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The pupil who would learn to sing without fatigue, should | to our work. The self-educator, however, must summon to practise, for a few minutes every day, the taking a full inspi- his aid sturdy determination and steady perseverance. А ration into the lungs, and then giving out the air very slowly lady went to a distinguished teacher of singing, to receive a and steadily. This will give him command of the muscles of course of costly lessons in the art. For a large proportion of tne chest. He will be surprised, at first, to discover the diffi- these lessons, in the early part of the course, he did not permit culty of a slow and steady expiration. But let him persevere, her to sing a single note, but made her simply pace the making this the first of his exercises for the improvement of room, expanding her lungs, and taking breath in every way his voice, every morning. The next of his morning exercises which was required to give her command of the material of should be in singing the chord and scale, holding the notes as which voice is made. We have heard that even the great long and steadily as possible, and ascending as high as his voice public singers do not think of omitting the daily practice of will allow (with the cork, if necessary, to keep his mouth the scale and chord in long "holding" notes as we have recomopen), and with the most careful observance of the following mended. directions. Expand the ribs, so that they press against the All these lessons are addressed to the self-educator and to dress at the sides, and, by drawing in the muscles of the lower the adult. They suppose, in the pupil, an inquiring mind and belly, keep the ribs thus expanded. This will allow free and easy robust understanding. Lessons which set the same points play to the lungs. Then, touching the larynx gently with before the mind in a way more easy to the apprehensionyour fingers, seek to make it fall for the production of the such as would be used in an oral lesson to children or to a dull higher notes, and make it rise for the production of the lower audience of adults—would be too lengthy and tedious for nores. You will not need to touch the larynx much, for you our purpose. Such iessons, however, may be of great use to will quickly learn to tell by the quality of the sound, whether one who wishes to teach, without having yet studied “the art the note is rightly produced. Some will better understand of putting thoughts in the right light for young or dull what we mean when we ask them to put the mouth into the people to see them," and such lessons may be found fully position of a gape. This will make the larynx fall. In the drawn out in Mr. Curwen's “Grammar of Vocal Music midst of the gape produce a high note. Next put your throat (Ward & Co.). These lessons may, however, and probably in the position of swallowing. This will raise the larynx. In will be, extensively used in classes. It is important that the the act try to sing a low note. This is not the ordinary way of learner should know the peculiar advantages and disadvantages singing, or that into which you would most naturally fall; but of class teaching, and should see the absolute necessity in it is that of some of the most eminent singers, and especially either case of personal effort and personal examination. of those whose voices do not soon wear out and who sing with Every art is best taught individually. It is true that there comparatively little fatigue. We have known a thin painful are some advantages to the singer in collective teaching. The weasandish voice entirely changed in its quality-gaining full. “sympathy of numbers” both aids and encourages him. But ness, power, and delicacy-by a few month's steady practice his progress will depend entirely on individual attention and of these rules. Another good daily exercise is that of repeat- endeavour. In most classes, the few make progress and lead, ing verses of poetry slowly and very distinctly, trying how while the manysome from timidity, and others from idleness much you can repeat in a single breath. But remember, that and inattention—hang upon the leaders, and soon begin to clog no advantages of this kind can be gained without steady, their movements. As, however, singing for schools and confaithful perseverance..

gregations must be generally taught in classes, the object of The sounds of the voice, in singing, should be delivered the teacher must be to combine the spirit and sympathy of promptly and easily. If the voice is given out carelessly, it numbers with as careful an attention to individual progress as comes roughly through the throat, and is called guttural; and possible. He should also occasionally separate the laggers if produced in a forced manner, it is driven through the nose from the more forward, and (without blaming or discouragand so becomes nasal. Correctness in singing depends upon ing them) cause them to retrace their steps and go by themmental effort, for it is the mind which commands the delicate selves, while the others are advancing freely and rapidly in a muscles of the larynx and throat. Lazy singing is always flat new class. For these purposes, the pupil should be led to exand miserable. Hence we always sing musically better when pect a rigid personal examination at the close of each stage of our hearts are most engaged in the song.

progress, and a division of the class as the result. Several A note may be loud or soft. The loudness or softness of the lesson hours should be devoted to this examination. It might voice is called its force. It is very important to cultivate the be conducted in a separate room while the rest of the class are habit of using a medium force of voice, so that it may be always practising. In adult classes, most of the questions might be easy to sing a note or strain more loudly or more softly than announced to the class, and the answer given in writing at the the rest. This habit is important to comfort and pleasure in time, and they would only require separate examination in singing, and absolutely necessary for expression and refine connexion with the exercises. Î'he examiner would then dement. The medium voice of one person is, of course, different cide by the result of the two examinations. A register of from that of another, according to the size of the larynx, and each examination should be kept by the teacher, and a methe strength of the lungs.

morial of it given to the pupil. To aid both the self-teacher The suggestions given above must be kept constantly in and the class teacher, the following questions and tests of promind in every daily practice. If you enjoyed the advantage of gress are given :-Let no one consider himself worthy to pursue a private teacher, such pointe as these would be constantly in the course further, until he has thoroughly fulfilled these re. his mind, and he would see if it that you observed them, In- requirements. Things to be done are marked by an asterisk. deed one of the chief uses of a private teacher is to keep us These especially must not be omitted.

EXERCISE 16. LEYBURN. KEY B. M. Orotchet=66, beating only twice in a measure. (An old English Ballad Tune. Words by M. A. STODART, from “Poetry" by the Home and Colonial School Society.)

DA CAPO. S.

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2 Right joyously we're singing,

Then hurrah for merry England,
We're glad to make it known,

And may we all be seen
That we love the land we live in,

True to our well-loved country,
And the Queen upon our throne.

And faithful to our Queen.

Then hurrah, &c. Note.-Il your friend gives you “pattern" with an instrument, | Indeed no song is rightly learned till both tune and words are tell him to play in the key of B flat (with two flats), or in that or learned "by heart." You will observe the various " sigas ? B (with five sharps), whichever he prefers; one is as easy as the repetition" which are explained in the preceding lesson. A other to you. Take care to point on the modulator without book, i second line of words is given, in each case, for the repetition et and to " figure" the tune ( one, two, three, fo-ur, five, si-x, seven; the music. The tune is harmonised with a bass in' « Schod one, two, three, fo-ur, five, six, &c.) before you sing it to words. | Music."

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QUESTIONS AND Tests OF PROGRESS ON THE “ First STAGE."

Lesson 3. [The questions are to be answered from book over and over again memory, taking coins to represent your notes.

• 1. Explain the two sets of tetrachords. Arrange them by until they can be also answered from memory.)

2. By what intervals are the tonules of the scale always separated Lesson 1.

from one another? Show this by drawing a circular diagram.

• 3. Draw a modulator from memory. (Notice that the righ1. What were the reasons that encouraged "our friend" to hand column takes its dou from the level of sou, the left from får think that he had a voice? What kind of road to music do we 4. Explain fully the three great advantages of the modulab. offer? What are the conditions of admission to it?

its picture of interval: its mnemonic (or memory.helping) power 2. What is the difference between “high" and "low" in music? and its aid to the pattern.

3. What must be chosen and fixed before the notes which may 5. What is the effect of a "mental modulator" on the boris be introduced into a tune are distinctly ascertained? What is this tal line of notes ? arrangement of notes called, and by what primary laws is it regu- 6. Give three reasons for learning an “interpreting notation lated ? On what grounds do we call it the scale of all nations and of music in connexion with the other, of all times ?

7. What is accent? How many sorts of accent are there? 4. What is a musical interval? Is it a distance in time? in 8. What is a measure ?-an aliquot? space ? in what?

9. What is the structure of the BINARY MEASURE, and what i * 5. Draw from memory a diagram of the scale, with the solfa its character? TRINARY? QUATERNARY? SENARY syllable to represent the notes, marking carefully the two shorter 10. Give Dr. Bryce's views of the origin of our sense of Rhythm distances.

and its connexion with the heart and lungs ? 6. What is the general character of the 1st, 3rd, and 5th of the • 11. Solla and point on the modulator, from memory, Exercise scale? How is the voice tuned ?

9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. • 7. Solfa and point on the diagram, from memory, Exercises

Lesson 4. 1, 2, 3.

1. What are the three different senses in which the word bise Lesson 2.

is used in ordinary musical language? Give examples of each. 1. Give an account of the first experiments on the sounds of a regulates the speed of a pendulum?

2. What is the peculiarity in the swings of the pendulum? What single string. What note does half a string give Piwo thirds ?- 3. Describe the “metronome." With what is it proposed the three fourths ?-four fisths ?-&c. 2. Describe the “syren.”. What is the relation of a note's trinary, and quaternary measure ?-in quick senary measure ?

each swing of the metronome should correspond in the binare, length of string to its vibrations ?

4. How would you use the string pendulum? 3. What is the smallest perfect measurement of the scale in plain figures, and according to that how many degrees belong to gained? Will beating time help you !

5. In learning to keep time" what is the double object to be to the great tone ?-small tone -tonule ?

6. Describe the views of Rousseau, Dr. Burney, and Dr. 4. What is an “octave" note or " replicate ?" 5. Solfa and point on the Isagram of the scale, from memory,

Bryce on " beating" time.

1. What is the standard by which the length of notes is measured Exercises 5, 6, 7, 8.

in the solfa notation? What proportion of time belongs to a su

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placed alone immediately after an accent mark? What is the the lungs? How should the chord and scale be sung, and with meaning of the horizontal stroke --the dot after a note ?-the what two peculiar observances, in this daily practice ? comma 1-the dot and comma 2-the inverted comma? What 4. What three faults should be especially avoided by the singer? means an empty aliquot ?

5. What habit, in reference to loudness and softness of voice, 8. How do you indicate a slur?

should be carefully formed? 9. Explain the meaning of the following signs:-D.C. D.s. 8. F. 6. In what respects would you alter your phraseology and mode f. p. f. pp. <.>. and or · over a note.

of illustration if you had to set the facts and principles of this first 10. How would you indicate "expression" in writing or printing "stage" of our course before the minds of the young, or persons words ?-loud ?-soft ?-abrupt ?

dull of comprehension? [It will be a good exercise of mind for 11. Take a book of hymns or songs, and mark ten pieces for ex- you to answer this question. It will be better still for you to do so pression. (This is a rcally important and useful exercise of judg. practically. Teach what you know. There is no better way of ment and taste.]

perfecting your knowledge.] 12. What are the vibrations of the TENOR 0—the standard note 7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of class teaching of pitch? Draw a diagram of the standard scale. What is meant Show the importance of personal effort and examination. by G sharp ? B flat?

* 8. Sing a high note with the low larynx,-a low note with the • 13. Pitch the key-note A-G-F-E-D and take the chord in high larynx. each case.

9. Sing (taking a very low note for DOH) DOH, ME, SOH, 14. Point on the modulator by memory, and afterwards sing DOH!, me', and if you can without straining the voice, soul, to words the tune GRIFFIN.

holding each note with a long and steady breath. [You should be

more anxious about the chord than the scale in the present stage Lesson 5.

of your course,- for you may not yet have got all the notes of the

scale quite perfectly in tune.) 1. What is the difference between the sound of the voice in 10. Repeat slowly and very distinctly (with good use of tongue, speaking and in singing? What is a sound of the singing voice lips, and teeth)-and in one breath. “How doth the little busy bee called ?-of the speaking voice?

improve each shining hour." Take two more lines in another 2. What is the best posture for the singer, in reference to his breath and so on. head-shoulders ?-chest?-mouth ?-tongue ?-lips ?

* 11. Point and sing the tune LEYBURN from memory on the 3. What is the first daily practice for opening and strengthening modulator.

LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. X.

These Adverbs are irregular.
By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D.

Positive.
Comparative.

Superkutive.
Bene, well
melius, better

optime, best
ADVERBS.

Male, il
pejus, worse

pessime, worst In English, adverbs are formed from adjectives by the addi. Multum, much plus, more

plurimum, most tion of ly, thus swift, swift-ly. Similar iš the manner in which

maxime, very greatly the Romans formed their adverbs. The ordinary terminations

VOCABULARY. of the Latin adverbs, are c and ter; ter sometimes stands as iter. Pugno 1, I fight (E. R. pugilist); labóro 1, I labour ; rito 1, I avoid; To form an adverb, find the stem and add the terminations. supero 1, I overcome (E. R. superior); cogito 1, I think; dimico 1, 1 Adverbs formed from adjectives or participles of the second contend ; sedo 1, 1 set down, compose ; nego 1, I deny (E, R. negation); declension end in e. Adverbs formed from adjectives or par

administro 1, I administer (E. R. minister); babilo 1, I dwell, remain ticiples of the third declension in ens and ans end in ter. Ad. (E. R. habitation); sono 1, 1 sond ; quotidie, daily; civitas, átis, f. verbs formed from the other adjectives of the third declension, i word thus, plusque), and; periculum, i, n. 8 danger (E. R peril);

a city or state (E. R. civic, ciril); alque, and; que (stands after the end in iter.

de, concerning; Grarcia, ae, f. Greece; rus, ruris, n. the country; in You ought now to have no difficulty to know which are dies, every day; acdifico 1, I build (E. R. edifice); scriptus, a, um, adjectives of the second, and which adjectives of the third writien; patiens, patient ; occultus, a, um, hidden (E. R. occult). declension. But for your assistance, I interpose a few re

EXERCISES-LATIN-ENGLISH. remarks. Adjectives follow the first, the second, and the third declension of nouns. Adjectives which have the nomi foriiter pugnant milites ? Romani fortius quam hostes pugnant; de

Milites fortiter pugnant; pugnantne fortiter milites ? nonne native singular in a, and genitive singular in ae, follow the first Graecia magis atque magis cogito ; nonne de palie tuo mullum declension. Adjectives which have the nominative singular cogitas ? litteras magis arque magis quotidie expectamus; cupi. in w or um, and genitive singular in i, follow the second declen- dissime adventum matris expectas; rus patrem plus plus que in sion. Adjectives which have the nominative singular in is, dies delectat; bene domum aedificas; aedificatne domum optime? &e., and genitive singular in is, follow the third declension. litterae sunt pessime scriptae: verba tua male sonant; servi de There are no adjectives of the fourth or fifth declension. I domino pessime cogitant; puellae patientius quam pueri laborant; add instances of

occultissima pericula difficillime vitantur ; difficile est Graecos ADVERBS FORMED FROM ADJECTIVES.

superare; fortissime dimicant Graeci ; seditio facilius quam bel.

lum sedatur; civitas optime administratur; audaciter negat; Claré, clearly, brightly from clarus 2, clear

urbem feliciter habitant cives. Libere, freely

liber 2, free Pulchré, beautifully pulcher (pulchri) 2, beautiful

ENGLISH-LATIN. Prudenter, prudently prudens (prudent) 3, prudent

Is the war easily composed ? the war is composed with very great Amanter, lovingly amans (amant) 3, loving

difficulty (superlative from difficilis); he fights bravely; they fight Fortiter, bravely fortis (fort) 3, brave

more bravely; the Greeks fight very bravely; greatly do you hope Audaciter, daringly audax (audac) 3, daring

for (expecto) the coming of spring, the coming of spring is most Adverbs, like adjectives, undergo comparison. Thus, clare, eagerly hoped for by all boys and girls; they hope for your letter clearly, positive; clarius, more clearly, comparative ; clarissime, daily more and more; bad words sound badly, the soldiers coc. nost clearly, superlative. Properly, the comparative is the labour more patiently than daughters ; the sedition is happily com

tend more and more; hidden things are not easily avoidel ; mothers neuter gender singular number of the adjective, thus clarus, | posed (that is, being put down); he writes a letter beautifully; the clarior, clarius. The superlative is formed by the conversion Romans fight more bravely than the Greeks; the country delights of us of the adjective into e; thus, optimus, best; optime, in the my mind very much; is thy mind delighted much by the country? best manner. Instances follow of

very much do I think of iny home (domus) my brothers and my ADVERBS IN THE THREE DEGREES OF COMPARISON. sisters; the state is administered very ill by the Romans. Pasitive. Comparative. Superlative.

PRONOUNS. Laete, joyfully laetius, more joyfully laetissime, most jowfully Docte, learnedly doctius, more learnedly doctissime, most learnedly cording to the ensuing table. 'Strictly, the Latins bave no

The personal pronouns ego, I, and tu, thou, are declined acLeviter, lightly levius, more lightly Feliciter, happily Selicius, more happily felicissime, most happily personal pronoun of the third person, he ; that is, no pronoun Plagoifice, splendidly magnificentius, more magnificentissime, most which exactly corresponds to our he. Ille, which is often given

as such, signifies that person, and sui (no nominative) is a Similmer, similarly similimo. more similarly simillime, most similarly reflectivo pronoun ; that is, it has a reference to a subject prp

splendidly splendidly

ceding. As, however, parts of sui agree with parts of the se aequales sunt; imperare sibi (one's self) maximum est imperium, personal pronouns it is inserted in this table of

iratus non est apud se; tractatio litterarum nobis est salutaria;

veritas semper mihi grata est.
THE PERSONA OR SUBSTANTIVE PRONOUNS.

ENGLISH-LATIN.
Singular.

I relate, thou dancest, (our) brother labours; we sing, you Cases. 1st.

2nd.
ard

labour, (our) friends dance; I, the teacher, teach ; you, Oscholars, Nom, ego, I

tu, thou Gen. mei, of me

learn ; we grieve, thou paintest, the young men strike; we in. tui, of thee

sui, of him, himself Dat. mihi, to me

structors do not try to teach you, O angry boys; good scholars tibi, to thee sibi, to himself

ought (debeo). to command themselves; to command one's self is a Acc. me, me

te, thee
de, himself

virtue ; it is difficult for (Dat.) the angry man to command himself, Abl. me (a me), by m te (a te), by thee se (a se), by himself

the angry are not masters of themselves (apud se); command is Plural.

always pleasant to thee; is not command pleasant to us to thee Cases. 18t. 2nd.

3rd.

not to me is truth pleasant; truth is salutary to thee, to me, to N. nos, we vos, you

us, to all. G. nostri, nostrum,of us vestri, vestrum, of you sui, of them, themselves

VOCABULARY. D. nobis, to us vobis, to you sibi, to themselves

Modus, i, m. a mode or manner (E. R. mood, modify); vitium, i, n. A, nos, us vos, you se, themselves

vice, faults ; cives, is, m. a citizen (E. R. city); parentes, ium, m. A. nobis (a nobis) by us vobis (a vobis), by you 80 (a se) by them, them- parents ; caput, îtis, n. a head; cantus, us, m. a song; reditus, os, m.

selves

a return; proximus a, um, nearest, next, a neighbour; par, pai is, like Sui, sibi, &c. you see are the same in the plural as in the (E. R. pair, peer); discordo 1, I disagree ; porto 1, I carry (E. R. singular.

porter); faveo 2, I am favourable to; splendeo 2, I shine (E. R. splenIn pronouns, the vocative, when it exists, is generally the did, resplendent); expěto 3, I desire, strive after; obrepo (with Dalive) same as the nominative. The preposition cum, with (governing through; propter (with Acc.) prep. on account of; de (with Abl.) o,

I creep upon ; acriter, valorously, energetically; per, prep. (with Acc.) the ablative), is put after me, te, &c.; as, mecum, with me ; concerning; nunquam, never. tecum, with thee: so, secum, with them, or with themselves ; nobiscum, with us; vobiscum, with you.

LATIN-ENGLISH. In order to give emphasis, met is subjoined to all these Obrēpunt vitia nobis nomine (under the name) virtutum ; nos faforms, except tu, and the genitive plural of ego and tu; thus, vemus vobis, vos non favetis nobis ; tu me amas, ego te amo; mihi egomet, temet, sibimet, nosmet, vosmet: tu takes te, as tute; mea vita, tibi tua cara est; virtus per se splendet semper ; cantus se, for the sake of force is doubled, as sese.

nos delectat; parentes a nobis diliguntur; O mi fili, nunquam Nostri and vestri differ in use from nostrum and vestrum. mihi pares ! frater me et te amat; egomet mjhi sum proximus ; Nostri is simply of us; nostrum is ours ; nostrum denotes a

tute tibi imperas bene; virtus propter sese colitur; suapte naturi dass, and is used with partitives, that is, words which signify omnia sua secum portat ; nos vobiscum de patris reditu gaudemus;

virtus expetitur; cives de suismei capitibus dimicant; sapiens one, &c., of a class, as nemo nostrum, none of us, considered as

tu tecum pulchre pugnas; Deus tecum est; saepe animus secum a number or a class, and not an individual or individuals.

discordat; hostes nobiscum acriter pugnant; oratio tua tecum POSSESSIVE OR ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.

pugnat.

ENGLISH-LATIN. The personal pronouns which have an adjective force, are formed from the genitive of the personal substantive pronouns. their property (all theirs) with them? thou lovest me, I love thee;

I carry all mine (my things) with me; do wise men carry all They are called possessive, because they denote an object as thy life is pleasant to me, my life is pleasant to thee; bad men the possession of the first, the second, or the third person. always disagree with themselves; the handling (pursuit) of letters From mei, of me, is formed meus, mea, meum, my; as appears is very pleasant to us; men love themselves; do women love them. in this table.

selves? bad men love themselves very badly; virtue is beautiful by Mei makes meus, m. mea, f. meum, n.

(per) itself; on account of thyself I love thee; my native country

mine Tui

tuum

thy
thine
is more pleasant to me than thine to thee.

VOCABULARY.
Vestri

Cura, ae, f. care (E. R. a cure, curacy, curate); ira, ae, f. anger (E.

your To increase the force, pte is added to the ablative singular of icis, f. preservative (E. R. conservative); benignus, a, um, benignant,

R. ire); desiderium, i, n. a desire, an object of desire; conservátrix, suus, as suapte r.anu, with his own hand; suopte gladio, with kind (E. R. benign); industrius, a, um, industrious; mirus, a, um, his own sword. Met with the same view is appended to the wonderful (E. R. admire); perfidus, a, um, treacherous (E. R. perfidy) oblique cases of suus; as suismet capitibus, to their own heads.- absens, tis, absent ; insipiens (in and sapiens) unwise ; memor, čris, N.B. All the cases except the nominative are called oblique. mindful (E. R. memory); imničmor, dris, unmindfui; potens, tis,

I must here recall to your mind that the personal pronouns powerful (E. R. potent); impotens, powerless (E. R. impotent); teneo are in Latin used only when emphasis is required, or to ex- 2, I hold (E. R. tenet) ; ango 3, 1 torture. press a contrast; as, ego stultus sum, tu sapiens, I am foolish,

LATIN-ENGLISH. thou art wise. The same is the case with the possessive Omnis natura est conservatris sui; mirum desiderium urbis, pronouns.

meorum et tui tenet me (desire for, or after) pater vehementer tus VOCABULARY.

sui memoriâ (thy recollection of him) delectatur; ira est impotens sui Magister, tri, m. a teacher (E. R. master); praeceptum, i, n. a pre- (has no power over itself) sapiens semper potens sui est ; vestri cura zept, a command; praeceptor, óris, m. a preceptor, or instructor. trac-care for you) me angit; omnes homines benigni judices sui sunt; tatio, onis, f. a handling, a treatise (E. R. to treat on; veritas, átis, f. vehementer grata mihi est memoria nostri tua; amicus mei et tui truth: 1, átus, a, um, angry; aequális, e, equal; salutáris, e, salutary, est memor; pater absens magno desiderio tenetur mei, et tui, mi healthful: canto 1, 1 sing "E. R. canticle); clamo 1, I cry out (E. R. frater, et vestri, O sorores ; amici sunt nostri memores; multi exclamation; impero 1, (with dative) 1 command (E. R. imperial); vestrum mihi placent; plurimi nostrum te valde diligunt. imperium, i, n. a command, a government (E. R.. empire): narro 1, I

ENGLISH-LATIN. relate (E. R. narrative), roco I, I call (E. Ř. vocative); doleo 2, I am in pain, I grieve (E R. dolorous: disco 3, I learn. (E. R. disciple): (my) father has power over himself: virtue has power over herself;

The unwise man (fool) has no power over himself (impotens sui) budo 3, 1 play (E. R illusory); attente, adv. attentively; inter, prep: vice has not power over itself; has anger power over itself ? Dature (with acc.) ottween, anong ; apud, with, at home; apud se, with himself, is preservative of herself; the nature of virtue is preservative #s, his own master; semper, always.

of itself; no one of you has power over himself; very many EXERCISES.- LATIN-ENGLISH,

of us have power over ourselves; a treacherous friend is

upmindful of me; faithful friends are not mindful of themselves; Ego canto, tu clamas, amicus Focat; nos partámus, vos saltátis, thy recollection and desire of me are very pleasant to me; care for fratres laborant; ego fleo, tu rides, frater dolet; nos praeceptores thee tortures me; most of you, my scholars, are industrious; WOR(we teachers) docemus, ros, discipuli, discitis; ego ludo, tu dišcis, derful is the love of self. soror acu pingit; nos scribimus, vos legitis, fratres pingunt; ego valin, tu feris, puer dormit; nos magistri erudímus, vos, o discipuli;

Certain pronouns in Latin bear the name of demonstrative, vos, boni discipuli, attente audítis praecepta nostra; virtutes inter because they point out (in Latin, demonstro, I point out ; E.R

my

or

his

Sui
Nostri

tuus
SUUS
noster
vester

tua sua nostra vestra

suum
nostrum
vestrum

our

his own
Our8
yours

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F. eae

eorum

ei

lis

ei eam

eos

eas

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Acc.

1

demonstrate) the person or persons that are intended. The de firmat; illam vita, hunc expete; hae litterae graviter me movent; monstrative pronouns are is, ea, id ; ille, illa, illud ; iste, ista, baec carmina suavissima sunt; isti homini mendaci non credo istud; hic, haec, hoc. Of thes?, is, signifies this or that, and buic duci milites libenter parent; illi viro omnes favent; praeclaapproaches to our personal pronoun he, his, &c., hic denotes rum est istud tuum praeceptum; haec sententia mihi placet, illa this person, that is, the nearer to the speaker; ille, that person, ille iners'; memoriâ teneo praeclarum illud praeceptum; iste tuus

displicet; hoc bellum est saevissimum; hic puer industrius est, farther from the speaker ; iste, that person, particularly when amicus est vir optimus; ista vestra auctoritas est maxima ; hujus a person is addressed, the second person. From is, ea, id, discipuli diligentiam laudo, illius tarditatem vitupero ; illi schola idem, the same, is formed by the addition of dem ; thus, is-dem est gratissima, huic molestissima. contracted into idem, ex-dem, id-dem or idem. To these, may

ENGLISH-LATIN. be added, ipse, ipsa, ipsum, he himself, that very person. In the following manner decline the

Sallust is an elegant writer, Livy a more elegant (writer) and

Cicero the most elegant; I gladly read their books; his (ejus) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

brother and friend are dear to me; thou hast a faithful friend, and 18, m. į ea, f. ; id, n. he or that,

art attached to him; my sons have faithful wires and love them Singular

Plurnl.

much ; I am greatly moved by that letter ; thou dret not believe a Cases

N.
Onses. M

lying woman (dative); this boy pleases, that bey displeases me ;

N. Nom id Nom. 1

this poem is very elegant, that mote elegant; this thy soldier is Gen. ejus ejus

ejus
Geni.

brave; the diligence of this scholat is praised by me the teacher;

enruri eorum Dat.

in this school (there) are more diligent soholars ihan in yours. el

Dat. jis (els) ils
Acc. eum
id 400. .

VOCABULARY:
Abl. 66
ea
Abi. iis (els) lis ilg

Fortuna, ae, f, fortune ; Pompeius, i, m. Pompcy, the name of a Also, the Pronoun:=idem, m , eadem, f. ; idem, n. the same. Roman general; clarus, a, um, illustrious ; factum, i, n. a deed; meriCascs. Singular.

tum, i, n. a merit ; oraculum, i, n. an oracle; Caesar, šris, m. Cæsar,

Plurral. Nom. idem čådein

idem iidem eaedem endern the name of a Roman geral; imperátor, oris, m. a commander (E. R. Gen. ejusdem eju«dem ejusdem eorundem earundem eorundem emperor); virius, tútis, f. bravery, opus, operis, n. a work (E. R. Dat. eidem eidem eidern iisdem (eisdem) iisdem iisdem operative); Delphicus, a, um, Delphian, belonging to the oracle at Delphi, eundem eandem idem eosdein

eadem

in Northern Greece; inimicus, a, um, unfriendly (E. R. enmity); sediAbl. eodem cadem eodem iisdem (eisdem) iisdemn iisdem tiosus, a, um, sedlitious ; admirabilis, é, admirable; laudabilis, e,

laulable, praiseroorthy; expugno 1, I take by storm; trac!o 1, I treat, Iste, m.; ista, f. ; istud, n. that person.

pursue ; obsideo 2, I besiege; studeo 2, I strive after, endeavour (E. R. Cases Sinpılar.

Plural.

strelent); fido 3, I trust : diffido 3, 1 distrust (E. R. dissident); nosco 3, Nom. isle ista istud isti istae

ista

I become acquainted with ; agnosco 3, I recognise, know; resisto 3, I Gen. istius istius Istius Istorum istārum istörum strind against, resist (with dative); sentio 4, I feel, think (E. R. senDat. isti isti isti

istis istis

istis tient); pro (prep.), for (with the ablative); quia (conj.), because Acc. istum istam istud istos istas

ista

modo-modo, now-now, at one time, at another. Abi. isto ista isto

istis istis
intis

LATIN-ENGLISH.
Ille, m.; illa, f.; illud, n. that person.

Multi homines de iisdem rebus eodem die non eadem sentiunt; Cases. Singular.

Plural.

insipiens eidem sententiae modo fidit, modo diffidit ; ipsi i: veraNom. ille illa illud illi illae illa tori seditiosi milites resistunt; animus ipse sc moret; virtus est Gen. illius illius illius illorum illárum illorum

per se ipsa laudabilis; saepe nihil est homini inimicius quam sibi Dat. illi illi

dilig ipse (hinself to himself; than he is to himself) omne animal se ipsum Acc. illum Hlam illud illos illas

diligit; cariot nobis esse debet patria quam nosmet ipsi (we ones Abl. illo ille illo illis illis illig selves); praeclarum est illud praeceprum oraculi Delphici, nosce Ipse, m.; ipsa, f. ; ipsum, n. the very person,

(know, imp.) te ipsum; mendax saepe sibi ipsi diffidit. Cases. Singular. Plural.

ENGLISH-LATIN. Nom. ipse ipsa ipsum ipsi ipsae

The enemies besiege the city and endeavour to take it by storm; Gen. ipsius ipsius ipsius ipsórum ipsárum ipsorum

the deed of that great man is praised by all writers; Cæsar and Dat. ipsi ipsi ipsi

ipsis ipsis ipsis

Pompey are very illustrious Roman generals ; to that (one) fortune Acc. ipsum ipsam ipsum ipsos

ipsas ipsa is more favourable ihan to this (one); the bravery of that (one) Abl. ipso ipsa ipso ipsis ipsis ipsis

and this (one) is wonderful ; the king himself is the general of the Hie, ma ; haec, f. hoo, n. this person.

atmy; not always dost thou think the same concerning the same

things; the father and the son pursue the same learning (litterae); Cases. ngular.

Plural. Nom. hic

virtues are lovely in (by) themselves; all men love themselves; thy haec hoo hi

liae
haec

native country ought to be dearer to thee than thyself; koow Gen. hujus hujus hujus hórum hárum hórum

yourselves, young men; a liar often distrusts himself. Dat. huic huic huic his

his

his Acc. bung hunc hoc

hos

has haec Abl. hoo

hac
hoo

his big EXAMPLES.- After these models decline idem equus, the LESSONS IN ANCIENT HISTORY--No. V. sa ne horse ; eadem rana, the same frog ; idcm vitium, the same

By ROBERT FERGUSON, LL.D. vice ; isto vir, that man; ista femina, ihat woman; istud nomen, that name ; hic puer, this boy ; haec puella, this girl; hoc prae- Rich as Egypt was in agricultural produce, it held no common ceptum, this command ; ille sensus, that sense ; illa res, that thing; place in manufactures and in commerce. There cotton and illud corpu, that horn.

fax were carefully cultivated ; and the fibres of many waterVOCABULARY.

plants supplied the materials for nets and coarser canvass.

Silk was not much used ; but in weaving their cotton stuffs Diligentia, ae, f. diligence; ignavia, ae, f. idleness; sententia, ae, f. an opinion (E. R. sentence): schola, ae, f. a school; memoria, ae, 1. into cloth, it was not unusual to introduce some gold or silver memory: Sallustius, i, Sallust

, the name of a Roman histurian; scriptor, threads, or to embroider them with flower-work, which proves óris, m. a writer : auctoritas, ális, f. an muthority; tarditas, átis, f. that the people must have made some considerable progress in slowness (E. R. tardy); carmen, inis, n, a poem; addictus, a, um, the mechanical arts. The wool was sometimes dyed, and though given to, attached to; fidus, a, um, faithful; saevus, a, um, cruel; elegans, the Egyptian snever mixed their colours to produce that variety ntis, elegant : iners, rtis, inactive, sluggish; mendax, acis, lying (Ě. R. of shade with which we are familiar, they yet possessed each mendacity); hebēro 1: I grow dull; firmo 1, I strengthen (E. R. firm); colour in great perfection, and their cloth exhibited all those piacgo 2, ? please; displiceo 2, 1 displease; credo 3, I believe (E. R. brilliant hues of the East, which the most ingenious nation of freed); vita (imperative mood) avoid ; expete (imp, mood), seek for.

Europe has not been able to rival. Their muslins were of the EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

finest texture, and were used for the official robes of the priestSallustius est elegantissimus scriptor ; ejus (his) libros libenter hood, and even of royalty itself.* All the manufactures wera. lego; amicum fidum habeo ; ei addictissimus sum; fratris carmen valde mihi placet, id legere debes; iguavia corpus hebetet, labor

• See Ezekiel xxvii. 7.

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