Εικόνες σελίδας
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

muda teatrice d the priests, who claimed a mono-' the Nizer, Notwithstanding these advantages, the Egyptians viy date it which was used for sacred purposes. | were decidedly arerse to maritime affairs, whether commercial

Kany di Pappt czpont large quantities of grain, bat or warlike. They were an agricultural people, and could, at als sucs A line prodate of her looms. I was not a mari. any time, command the introduction of foreign commodities

. tirse y mante, se a trzcie carried on by sea. The country was The superabundance of their agricultural productions, ensured y de of timbe sore te und of die sea.com.ion; not produce." Gold, ivory, ebony, and even slaves, were

was for thein a supply of such articles as their own country did ed euch was the advantages which the Nile, with its numerous brought from Ethiopia and the Negro country to Syéne ; in

cense was imported from Arabia, and spices from India; and Egyptians

mala, you losed to me to the challene these were sold to the Greek and Phoenician merchants at the pired by lateigres. It is true that their maritime position. Dorthern ports. Though Egypt had no ships of her own,

[graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

BAS-RELIEF faoy TIB HALL OF KINGS AT CARNAC. on the Mediterranean, their own noble and navigable Nile, thither sailed the ships of all other nations ; and so long as she and at no great distance from it, the Reå Sea, which was was under the dominion of her native princes, Sidon, Tyre, almost as favourable for commerce and navigation as the Medi Arabia, Palestine, Cyprus, Greece, Sicily, and Carthage, were verranean itself, offered many advantages for a wider and all enriched by the trade

carried on in her ports, and by the a freer traffic; but they neglected it. And so of their in articles of commerce which

could be obtained

there, and only and trade.. " Though the intervening deserts of Nubia and there. It is said, that after the time of Sesostris, the

Phæni. Barca might at first seem to oppose insuperable obstacles to cians carried on a large and lucrative commerce with Egypt commercial intercourse with the interior of Africa, yet Provi- and that for a long period, they were the only people to whom dence had benevolently and wisely provided for the difficulty her ports were open. Be this as it may, it is well known that arising from this by the creation of the camel-that ship of the Psammetichus was the first king who threw those ports open deseri-- by whose means intercommunication could be carried to foreigners in general. Commerce with the Greeks be par. on with the regions beyond the deserts, eren to the shores of ticularly encouraged. This received a severe check b

Persian conquest, and suffered many interruptions until the by open porticos; and, lastly, of caverns, grottos, and tombs. time of the Ptolemies, under whom it revived in all its former The Egyptians built for permanence and perpetuity. They greatness.

shrunk from the idea of annihilation, and hence their mum. The Nile abounded in fish, and must have been, as an article mies, and ubelisks, and sepulchres. The ruins of Thebes are of consumption, the source of a considerable revenue. Nor such as still witness to the extent and magnificence of their could those who were engaged in this species of traffic be architectural design. The royal edifices of Karnac, Luxor, men of very little weight in the state, since they are named and Memnonium, with their sculptures, decorations, and disnext to the agriculturist. Hence it is that the prophet Isaiah, tribution of apartments, may challenge comparison with any in describing the miseries that were to befall Egypt, and her palaces of more modern times. (See No.1). The temple of Tenpopulation, represents the failure of the fishery as next to the tyra, situated upon the Libyan shore of the Nile, is considered to decay of manufactures, and the cessation of commerce, be amost finished superstructure. (See No. 8). The façade or " Then shall the waters fail from the sea,

front of the building is seventy-two paces in breadth, one hundred And the river shall be wasted and dried up.

and forty-five in depth, and seventy feet in height. A doorway of And the streams shall become putrid ;

elegant form and workmanship leads into a portico which is The canals of Egypt shall be emptied and dried up;

sixty paces by thirty, supported by twenty-four columns of The reed and the lilies shall wither ;

seven feet diameter, and fitty-five feet in height. The hall, The meadow by the canal, even at the mouth of the canal, into which this portico conducts, is twenty-four paces square. And all that is sown by the canal,

It is supported by six columns, whose capitals are each comShall wither, be blasted, and be no more.

posed of four figures of the head of Isis, with the ears of a And the fishes shall mourn and lament;

cat. There is a second hall, which measures twenty-four All those that cast the hook in the river,

paces by ten; and a third of the same dimensions. In the And those that spread nets on the face of the waters, shall languish. second hall there are two staircases, which lead to the terrace And they that work the fine flax shall be confounded,

of roof; and from the third you pass into the inner sanctuary, And they that weave net-work. And her stores shall be broken up;

which is twenty-four paces by six, and is insulated by a space Even of all that make a gain of pools for fish."*

on each side.

In the outlines and decorations of their columns, we pass Egypt made a boast of her river, and her soil, and her govern- from a simple bundle of reeds ment, and her learning ; but the prophet represents the besom bound together with a cord, of destruction sweeping over her, and leaving her destitute of to hieroglyphics and trianguall her ancient grandeur.

lar flutings. After this, we To tho manufactures in metal, the Egyptians must have de- have elegant vase shapes, voted considerable attention. Although iron appears to have adorned with the stalks, been little known to them, they had a preparation of copper leaves, buds, and blossoms of of such temper and hardness as rendered it fit for all the in the palm, the vine, the pastruments of war, and of mechanical use. Nearly all the im- pyrus, and the date. At the plements not made of gold or silver, as they are depicted on Memnonium, human figures monuments and public buildings, seem to be either of copper were substituted for these or brass. The use of these metals is almost as old as the columns, as was afterwards world, and in the first ages of human development were held done by the Greeks. But of more utility than gold and silver. They could be turned to in no instance did these demore practical account, and became objects of more general corations interfere with those pursuit. It was enough that they were to be found in any outlines of the building country; people came from all parts in quest of them. When, which produced that imwhere, and by whom these metals were discovered, we pause posing effect so peculiar to

US not to enquire. Certain it is that the Egyptians knew how to Egyptian architecture. work them, and turn them to all the more important uses of SCULPTURE was practised life. The workmanship which they bestowed upon them was extensively among the Egypsuperior to that of any other nation at the same period of tians, and yet they made but time. “The forms of their beds and couches may even now be little progress in this beautaken as models; their harps far surpassed ours in the ele- tiful art. Their reverence gance of their shapes; the spindles and work-baskets of the for the bodies of the dead deladies inspire a high notion of the refinement of their domes prived them of a sound knowtic life." The same may be said of their manufacture of ledge of anatomy or of the clay. Their pottery and earthenware were of the first de structure of the human frame. scription. Their vases were of the most exquisite beauty and Nor did their laws permit variety; their shapes and colours seem to challenge compari- any innovation in the attison with the most elaborate and finished specimens of Grecian tude and figure of the objects art.

of their veneration ; while in Of NAVIGATION, the Egyptians knew but little.. They had their own persons they posbecome masters of the Phænician forests before ship-building sessed no elegant or symwas attempted. The boats with which they navigated the metrical standard whereby Nile were strong, large, and well worked. It is very likely to model their taste. Hence that as their most extensive quarries were on the banks of the it is that their statues are so river, advantage was taken of the annual rise of its waters to uniform and alike, displayraise and float those inmense blocks and masses of stone ing no disposition of parts. which composed their ancient edifices.

Neither muscle nor vein is Respecting the origin and early progress of ARCHITECTURE, made to appear as such..

EGYPTIAN MUMMY. we know almost nothing. That it rose to considerable perfec-The prohibition which applied to the human figure did not tion in Egypt and in India is certain ; but whether India bor-extend to animals; and hence they succeeded in forming the rowed from Egypt, or Egypt from India, is a question which animal figure so as to exhibit correctness and elegance in remains still to be settled. But suppose we give the first every part. “It was the popular belief among them that the place to Egypt, the history of its ancient cities, palaces, and spirit, when separated by death from the body, hovered round temples, is all wrapped up in darkness and uncertainty. The its former tenement so long as it could be preserved from corancient structures of Upper Egypt consisted of the simple ruption, but quitted it as soon as it was reduced to dust. Pyramid; next of apartments enclosed by sculptured walls Anxious, therefore, to preserve this link between their earthly with flat roofs, supported by rows of columns, and connected and spiritual nature, they not only embalmed their dead with

the most successful skill, but placed them in costly sepulchres, • loniah zik, 10. (Louth's translation),

laboriously adorned with ornaments, devices, and hieroglyphic

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

representations. The coffin, also, in which the body was en-of song is known among the rudest and most barbarous tribes. closed, they curiously carved with forms expressive of the According to some authors, the history of music commenced course pursued by the deceased in his lifetime, of religious with the history of Egypt; while others tell us, that the cultirites, or of philosophical mysteries."

vation of music was forbidden among the Egyptians, and that Painting existed

among the Egyptians at a very early period. they regarded it not only as useless, but as pernicious, since it Their letters are nothing less than symbolical paintings. It rendered the minds of men effeminate. According to Plato, was in these characters they wrote their laws, their mythology, however, music formed an essential part of Egyptian education; their history, their science, their philosophy, and even their that nothing but beautiful forms and fine music were permitted private records. Of this symbolical writing we have not yet to enter into the assemblies of the young: that it was fixed found the key, and hence the language of Egypt is to the by law, what forms and what music should be exhibited in the world still a language of mystery. In painting they never temples; and that it was the belief of the people, that their mixed one colour with another, and yet some of their produc- music was the gift of some deity or divine man. Herodotus tions are possessed of more than common merit. A French tells us, that music was used in Egyptian festivals, and in traveller has described a ceiling ornamented with figures religious rites ; that in the great festival of Diana, at Bubastes, painted of a yellow colour on an azure ground. The figures are there was both vocal and instrumental music, and performed. represented in differentattitudes, and accompanied with a variety by both sexes; that in the processions of Bacchus or Osiris, of arms, musical instruments, and pieces of furniture. In the women bore the sacred images, and sung the praises of the one apartment everything was agricultural--the paintings being god. The Greeks, themselves, admit that such musical instrua representation of the plough, and various other instruments ments as the triangular lyre, the single flute, the tymbal or of husbandry, a man sowing grain on the brink of a canal, kettle-drum, and the sistrum or cymbal, were all of Egyptian fields of rice, and harvest scenes. In another room, was á invention. Nor must we overlook the fact, that in one of the figure clothed in white, playing on a harp of eleven strings. Egyptian obelisks which now lies broken and prostrate in the Several figures-all of them Ethiopians, and painted black-Campus Martius at Rome, there is represented a musical were represented without heads, and one with the head being instrument of two strings, and that this obelisk dates as far cut off; while the persons that were performing the decapita- back as the reign of Sesostris, which was more than thirteen tion, and neld the swords, were painted in red. In whatever hundred years before the Christian era. The Egyptians reattitude the figure is represented, the head is always in profile. ferred all their useful inventions to the gods; and we are told

that Hermes walking one day along the banks of the Nile, happened to strike his foot against a tortoise, the flesh of which being dried and wasted by the sun, nothing was left within the shell but nerves and cartilages, which being braced and concentrated by the heat, gave forth certain tones or sounds. The sound produced so pleased Hermes, as to suggest to him the idea of a lyre, which he constructed in the shape of the tortoise, and strung it with the dried sinews of dead animals. This lyre had three strings, which produced as many different sounds,--the grave, the mean, and the acute ;-the first corresponding to winter, the second to spring, and the third to

summer, for in their calendar the year was divided into these
three seasons.

What were the principal manufactures of Egypt?

What reason can be given for the Egyptians neglecting maritime commerce ?

Which nations enjoyed the trade of her ports ?

proof is there that the fisheries of Egypt formed a source of considerable revenue ?

Which was the principal metal employed by the Egyptians ?
Of what character was the workmanship of these metals ?
To what extent was navigation carried on in Egypt?
Describe the progress of her architecture,

To what are we to ascribe the fact that so little progress was made in sculpture ?

If the Egyptians never mixed their colours, how was it that they were so successful in painting?

In painting the human figure, what style obtained ?
Whether is music or painting superior?
What evidence is there that the Egyptians practised music?
How did instrumental music come into use

By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D.

1. If the ending or distinguishing characteristic of the con-
jugation of a verb, in the present of the infinitive, be removed,
the part remaining will be the stem of the verb :

Chapt-er Fin-ir Rec-evoir

From this simple style they seldom, if ever, departed. In

2. To that stem are added, in the different simple tenses of painting the portraits of their dead upon the linen that en which it belongs [$ 601.

a regular verb, the terminations proper to the conjugation to -veloped the bodies of the mummy, they generally succeeded in producing a very correct likeness. Great care appears to

3. PARTICIPLE PRESENT. have been bestowed upon the colouring, for after the lapse of

Chant-ant Fin-issant Rec-evant Rend-ant #ges on ages, it remains unchanged. Of the blending of

Singing Finishing Receiving Rendering colours, of light and shade, and even of grouping, they seem

4. PÁRTICIPLE PAST. to have had little idea.

Chant-é Fin-i


RendMusic must ever be held as inferior to painting. The use Singing Finished Received Rendered


Cherch-er, 1. to seek, to Guère, but uttle, Leoture, f. reading i look for ;

Habits, m. p. clothes, Paille, f. straw; Je chant

fin -ig

rend -S
Compagnon, m. compan- garments;

Berd-er, 4. to lose; sing finish receive render ion; Mais, but;

Port-er, 1. to carry, to Tu parl -es cher -is aperg -ois vend -S

Dame, f. lady;
Maison, f house ;

wear ;
cherishest perceivest


De bonne heure, early; Marchand, m. merchant; Rec-evoir, 3. to receive; I donn

fourn -it


D-evoir, 3. to oue ; Marchandises, f. p. Souvent, often: gives furnishes gathers

Donn-er, 1. to give; goods ;

Toujours, aluays ; Nous cherchons pun

-issons cono -evons entend -ons Fin-ir, 2. to finish; Neveu, m. nephew; Travail, m. labour ; seek punish conceive


Fourn-ir, 2. to furnish; Non seulement, not Trouv-er, 1. to find ; Vous port -ez sais -issez d -evez perd -ez Gard-er, 1. to keep; only;

Vend-re, 4. to Atl. carry seize owve

lose Ils aim -ent un -issent dég -oivent mord -ent 1. Votre mère aime-t-elle la lecture (R. 11.) 2. Oui, love, like unito deceive


Mademoiselle, elle l'aime beaucoup plus que sa scur. 3. 6. The present of the indicative has but one form in French, de soie, et je porte un chapeau de paille. 6. Cette dame

Quel chapeau votre neveu porte-t-il4. Il porte un chapeau therefore Je chante, may be rendered in English by, I sing, I aime-t-elle ses enfants ?

6. Oui, Monsieur, elle les chérit. do sing, or I am singing.

7. Fournissez vous des marchandises à ces marchands? 8. Je 7. T'he plural of the present of the indicative may be formed fournis des marchandises à ces marchands, et ils me donnent from the participle present by changing ant into ons, ez en. Ex.: de l'argent. 9. Vos compagnons aiment ils les beaux habits ? chantant, nous chantons ; finissant, nous finissons ; recevant, [R. 11.) 10. Nos compagnons aiment les beaux habits et les nous recevons ; rendant, nous rendons.

8. This rule holds good not only in all the regular, but in bons livres. 11. Cherchez vous mon frère ? 12. Oui, Monalmost all the irregular verbs.

sieur, je le cherche mais je ne le trouve pas. 18. Votre frère 9. Verbs may be conjugated interrogatively in French (ex- Perdons nous toujours notre temps ?

perd-il son temps. 14. Il perd son temps et son argent. 16. cept in the first person singular of the present of the indica- très souvent. 17. Devez vous beaucoup d'argent ? 18. J'en

16. Nous le perdons tive) [\ 98 (4) (6)], by placing the pronoun after the verb in dois assez, mais je n'en dois pas beaucoup. 19. Vendez vous all the simple tenses, and between the auxiliary and the par-vos

deux maisons à notre médecin 20. Je n'en vends qu'une, ticiple in the compound tenses.

je garde l'autre pour ma belle-sæur. 21. Recevez vous de Chantez vous bien ?

Do you sing well ?

l'argent aujourd'hui ?. 22. Nous n'en recevons guère. 23. Avez vous bien chanté ?

Have you sung well i

Votre menuisier finit il son travail de bonne heure? 24. Il le N'avez vous pas bien chanté ? Have you not sung well i finit tard. 26. A quelle heuré le finit ili 26. Il le finit à (Sect. 5, R. 2.)

midi et demi. 27. Nous finissons le nôtre à dix heures moins Ne chantez vous pas bien ? Do you not sing well i Votre père parle-t-il bien ? Does your father speak well ?

vingt minutes. (Sect. 2, R. 6-Sect 4, R. 4.)

EXERCISE 44. 10. The verb porter means to carry. It means also to wear, in speaking of garments ; apporter means to bring, and em: does not like reading. 3. Does your father like good books?

1. Does your companion like reading: 2. My companion porter to carry away; aimer means to love, to like, to be fond of, [R. 11.) 4. He likes good books and good clothes. 6. Do and takes the preposition à before another verb.

you owe more than twenty dollars 6. I only owe ten, but Quel habit portez vous ?

What coat do you wear : my brother owes more than fifteen. 7. Are you wrong to Je porte un babit de drap noir. I wear a coat of black cloth.

finish your work early? 8. I am right to finish mine early, Votre frère qu'apporte-t-il ? What does your brother bring!

and you are wrong not to (de ne pas) finish yours. 9. Do you (Sect. 2, R. 6.) Il apporte de l'argent à son ami. He brings money to his friend.

receive much money to-day? 10. I receive but little. 11.

Do we give our best books to that little child. 12. We do not 11. A noun used in a general sense ($ 77 (1)] takes the give them, we keep them because (parceque) we want them. article le, la, l’, or les.

13. Do you sell your two horses ?. 14. We do not sell our two Aimez vous le bouf ou le mouton ? Do you like beef or mutton ?

horses, we keep one of them. 15. Do you finish your work Je n'aime ni le beuf ni le mouton.

I like neither beef nor mutton.

this morning (matin)? 16. Yes, Sir, I finish it this morning

early.' 17. Does your brother-in-law like fine clothes ? 18. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Yes, Madam, he likes fine clothes. 19. Do you seek my

nephew? 20. Yes, Sir, we seek him. 21. Does he lose his Chantez vous une chanson ita- Do you sing an Italian song!

tinie? 22. He loses not only his time, but he loses his money. lienne ?

23. How much money has he lost to-day! 24. He has lost Nous chantons des chantons alle- / We sing German songs.

more than ten dollars. 25. Does your joiner finish your mandes.

house! 26. He finishes my house and my brother's. 27. Do Portez vous ce livre à l'homme ? Do you carry this book to the man : you sell good hats ! 28. We sell silk hats, and silk hats are Non, je le porte à mon frère. No, I carry it to my brother. good (R. 11). 29. How old is your companion 30. He is Emportez vous tout votre argent? Do you carry away all your money ? :welve years old, and his sister is fifteen, 31. Does your J'en emporte seulement une partie I carry away only a part of it. brother like meat ? 32. He likes meat and bread. 33. Do Finissez vous votre leçon aujour. Do you finish your lesson to-day?

you receive your goods at two o'clock? 34, We receive them d'hui? Nous la Onissons ce matin We finish it this morning.

at half after twelve. 35. We receive them ten minutes before N'aimez vous pas les enfants atten. Do you not like attentive children tifs

SECTION XXIII. Je les aime beaucoup.

I Hke them much. Ne recevez vous pas beaucoup de Do you not receive many letters ? 1. There are in French, as in other languages, verbs which lettres ?

are called irregular, because they are not conjugated according Nous en recevons beaucoup. We receive many letters.

to the rule, or model verb of the conjugation to which they Vendez vous beauconp de marchan- Do you sell many goods !

belong [$ 62]. dises ? Nous en vendons beaucoup. We sell many.

2. Many irregular verbs have tenses which are conjugated Yotre frère aime le boeuf et le Your brother likes beef and mutton. regularly. mnouton.

3. The singular of the present of the indicative of the irre. EXERCIEE 43.

gular verbs, is almost always irregular. (We shall hereafter put a hyphen between the stem and the termination of

4. In verbs ending in yer, the y is changed into i before an "Dhe verbs placed in the vocabularies. The number indicates the conjugation.]

e mute ($ 49}. Aim-er, 1. to love, to like, Autre, other ; Chapeau, m. hat; to be fond of; Assez, enough; Chér-ir, 3. to cherish;

* Repeat the article.


Tu vas,

ll en voie

Nous venons,
Vous venez,

5. PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS. vous ? 5. Nous venons de chez vous et de chez votre scur. ALLER, 1. to go, ENVOYER, 1. to send; VENIR, 2. to come ;

6. Qui est chez nous ? 7. Mon voisin y est aujourd'hui. 8. Je vais, I go, do go, or J'envoie (R.4). I send, do Je viens. Tomme, do comestion de les porter chez le fils du médecin. 10. Avez vous tort

Où avez vous l'intention de porter ces livres ! 9. J'ai l'intenam going ; send, or am sending;

Tu en voies,
Tu viens,

de rester chez vous ? 11. Je n'ai pas tort de rester à la maison. Il va,

Il vient,

12. L'horloger a-t-il de bonnes montres chez lui? 13. Il n'a Nous allons, Nous envoyons,

pas de montres chez lui, il en a dans son magasin. 14. Chez Vous allez, Vous en voyez,

qui portez vous vos livres ! 15. Je les porte chez le relieur. Ils vont Ils en voient (R. 4). Ils viennent.

16. Allez vous chez le capitaine hollandais ? 17. Nous n'allons 6. All verbs ending in enir are conjugated like venir. pas chez le capitaine hollandais, nous allons chez le major

7. The student will find in § 62 the irregular verbs alpha- russe. 18. Est il chez vous ou chez votre frère: 19. Il debetically arranged. He should always consult that table, when meure chez nous, 20. Ne demeurons nous pas chez votre meeting with an irregular verb.

tailleur ! 21. Vous y demeurez. 22. Votre peintre d'où vient 8. The expression, à la maison, is used for the English at il? 23. Il vient de chez son associé. 24. Ou portez vous mes home, at his or her house, &c.

souliers et mon gilet? 25. Je porte vos souliers chez le corLe chirurgien est il à la maison ? Is the surgeon at home!

donnier et votre gilet chez le tailleur. Mon frere est à la maison. My brother is at home.

EXERCISB 46. 9. The preposition chez, placed before a noun or pronoun, answers to the English, at the house of, with (meaning at the

1. Where does your friend go? 2. He is going (Sect. 22, R. 6) residence of), among, etc. [§ 142 (3)).

to your house or to your brother's. 3. Does he not intend to Chez moi, chez lui, chez elle. At my house, at his house, at her house.go to your partner's? 4. He intends to go there, but he has

6. I want Chez nous, chez vous, chez eux, m. At our house, at your house, at their no time to-day. 5. What do you want to-day? chez elles, f.

7. Are your house.

my waistcoat, which (qui) is at the tailor's. That is literally, at the house of me, at the house of him, &c.

clothes at the painter's? 8. They are not there, they are at

the tailor's. 9. Where do you live, my friend: 10. I live at Chez mon père, chez ma sœur. At my father's, at my sister's.

your sister-in-law's. 11. Is your father at home? 12. No, 10. The word avec answers to the English with, meaning Sir, he is not. 13. Where does your servant carry the wood merely in the company of.

14. He carries it to the Russian captain's. 15. Does the gen. Venez avec nous, ou avec lui. Come with us, or rith him.

tleman who (qui) is with your father live at his house ? 16. 11. The word y means to it, at it, at that place, there. It is No, Sir, he lives with me. 17. Is he wrong to live with you?

19. Whence (d'où) generally placed before the verb, and refers always to some- 18. No, Sir, he is right to live with me. ihing mentioned [\ 39, § 103, § 104].

comes the carpenter? 20. He comes from his partner's house.

21. Has he two partners ? 22. No, Sir, he has only one, who Votre seur est elle chez vous ? your

sister at your house ?

lives here (ici). 23. Have you time to go to our house this Oui, Monsieur, elle y est. Yes, Sir, she is there.

morning? 24. We have time to go there. 25. We intend to 12. In French, an answer cannot, as in English, consist go there and to speak to your sister. 26. Is she at your house? merely of an auxiliary or a verb preceded by a nominative 27. She is at her (own) house. 28. Have you bread, butter, pronoun; as, Do you come to my house to-day! I do. Have and cheese at home? 29. We have bread and butter there. you books? I have. The sentence in French must be com- 30. We have no checse there, we do not like cheese. 31. Is plete; as, I go there; I have some. The words oui or non, your watch at the watchmaker's ? 32. It (elle) is there. 33. without a verb would however suffice.

Have you two gold watches ? 34. I have only one gold watch. Venez vous chez moi aujourd'hui ? Do you come to my house to-day ! 35. Who intends to go to my father's this morning? 36. No. Oui, Monsieur, j'irai. Yes, Sir, I will.

body intends to go there. Avez vous des livres chez vous ? Have you books at home I Oui, Monsieur, nous en avons. Yes, Sir, we have.



Où est le colonel ?

Where is the colonel ?
Il est chez son frère ainé.
He is at his eldest brother's 1

N'est il pas chez nous ?
Is he not at our house!

As we have many applications for lessons in mensuration and Non, Monsieur, il n'y est pas. No, Sir, he is not.

surveying, founded on geometrical principles, we proceed to Madame votre mère est elle à la Is your mother at home!

give in this one, the elements of the subject. As to plane geo. maison ? Non, Madame, elle n'y est pas. No, Madam, she is not.

metry itself, which we are also particularly requested to take Allez vous chez nous, ou chez lui ? Do you go to our house, or to his up, we can only say that we are preparing a cheap edition of


Euclid, with annotations and exercises for the use of our Nous allons chez le capitaine. We go to the captain's ?

students, and we expect that it will be ready in about a N'est il pas chez votre frère ? Is he not at your brother's?

month. Non, Monsieur, il est chez nous. No, Sir, he is at our house,

DEFINITION 1.—The altitude or height of a triangle is the per. V'envoyez vous pas vos habits chez Do you not send your clothes to your pendicular straight line drawn from the vertex of any angle of vos sœurs ?

sisters ? Je les envoie chez elles. I send them to their house.

the triangle, to the side opposite that angle, taken as the N'allez vous pas chez ce monsieur ? Do you not go to that gentleman's ?

base. Thus, in figs. 1 and 2, the perpendicular straight line Je n'y vais pas, je n'ai pas le temps I do not [R. 12). I have not time to A H, drawn from the point a, the vertex of the angle Bac, d'y aller aujourd'hui.

go there to day?

to the opposite side b c, fig. 1, as the base, or to the opposite

Fig. 1.

side B c (fig. 2.), as

the base produced, All-er, 1. ir, to go. Horloger, m. watch- Relieur, m. bookbinder.

is called the alli.

Fig. e.
Ami, m. friend.

Rest-er, i, to remain,

tude or height

of the Associé, m. partner. Ilollandais, e, Dutch. live.

triangle. SomeCapitaine, m. captain. Magasin, m. warehouse. Russe, Russian.

times it is merely Demeur-er, 1. to live, Maison, f. house. Ven-ir, 2. ir, lo come.

called the perpendwell.

Matin, m. morning. Voisin, e, neighbour. Gilet, m. waistcoat. Peintre, m. painter,

dicular of the tri1. Où allez vous mon ami? 2. Je vais chez Monsieur votre n is called the foot of the perpendicular, which determines the

angle. The point père, est il à la maison? 3. Il y est ce matin. 4. D'où venez altitude ; sometimes it falls within the triangle as in fig. 1, and word Monsieur, Madame, or Mademoiselle, to the word representing their pendicular were drawn from the vertex c of the angle A CB, to

• The French in speaking to a person whom they respect, prehia the sometimes it falls without the triangle, as in fig. 2. If a per. Interlocutor's relations, or friends.

the opposite side AB, figs. 1 and 2, as the base, then, this perpendi


[ocr errors]



« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »