDITION OF THE POPULAR EDUCATOR.-EDUCATION OF form themselves into classes for the study of those branches which FAMILIES.— No publication has ever been welcomed with such tokens would be most useful to them in their different employments, as they of approval from heads of families as this last of John CASSELL'S ure fully aware of the advantages to be derived from union and co-ope-works. An EXTRA EDITION, at 1 d. per number, or in Monthly ration. The society has not mustered a library of books yet, but this is Parts, in a neat wrapper, at 7d., or when Five Numbers, 84d., is now in progress.

published, which is issued without the weekly headings. Persone Tb the Editor,

wishing for this edition must be careful to order the “ Extra Edition." DEAR SIR.—I am much pleased to observe the success which is at

The whole of the Numbers may now be obtained, or the first Two tending your labours in connexion with the Popular EDUCATOR, and Parts.- l'art I., 7d.; Part II., 84. am further gratified to observe that you propose to make arrangements

THE ILLUSTRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART.-The for the delivery of Penny Lectures to the working classes, on the

First Volume of this splendidly embellished work, handsomely bound, various subjects which are treated upon in the EDUCATOR. I think this price 68. 6d., or extra cloth gilt edges, 78. od., will be ready July 1, suggestion a very valuable one, and likely to be greatly conducive to and will contain upwards of Two Hundred Principal engravings, and the elevation of the working classes. I am much accustomed to lecture an equal number of Minor Engravings. Diagrams. &c. to working men on various topics, such, for example, as phonography,

COMPLETION OF JOHN CASSELL'S LIBRARY.-This invaluable Work temperance, electricity, astronomy, physiology, &c, and will be very is now complete i n 26 Volumes, 7d. each in paper covers ; double

The entire Series glad to do as much as I possibly can to forward your scheme in this Volumes, cloth, 18. 6d., or when 3 Vols. in 1, 28. 3d. locality.

may be had, bound in cloth, 198. 6d., or arranged in a Library Box, By the way, will you oblige by giving in your answers to correspond 25.3. ents some explanation of the phenomena frequently observable in

The EMIGRANT'S HANDBOOK, a Guide to the Various Fields of meadow-fields, -viz, well defined rings of various sizes, from 1 foot to Emigration in all parts of the Globe, is now ready, price 6d. 6 feet in diameter, formed sometimes of beautifully-coloured long grass.

THE PATHWAY, a Monthly Religious Magazine, is published on the and at other times of discoloured or short yellow grass ; these rings are

1st of every month, price twopence-32 pages enclosed in a neat sometimes called fairy rings, which appellation is, perhaps, not very wrapper, Vols. I. and II., neatly hound in cloth and lettered, price philosophical, and yet it is, nevertheless, about as much as is generally 28. 3d. each, are now ready. knowo respecting these remarkable circles.-I am, yours respectfully, ** PORTFOLIOS for enclosing 26 numbers of THE POPULAR EDU26, Granger-xtreet, Newcastle-on-Tyne, T. P. BARKAS CATOR, price 1s. 6d., may be procured at our office. These Portfolios May 16, 1852.

are so constructed as to form, upon the completion of each volume, a (FAIRY RINGs have been ascribed to various causes, the most satis- neat Case for binding the same, which will be done at a trifling expense factory one appears to be that of Dr. Wollaston, who traces them to the I by any bookbinder.

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D. R. (Glasgow): Yes.-GRATULATOR is right; the corrections MR. GALT (Glasgow) is right; thanks for his communication.- P. C.: Chemistry; but what can

either have been or will be wade.-A SUBSCRIBER earnestly requests It can; for the wisdom of Solomon or Solomon's wisdom, means the same

let him only look at what thing.–MUNGO: Order required; French, Italian, German.

we have to do to please, interest, and instruct so many.-P. R. BS

the man for us ; we shall do what we can for him; we shall keep J. B.-We are of opinion, that Y-grec is so called not for its sound Lessons on Carpentry, Joinery, &c., in our eye, until we get an oppor but its form, which is that of upsilon in Greek.

tunity of giving him some hints on the subject. Suggestions, among which are some of great value, have been received from the followiog readers and subscribers :-William Tucker, Hoxton : lent.-J.

H.O. The only correct expression is. " thou wentest

Thomas PATTISON (Newcastle-on-Tyne). His solution is very excelA Subscriber, Birmingham; A. A. Fryer, Inner Temple ; Schwarz, Liverpool; Charles Currie, Glasgow : Amicus; F. G., Sunderland ; are very good companions, especially as you have a liking for thes,

" thou didst go."—R. E. Try both the Latin and the Mathematics, they W. R., Edinburgh; Benjamin Williams, Norwich. Crux (Snainton) will find his query answered at page 59, col. 1, No. spite of yourself; and if you feel inclined to flag at any time, remembe

this is the first and great point in all studies; it will carry you an in 4.-JAMES JAMIESON, Aberdeen, will find his difficulties removed in the adage, fortuna faret fortibus, " fortune favours the brave : " or, Likening the answers to C. L., p. 112, and J. S. R., p. 128.-M. J, Perthshire: the studies to two ladies to be won (a species of bigamy perfectly las Quite right.-T. E. VIBERT, St. John's wood : Correct, but the 3rd ful), keep in mind the poet's words, “ None but the brave deserve the prop. of Book I. is used.-J. ORD: Right. --- Mr. ARCHER (Brighton) fuir." must address his inquiries to us.--S. Wood, Macclesfield: Right, but rather short.-31. J.H.: The plan on the first page of No. 7 will pro fear that there are some persons who take a delight in science est

With T. R (a subscriber) we certainly agree in the general; yet ** bably meet his views –J. AB1 WORTH, Crawshaw booth: Correct.A LEARNER; C. : Yes.-J. S. K. is right on all points but the last, for learning, who would still think it no harm to tease their fellow-cos which let him consult Latham.--A. B C. : Riddle's.-W. E. H.: The tures, and have a little fun with them if they could; it is but bunun e is silent at the end of words except when accented acutely, thus é.- nature. Now, we wish if possible to raise them above even this part of JOSEPH WEBSTER : Under consideration.

their nature. But our correspondent need not be alarmed, as the lady's J. K. S. B. (Belfast).—His solutions are all right, and do him credit. friend said to her in a country church, “ we are not going to sing tak One of the subjects he mentions is begun ; the other will follow in due is, we are not going to reprini Chesterheld, as new. time.- A SUBSCRIBER wants lessons in dra wing: they will be given.Joseph Cork, Belfast, shall be gratified soon by the history of Persia.- they must be calculated separately: there is no telp for it. Bech »

P. P. HAYES (Chorley) – If the flags have no dimensions in con ALFRED B. is anticipated; the Lessons on Geography are begun.

the Law of nature. If they have all the sune length, bat diseres: B. W. M.: Conchology must take its turn; but it shall have it.-A breadths; add the breadths together; multiply the sum by the cons YOUNG STUDENT is informed that they are always sounded in the length, and you have the superficial area of all the flags. If they have middle of words ; but not at the end, except they be marked with the all the same breadth, but different lengths, add the lengths together, acute accent, thus été (aytay) summer. – DUNCE: We very much regret multiply

the sum by the common breadth : and you have the superfici that some misprints have annoyed many readers; and among others a

area of all the flags. On this subject, we speak positirely and de painstaking subscriber who assumes this signature. It is not his fault, The lessons

in geometry will be carried as far as he wishes and farthe but the printer's and ours. Saepe means often.-D. N. Ayrshire, is

too. As to former questions, he must have overlooked the answer. very correct in his solution.—PALLIO: Yes.

GEORGE DARNELL (Birmingham) has forwarded the first subscrip- P. T. S.- The statement about which he inquires is a misprint; it Lion to the POPULAR EDUCATION FUND, and suggests that the first should have been Loch Greenock. lectures should be on English Grammar.

Solutions of all the geometrical problems recently proposed bare LATIN.—Non omnia nimirum omnibus dii dedere, in English is, tha been received from MATTHEW SPEARS, Glasgow, we shall take az gods have certainly not given all things to all men; that is, to these they early opportunity of noticing them more particularly. The solation have given some things; to those, others.-R. M. B. will in time be of j. J. N-n, Bridgewater, is barely within the prescribed limits instructed how to "put the day of the month;" all things cannot be

- The solution of STUDENS, Dalry, is very good.-G. W., Dundee taught at once. Domine is the equivalent of Sir.---Let J. H. E. learn is right. - John Mahoney. Dublin, right. - R. A., Dublin, wü to believe, if he wishes to become a scholar.-C. A. S. will learn by-and find answers to the rest of his questions among the notices to correo by that the verb est has the same case after it that it has before it :-pondents in preceding numbers. - We advise G. R. 11-L to conšie consequently praedam is wrong ; he translates the sentence correctly. himself to one language at present; say French, for the reason be laus

Let s. 21. study carefully what we have said respecting the inversion stated. - J. F-D, Poland-btreet, has proposed a plan for squaring the and collocation of words, and his difficulties will be removed.-J. L. circle, which is far inferior to the methods now known to mathems DERMER's inference is unwarranted; if he will have a little patience he

ticians. It can be demonstrated that the diameter of a circle is in goswill be taught the exact force of the interrogatory particle.--- P. P. is mensurable with the side of a square equal to it in area ; but the ma wrong in saying that " ornemini is given," &c. Orno has 1 after it, or these two straiglit lines can be given, by approximation, to any eignifying that it follows the form of the first conjugation. Conjugation degree of accuracy required. --A LEARNER, Warrington, should av has to do not with meaning, but certain variations of form. Should

study geology, the first lesson being given in this number — [s we go on to treat of synonyms, P. P. will be instructed in the difference FRANÇAIS : Yes. - A Subscriber, Guernsey: Yes.- W. G-9, Yeovil between amo and diligo. It is not well to anticipate. By so doing we His plan is not practicable; but the index of the volume will answer should teach nothing well, and our students would learn nothing well.

all the purpose required.-J. H E-D, Middleton : Right.-RW, 14 - Let G. C. pronounce Latin words as he would pronounce correspond. W.8, Audenskaw: lhe e is not sounded in the last three words and ing English words, with such limitations as are mentione

very slightly heard in the first two-W. L- N, Newark ; GREEK : Je Lessons. To follow his suggestion would be to fill our pages with gro-J. R. Glasgow: The old nam-s show the continental movie of pro tesque combinations of letters. - A MECHANIC's exercise is correct. The nunciation ; the new pames, the English mode. "art" as in "art taught," is included in the one Latin word doceris. Unus ex tuis discipulis (which should be unus e discipulis tuis), is We have received a great number of solutions of the problems partly wrong, partly right. Funestum, i, n. is correct, being the neuter and queries proposed in the preceding numbers of this work. Most at clension is e long. Merces as a collective noun or a noun of multitude, these solutions are excellent and do great credit to their authors, and a may have a verb in the plural number.

few are defective. We have endeavoured to notice a great many in our ERRATA IN SOME COPIES.

answers to correspondents ; but we find that these notices are not always

consulted as they ought to be ; we would therefore recommend allow Line 36 from top, col. 1, p. 5, for ta cemus read tacemus.

readers to peruse them, as they will often find in them a solution ! 28

2, p. 35, or I conquer read I bind.
2, p. 35, for stay read slay.

difficulties which may occur, as well as the correction of important 1, p. 36. for nor read non.

Some will also be saved the trouble of writing for an explads1, p. 70, for after read often.

tion of things already explained to others, and sometimes even to the 15 from bottom, col. 2, p. 71, for magnus read amplur.

selves. We have not yet potced the numerous methods of proving 1, p. 72, for fecundis read fecundus. 1. p. 72, for celeritur road celeriter.

arithmetical rules by casting out the nines, which we have received; and 35 from top, col. 2, p. 92, for cardinis read cardinis. for this reason, that we have not quite finished the explanation of the

2, p 92, for decoris r ad decoris. four common rules ; when this has been done, we shall then take up
1, p. 103, for acres (under N.) read acria

this subject in good earnest.
1. p. 103, for acris read acer,
2, p. 103, for feminibus read feminis.
2, p. 103, for feminibus rcad feminig.

Printed and Published by John Cassell, 335, Strand, and Ludgate-bill,

London.-June 5, 1852,


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The object of the author of the following German Lessor. 8, is | 3. , i=.i, as in pique, pin. Ex. mir, to me; mit, with ; thx to unite theory and practice; to introduce, one by one, the him ; wider, against; bitter, bitter. easier forms and usages of the language; and to direct the 4. 0,0= 0, as in no, door. Ex. Dren, stove; Mood, moss ; student's attention to the more obvious differences between Kohie, coal ; Port, port; Post, post-office. the German and the English. He will be supplied, through-5. u, u = 00 or o, as in poor, do. Ex. Blut, blood ; Du, thou; out the various exercises, with the materials necessary for Uhr, watch ; Hut, hat ; gut, good. their due performance. Every section is headed with the 6. 9, $ = i, (mostly in words from the Greek). Ex. Urop, statement and illustration of all new principles involved, with hyssop; Styr, Styx ; pern, Ypres. an explanation of words and phrases, and a vocabulary alpha- The sound of a vowel when doubled is thereby lengthened ; betically arranged. To render these Lessons complete, there

as, Aal, Meer, Moos; followed by a double consonant, the vowels will be given at the end a series of reading lessons, and a full

are usually shortened ; as, Blatt, Brett, Sinn, Gott, &c. See, vocabulary. The whole is specially intended for those who however, 18. H. aim at the acquisition of the German language without a

Dissyllables (See Vocabulary), unless otherwise noted, are teacher,

accented on the first; as, leben, Ghre, &c. SECTION I.

Sounds of the Diphthongs,

7. Ai, ai (sometimes aj or ay) =ay nearly, as in aye. Ex. Kaiser, GERMAN ALPHABET.

emperor ; Baiern, Bavaria ; Mai, May. German. English Pronunciation. Examples.

8. Au, au -- ou, as in our. Ex. Haus, house; Maus, mouse; ah Alt.

laut, loud ; Faust, fist; Braut, bride. B b b bay


9. Gi, ey = i or ei, as in fine, eider. Ex. Stein, stone; bein, tsay Geber.

thy (ie = ie, as in pier; never as in pie. Ex. viel, &c.. d day


1. Gll, eu =nearly to oi or oy, as in boil, boy. Ex. Beute, booty; e (as in prey) Gben.

Pcute, people; heuen, to hay. $ f f eff


11. rlen, iu = nearly to eu. Ex. Aeußerst, extreme; Häusen, to hoard 9 8 gay Geben.

Kiufer, buyer ; Väusler, cottager. 6 6 h hah


. 3

Sounds of the Umlauts (Umlaute). i

i i (as in pique) Ihnen. i j yote


Umlaut signifies changed or modified sound. The Umlauts E k kah


are produced by a union of e with a, e, u (also ar respectively. 1

Except when they are capitals, the e is expressed by two dots; Elle. ell

thus, å, o, ů (and au). M

12. Ac, å = somewhat (though shorter) like e.

Ex. Aergit,

vexation; Fahre, ferry.

13. De, o, as in Del

, oil; Pöbel, populace; tötten, to kill ; Röhre, р pay Peter.

pipe ; Köhler, collier. 9

14. ue, ii, as in Uebung, practice; müde, weary; führen, to guide ; q koo

Qual. err (as in error)

Müller, miller.

Grretten. í 9 (21. S.) s


De and Ue have no corresponding sound in English. Del tay Thce. (See 18. H.) and mūde, for example, might, perhaps, be generally understood,

if pronounced, ale, meede, but this is by no means the correct o (as in do) Ufer.

pronunciation. De is pretty accurately given by the French eu V fow (ow as in now) Bolf.

in peur, and ů, by the French u in vu.


Sounds of the Consonants.
y ipsilon


15. B, 6; D, d; F, f; S, 1; 9, 1; M, m; N, n; Þ. ¥; 0,9; 3 3


X, r;=b, d, f, k, l, m, n, p, q, x. In German, every letter, with the exception sometimes of 16. O, c, before a consonant, at the end of a syllable, or before

a, o, u in the same syllable, sounds like our corresponding e and h, is pronounced. (See 3. i., 9 ie and 18. 5.)

letter in like position. Otherwise it sounds like ts. Ex. The printed capitals of i and i, in German, are in form alike. Gever, cedar ; Cigarre, cigar; Cymbal, cymbal ; special, DIPHTHONGS. UMLAUTS (12. Ae, &c.).


17. O, sounds like our g in gild, foggy, &c., but never as in ai, au, ei, cu, åu.

å, o, ů.

gem, ginger, &c.

When preceded by 1 in the same COMPOUND CONSONANTS.

syllable, it sounds like our g hard in like position; as in đ, fd, ff, ft, 6, 8.


, anxiety; singen, to sing ; bringen, to bring; Ringel, ck. sh. ss. st. ss. ts.

ringlet, &c. When g, in ihe midst or at the end of a

syllable, is preceded by any letter except 11, its sound SECTION II.

approaches that of the Greek x, or the still more gut.

tural cy. (See 26. ch.) Ex. Tag, regnen, Magd, Jagd, möglich, Sounds of the Vowels.

&c. The learner should avoid confounding the pro.

nunciation of Magd, Jagt, &c., with that of Macht, 1. A, a=a, as in far, father. Ex. Markt, market; Aal, eel;

Jacht, &c. Bahn, road ; Blatt, leaf ; Abend, evening.

18. H, ḥ, in the midst and at the end of a syllable is silent, but 2 @, e=e, as in met, ferry. Ex. leben, to live; Meer, sea; serves to lengthen the preceding vowel. Ex. lebreir

, to Ehre, honour ; besser, better ; Messer, knife.

teach ; ohne, without; Thee, tea. VOL. I.




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19. 3, i, sounds like y consonant. Ex. Jaht, year; Januar, lesson ; Gallcuta, Calcutta; Contract, contract; Tur, cure January ; jung, young.

Gement, cement; Gider, cider; Gylinter, cylinder. 20. R, t, is uttered with a trill or vibration of the tongue, and G. Gabe, gift ; geben, to go; Giraffe, giraffe ; geben, to give ; Geit,

with greater stress than our r. Ex. Rohr, reed; Hath, gold; groß, large; Ring, ring; bringen, to bring ; grün, green; council; reif, ripe.

grau, gray; ruhig, quiet; eig, eternal; Berg, mountain. 21. S s, at the beginning of a syllable followed by a vowel, has 5. Guíe, hare; bart, hard; Øunger, hunger; Dorizont, horizon

a sound between that of z and s. Ex. Sohn, son ; fieben, Mebl, four; mehr, inore.
seven; otherwise it sounds like s; as in Gas, gas; Strom, 3 Jüngling youth ; Jute, Jew; ja, yes; Joseph, Joseph ; Juli
stream. Note, that at the end of a syllable & is substituted July; Jurist, jurist,
for s: as above, Gas, &c.

R. Reif, ripe ; reit, rich; Reft, rest; rar, rare; Rudfiat, regerd; 22. I, t, sounds like t in tent. Ex. Tert, text. In the position, Form, form ; Rathsel, enigma.

where in English, t sounds like sh, t has the sound of t8. S. Sattel, saddle; Segel, sail; Speer, spear; Spros, sprout; Ex. Station, station ; Nation, nation, &c.

starf, strong; Strumpf, stocking i Süb, south; Reid, rice; 23. B, , sounds like f, as in fife. Ex. Vater, father ; vergeben, to Straße, street; wijen, to know.

forgive. It is only in words from the Latin and French T. Thích, table; Tarif, tariff ; Tempel, temple ; Truppe, troop i
that v sounds like w: as, in Venue, Venus; Versailles, Ver. Titel, title ; Devastation, devastation.
sailles, &c.

B. Vamryr, vampire ; Vaie, vase; Bere, verse ; Bieline, violin; 24. m, ww, has a sound between that of our w and v. Ex. Welt, Vinte, visit; Valvation, valuation. world; Wasset, water, &c.

W. Bort, word; Wurm, worm; Wunder, wonder ; Wille, will; 25. 3, & sounds like ts. Ex. Salg, salt; Zahn, tooth; Zunge, Wagen, wagon; Wanterer, wanderer. tongue; zehn, ten.

3. 3unf, zinc; Zuhl, number; zahm, tame; Zeit, time ; Zentne

hundred-weight; Holz, wood. Sounds of the Compound Consonants.

Ch flads, flax; svrechen, to speak; wachsam, watchful ; Chor, choir 26. Ch, oh, in primitive words when followed by ľ, &, has the Gbaujsce, turnpike.

sound of k. Ex. Dache, badger; One or Dale, ox. But Sch. Schaft, shaft; Scatten, shadow; Schnee, snow; frijd, fresh; if (, 6, be added by derivation, combination, or infiection, Sdilt, shield, sign.

has its guttural sound; as, in hoch, nach, Diacht, Buch, 6. ff. Fleiß, diligence ; Fließ, fleece ; lassen, to let; bafien, to bate; &c. Ex. Nastschrift (from nady, after, and Striji, writing); Haš, hatred; baslic, ugly. uadrinnen (from nach and finnen, to think), &c. In words 6 (3). Hille, heat ; Rep, log ; fipeln, to tickle; ichiraßen, to prattle ; from the Greek and French, d retains its original sound; wißen. to perspire; kurz, short; diary, black. as, in Charafter, character; Gharlatan, charlatan.

Rath rol 27. So, ích, sounds like sh. Ex. Sbuh, shoe ; Smiff, ship ; schon,

Vier Jahre bleibt er aus,

Erst weiß wie Sánce already : Schule, school,

Taid fommt er nat Gaus, 28 B (though compounded of i and s) sounds like lī, and is

Dann grün wie Slet, used only at the end of a syllable. Ex. Maß, measure ;

Und zeigt fint witter,

Dann rotb wie Blut, Fluß, river, &c.

Im Kreis seiner Brüder.

Dann fdmedt es gut. 29. $ (though compounded of t and 3) sounds like, but like B

is only employed at the end of a syllable. Ex. Stuk, Play, &c. Note, that this letter being a double consonant,

LESSONS IN MUSIC.-No, V. the preceding vowel is thereby shortened.

By JOHN CURWEN. To aid in producing the sound of ď, take for experiment the The propER MANAGEMENT OF THB voice in singing is of great above word bec: pronounce h o precisely like our word ho; importance, and will require a few suggestions from us. First observing to give as full and distinct a breathing of the h at the notice that a sound of the voice in singing is distinctly held close, as at the beginning; thus, h-o-h = het. Except when and continues the same from the beginning to the end.' 11 preceded by a, o, or ", as will be perceived by experiment, a which has a change in it called an "intlection." A sound of

thus distinguished from the speaking voice, each sound of slight hissing sound of e, or ích naturaily attaches to the ty; as, the singing voice is commonly called a "note"—though the in redt, reid), ich, Grieche, &c.

word note is more properly limited to the mark upon paperEXERCISE 1.

the sign of a sound. With a violin you can produce either :

note" or an “inflection.” Press your finger steadily on the (a) Altar, altar ; Paar, pair ; Ahle, awl; Balsam, balsam; baten, upper part of a string, while you draw the bow, and that wa to bathe ; Psalm, psalm.

give you a clear and beautiful note. But if, instead of that, you (e) Heer, host; mehr, more; edel, noble ; &nte, end ; letter, letter ; move your finger up or down the string, while you draw this Herbst, autumn. bow, that will give you an inflection. You perceive, therefore

, (i) Trinken, to drink; finden, to find; Biber, beaver ; Þier, here; that a note ought to have nothing of the inflection about it, --Kind, child.

scraping” up or down as some sing, but it should be clear (0) Boot, boat; hohl, hollow; oft, often; Hobel, plane ; Koller, steady, and distinct. collar; Koffer, trunk.

To produce a good note, the singer should be in an easy (u) Fuß, foot; gut, good; unten, below; Pubel, poodle; Kudur, posture, with his head upright and his shoulders back, so as to cuckoo ; Muth, courage.

allow the muscles of the chest and the larynx (that little bor (9) Nymphe, nymph ; Rhythmus, rhythm ; Sylbe, syllable ; synonym, in the throat which we can feel with our fingers) to have fret synonym; Syrup, syrup.

movement. His mouth should be moderately open. His (ai, ei). Main, Maine; mein, my; faib, loaf; leib, body; Rain, tongue should lie down, just touching the roots of the lower Cain ; feira, no.

teeth ; and his lips should have the position most easily of: (au) Bauen, to build ; Mauer, wall; grau, gray; Raum, room; plained by referring, to that of a gentle smile, but really rauh, rough.

expressing no smile and giving no emotional expression. (du, eu) Raumig, roomy: reuen, to rue ; Haute

, skins ; heute, to- Some teachers require a small cork of the thickness of a little day ; Hauptling, chieftain.

finger, or the little finger itself to be placed between the back (a, c) Achre, car (of corn); Männer, men ; leben, to live ; Krahe, teeth during the earlier exercises. We have a friend who to crow; nämlich, namely; nehmen, to take.

impruve his voice for speaking, used to read aloud for half a (0) Löffel , spoon ; Deffnung, opening; öfters, oftener; röthlich, his front teeth. Of course this did not cultivate his enunciado

hour before breakfast every morning with a large cork between (ú) Uebel, evil; fünf, five; Nüffel, proboscis; Krüppel, cripple; the larynx and lungs, and prevented his over-exertion of the Jünger, disciple. EXERCISE 2.

throat, so that he could speak in public with the greatest edo

and without the slightest fatigue of voice, as we have bed Flasse, class ; Greatur, creature ; Criminal, criminal; Section, ample proof, nearly a whole day long.

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