« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
representations. The coffin, also, in which the body was enclosed, they curiously carved with forms expressive of the course pursued by the deceased in his lifetime, of religious rites, or of philosophical mysteries.” PAINTing existedamong the Egyptians at avery early period. Their letters are nothing less than symbolical paintings. It was in these characters they wrote their laws, their mythology, their history, their science, their philosophy, and even their rivate records. Of this symbolical writing we have not yet ound the key, and hence the language of Egypt is to the world still a it. e of o In painting they never mixed one colour o another, and yet some of their productions are possessed of more than common merit. A French traveller has described a ceiling ornamented with figures painted of a yellow colour on an azure ground. The figures are represented indifferentattitudes, and accompanied with a variety of arms, musical instruments, and pieces of furniture. In one apartment everything was agricultural—the paintings being a representation of the plough, and various other instruments of husbandry, a man sowing grain on the brink of a canal, fields of rice, and harvest scenes. In another room, was a figure clothed in white, playing on a harp of eleven strings. Several figures—all of them. Ethiopians, and painted black– were represented without heads, and one with the head being cut off; while the persons that were performing the decapitation, and neld the swords, were painted in red. In whatever attitude the figure is represented, the head is always in profile.
of song is known among the rudest and most barbarous tribes.
According to some authors, the history of music commenced
with the history of Egypt; while others tellus, that the culti
vation of music was forbidden among the Egyptians, and that
they regarded it not only as useless, but as pernicious, since it
rendered the minds of men effeminate. According to Plato,
however, music formed an essential part of Egyptian education;
that nothing but beautiful forms and fine music were permitted
to enter into the assemblies of the young; that it was fixed
by law, what forms and what music should be exhibited in the
temples; and that it was the belief of the people, that their
music was the gift of some deity or divine man. Herodotus
tells us, that music was used in Egyptian festivals, and in
religious rites; that in the great festival of Diana, at Bubastes,
there was both vocal and instrumental music, and performed
by both sexes; that in the processions of Bacchus or Osiris,
the women bore the sacred images, and sung the praises of the god. The Greeks, themselves, admit that such musical instru
ments as the triangular lyre, the single flute, the tymbal or
kettle-drum, and the sistrum or cymbal, were all of Egyptian
invention. Nor must we overlook the fact, that in one of the Egyptian obelisks which now lies broken and prostrate in the Campus Martius at Rome, there is represented a musical instrument of two strings, and that this obelisk dates as far back as the reign of Sesostris, which was more than thirteen hundred years before the Christian era. The Egyptians referred all their useful inventions to the gods; and we are told that Hermes walking one day along the banks of the Nile, happened to strike his foot against a tortoise, the flesh of which being dried and wasted by the sun, nothing was left within the shell but nerves and cartilages, which being braced and concentrated by the heat, gave forth certain tones or sounds. The sound produced so pleased Hermes, as to suggest to him the idea of a lyre, which he constructed in the shape of the tortoise, and strung it with the dried sinews of dead animals, This lyre had three strings, which produced as many different sounds,-the grave, the mean, and the acute;—the first corresponding to winter, the second to spring, and the third to summer, for in their calendar the year was divided into these three seasons.
QUESTIons Fort Examination. What were the principal manufactures of Egypt? What reason can be given for the Egyptians neglecting maritime commerce? Which nations enjoyed the trade of her ports? What proof is there that the fisheries of Egypt formed a source of considerable revenue 2 Which was the principal metal . by the Egyptians? Of what character was the workmanship of these metals? To what extent was navigation carried on in Egypt? Describe the progress of her architecture. To what are we to ascribe the fact that so little progress was made in sculpture ? If the Egyptians never mixed their colours, how was it that they were so successful in painting? In painting the human figure, what style obtained? Whether is music or painting superior * What evidence is there that the Egyptians practised music? How did instrumental music come into use?
L ES SONS IN FR EN CH.-No. x. By Professor Louis FAsquelLE, LL.D.
SECTION XXII. 1. If the ending or distinguishing characteristic of the conjugation of a verb, in the present of the infinitive, be removed, the part remaining will be the stem of the verb:— Chant-er Fin-ir Rec-evoir Rend-re
2. To that stem are added, in the different simple tenses of a regular verb, the terminations proper to the conjugation to which it belongs[$ 601.
3. PARTICIPLE PREsent.
Chant-ant Fin-issant Rec-evant Rend-ant
5. TERMINATIon of THE PRESENT of THE INDICATIVE. Cherch-er, 1. loseek, to guère, but uttle, Lecture, f. reading; - look for ; Habits, m. p. clothes, Paille, f. straw; Je chant -e fin -is rea. -ois rend -* | Compagnon, m. compan- garments; Berd-er, 4. to lose; sing finish receive . render ion; Mais, but ; Port-er, 1. to carry, to Tu parl -es cher. His apers -oss vend, -s Dame, f, lady; Maison, f house; wear; speakest cherishest perceivest sellest Debonne heure, early Marchand, m. merchant; Rec-evoir, 3. to receive; Il donn -e sourn —it perg -oit tend D-evoir, 3. to owe; Marchandises, f. p. Souvent, often; gives furnishes gathers tends Donn-er, 1. to give; goods; Toujours, always; Nous cherch -ons pun -issons conc ..-evons entend -ons | Fin-ir, 2. to finish; Neveu, m. nephew; Travail, m. labour; seek punish concentre hear Fourn-ir, 2. to furnish; Non seulement, not Trouv-er, 1. to find; Wous port -ez sais -issez d -evez perd -ez || Gard-er, 1 to keep; only; Wend-re, 4. to Alt. carry seize ouxe lose Ils aim —ent un -issent dég -oivent mord -ent ... 1. Votre mere aime-t-elle la lecture? [R. 11.] 2. Oui, love, like unite deceive bite Mademoiselle, elle l'aime beaucoup plus que sa soeur. 3.
6. The present of the indicative has but one form in French, therefore Je chante, may be rendered in English by, I sing, I do sing, or I am singing. 7. The plural of the present of the indicative may be formed from the participle present by changing ant into ons, ezen. Ex.: chantant, nous chantons; finissant, nous finissons; recevant, nous recerons; rendant, nous rendons. 8. This rule holds good not only in all the regular, but in almost all the irregular verbs. 9. Verbs may be conjugated interrogatively in French (except in the first person singular of the present of the indicative) [; 98 (4) (5)], by placing the pronoun after the verb in
all the simple tenses, and between the auxiliary and the par
ticiple in the compound tenses.
Quel chapeau votre neveu porte-t-il 4. Il porte un chapeau de soie, et je porte un chapeau de paille. 5. Cette dame aime-t-elle ses enfants? 6. Oui, Monsieur, elle les chérit. 7. Fournissez vous des marchandises a ces marchands? 8. Je fournis des marchandises a ces marchands, et ils me donnent de l'argent. 9. Wos compagnons aiment ils les beaux habits? [R. 11.] 10. Nos compagnons aiment les beaux habits et les bons livres. 11. Cherchez vous mon frère? 12. Oui, Mon... le cherche mais je ne le trouve pas. 13. Votre frère erd-il son temps. 14. Il perd son temps et son Argent. , 15.
erdons nous toujours notre temps : 16. Nous le perdons très souvent. 17. Devez vous beaucoup d'argent? 18, J'en dois assez, mais je n'en dois pas beaucoup, 19. Wendez vous vos deux maisons anotre médecin 20. Je n'en vends qu'une, #. garde l'autre pour ma belle-soeur. 21. Recevez vous de 'argent aujourd'hui P. 22. Nous n'en recevons guère. 23. Votre menuisier finit il son travail de bonne heure? 24. Ille finit tard. 25. A quelle heure le finit il 26, Ille finit a midi et demi. 27. Nous finissons le nôtre a dix heures moins vingt minutes.
1. Does your companion like reading 2... My companior, does not like reading. 3. Does your father like good books? [R. 11.] 4. He likes good books and good clothes.* 5. Do you owe more than twenty dollars 6. I only owe ten, but my brother owes more than fifteen. 7. Are you wrong to finish your work early 8. I am right to finish mine early, and you are wrong not to §: ne pas) finish yours. 9. Do you receive much money to-day ?, 10. I receive but little, 11. Do we give our best books to that little child. 12. We do not give them, we keep them because (pareeque) we want them. I3. Do you sell your two horses? 14. We do not sell our two horses, we keep one of them, 15. Do you finish your work this morning (matin)? 16. Yes, Sir, I finish it this morning early. 17. Does your brother-in-law like fine clothes: 18. Yes, Madam, he likes fine clothes. 19. Do you seek my nephew 20. Yes, Sir, we seek him, 21. Does he lose his time? 22. He loses not o his time, but he loses his money. 23. How much money has he lost to-day : . 24. He has lost more than ten dollars. 25. Does your joiner finish your house? 26. He finishes my house and my brother's. 27. Do you sell good hats?_28. We sell silk hats, and silk hats are good [R. 11]. 29. How old is your companion ? .30. He is twelve years old, and his sister is fifteen; 81. Does your brother like meat? 32. He likes meat and bread. 33. Do you receive your goods at two o'clock; 34. We receive them at half after twelve. 35. We receive them ten minutes before one.
1. There are in French, as in other languages, verbs which are called irregular, because they are not conjugated according to the rule, or model verb of the conjugation to which they belong [$ 62].
2. Many irregular verbs have tenses which are conjugated regularly.
3. The singular of the present of the indicative of the irregular verbs, is almost always irregular.
4. In verbs ending in yer, the y is changed into i before an e mute [; 49].
• Repeat the article.
6. All verbs ending in enir are conjugated like venir. 7. The student will find in § 62 the irregular verbs alphabetically arranged. He should always consult that table, when meeting with an irregular verb. 8. The expression, a la maison, is used for the English at home, at his or her house, &c. Le chirurgien est il a la maison? Is the surgeon at home? Mon frere est à la maison. My brother is at home. 9. The preposition chez, placed before a noun or pronoun, answers to the English, at the house of, with (meaning at the residence of), among, etc. [$142 (3)]. Chez moi, chez lui, chez elle. At my house, at his house, at her house. Chez nous, chez vous, chez eux, m. At our house, at your house, at their chez elles, f. house. That is literally, at the house of me, at the house of him, &c. Chez mon père, chez masoeur. At my father's, at my sister's. 10. The word avec answers to the English with, meaning merely in the company of. Venez avec mous, ou avec lui. 11. The word y means to it, at it, at that place, there. It is generally placed before the verb, and refers always to something mentioned [$39, § 103, § 104]. Wotre sour est elle chez vous? Is your sister at your house * Oui, Monsieur, elley est. Yes, Sir, she is there. 12. In French, an answer cannot, as in English, consist merely of an auxiliary or a verb preceded by a nominative pronoun; as, Do you come to my house to-day ? I do. Have you books? I have. The sentence in French must be complete; as, I go there; I have some. The words oui or non, without a verb would however suffice. Venez vous chez moi aujourd'hui o Do you come to my house to-day? Oui, Monsieur, joirai. Yes, Sir, I will. Avez vous des livres chez vous? Have you books at home 7 Oui, Monsieur, nous enavons. Yes, Sir, we have.
Come with us, or trith him.
5. Nous venons de chez vous et de chez votre socur. 6. Quiest chez nous? 7. Mon voisin y est aujourd'hui. 8. Oil avez vous l'intention de porter ces livres 9. J'ai l'intention de les porter chez le fils du médecin. 10. Avez vous tort de rester chez vous? 11. Je n'ai pastort de rester a la maison. 12. L'horloger a-t-il de bonnes montres chez lui 13. Il n'a pas de montres chez lui, il en a dans son magasin. 14. Chez qui portez vous vos livres? 15. Je les porte chez le relieur. 16. Allez vous chez le capitaine hollandais? 17. Nous n'allons pas chez le_capitaine hollandais, nous allons chez le major russe. 18. Est il chez vous ou chez votre frère? 19. Il demeure chez, nous. 20. Ne demeurons nous pas chez votre tailleur 21. Wous y demeurez. 22. Votre peintre d'où vient il? 23. Il vient de chez son associé. 24. Ou portez vous mes souliers et mon gilet? 25. Je porte vos souliers chez le cordonnier et votre gilet chez le tailleur.
1. Where does your friend go? 2. He is going [Sect. 22, R. 6] to your house or to your brother's. 3. Does he not intend to go to your partner's? 4. He intends to go there, but he has no time to-day. , 5. What do you want to-day 6. I want my waistcoat, which (qui) is at the tailor's. 7. Are your clothes at the painter's 8. They are not there, they are at the tailor's. 9. Where do you live, my friend? 10. I live at your sister-in-law's. 11. Is your father at home? 12. No, Sir, he is not. , 13. Where does your servant carry the wood? 14. He carries it to the Russian captain's. 15. Does the gentleman who (gui) is with your father live at his house? 16. No, Sir, he lives with me. 17. Is he wrong to live with you? 18. No, Sir, he is right to live with me. 19. Whence (d'oùJ comes the carpenter? 20. He comes from his partner's house. 21. Has he two partners? 22. No, Sir, he has only one, who lives here (iei). 23. Have you time to go to our house this morning 24. We have time to go there. 25. We intend to go there and to speak to your sister. 26. Is she at your house? 27. She is at her (own) house. 28. Have you bread, butter, and cheese at home? 29. We have bread and butter there. 30. We have no cheese there, we do not like cheese. 31. Is our watch at the watchmaker's 32. It (elle) is there. 33. ave you two gold watches? 34. Ihave only one gold watch. 35. Who to: to go to my father's this morning? 36. Nobody intends to go there.
LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-NO. V.
ON FINDING THE AREA OF PLANE FIGURES.
As we have many applications for lessons in mensuration and surveying, founded on geometrical principles, we proceed to give in this one, the elements of the subject. As to plane geometry itself, which we are also particularly requested to take up, we can only say that we are preparing a cheap edition of Euclid, with annotations and exercises for the use of our students, and we expect that it will be ready in about a month. DEFINITION 1.-The altitude or height of a triangle is the perpendicular straight line drawn from the vertex of any angse of the triangle, to the side opposite that angle, taken as the base. Thus, in figs. 1 and 2, the perpendicular straight line A H, drawn from the point A, the vertex of the angle n Ac, to the opposite side B c, fig. 1, as the base, or to the opposite Fig.1. side B c (fig. 2.), as A the base produced, is called the altitude or height of the triangle. Sometimes it is merely called the perpenB c dicular of the triH angle. The point H is called the foot of the perpendicular, which determines the altitude; sometimes it falls within the triangle as in fig. 1, and sometimes it falls without the triangle, as in fig. 2. If a perpendicular were drawn from the vertex c of the angle Ach, to the oppositeside AB, figs. 1 and 2, as the base, then, this porpendi
Fig. 2. A
b o n
cular would be as much entitled to the name altitude or height of the triangle to the base A B, as the perpendicular A H is to the name altitude or height of the triangle to the base B c. The same may be said of a perpendicular drawn from the ver
tex B. DEFINITIon 2.-The altitude of a parallelogram is the perpendicular which measures the distance Fig. 3. of its two parallel sides. Thus, in the A parallelogram A B D c (fig. 3), if a perpendicular be drawn from the point B, or from any other point in the side A B, to the opposite side crl, it will measure the distance of the parallel sides AB, co, and will be the altitude of the paral- C ID lelogram A B D c, to the base c D. If a perpendicular were drawn from the point c, or from any other point in the ide. Ac, to the opposite side n p, it would measure the distance f the parallel sides Ac, R D, and would be the altitude of the parallelogram A B C D, to the base B. D. Definition 3.-The altitude of a trapezoid is the perpendicular which measures the distance of its two parallel sides. Thus, Fig. 4. in the trapezoid AR co (fig. 4), if a perA. d pendicular be drawn from the point D, or from any other pointin the side AD to the opposite side B c, it will measure the distance of the parallel sides AD, B c, and will be the altitude of the trapezoid to the base B c.
DEFINITIox 4.—The altitude of any rectilineal figure, or £o. is the greatest of all the perpendiculars which can e drawn to any side, or to any side pro- Fig. 5. duced, assumed as the base, from the ver- c tices of its different angles. Thus, in the i." A B cm E (fig. 5), the perpendicular rawn from the vertex c to the base A E, F, U being greater than the perpendiculars drawn from the vertices B and D, to the same base, is the perpendicular of the polygon A B C D E to the base A. E. c A E. F. _DEFINITIox 5.-The extent of surface contained within the boundary of any plane figure, is called its area. Thus in the triangle A B C (figs. 1 and 2), the extent of surface contained within the three sides A B, Bc, cA, is called the area of the triangle A B c. Again, in the parallelogram. A crl B, the extent of surface contained within the four sides AB, BD, D c, cA, is called the area of the parallelogram Ac D P. DEFINITIoN 6.—Surfaces of ordinary extent are measured by the number of square inches, square feet, or square yards, which they contain, according as inches, feet, or yards, in length, have been used in taking their dimensions,—namely, their length, and their breadth. A square inch is a square whose side is one inch long. A square foot is a square whose side is one foot long. A square yard, is a square whose side is one yard long. Paople.M. 1.--To find the area of a given square.—In order to determine the number of square inches, which are contained in a square of any size, as A B C D (fig. 6), measure the number of inches long in its side, and multiply this number by itself; the product will be the area or number of square inches which it contains. Thus, if A B the side of the square be measured, and found to be 6 inches long; then multiplying 6 by 6, you have 36 for the number of square inches in the square A B cl. The reason of this process is very obvious. For, if the inches be carefully marked along Fig. 6. the sides AB, Bc, and straight lines parallel to these sides be drawn through each inchmark, it is plain that there will be 6 rows of six square inches; and these will all together contain 36 square inches; for 6x6 =36. If the side of a square were measured and found to be 6 feet long; then, on the same principles, its area would be 36 square feet. Or, if the side of a square were measured and found to be 6 yards long ; its area would be 36 square yards. In like manner, if the side of a square were measured and found to be 6 miles long, then, its area would be 36 square miles; and so on, for any other measurement, in inches, feet, yards, or miles. *aoplex 2.--To find the area of a given rectangle. In order to
determine the number of square inches which are contained in a rectangle of any size, as AB co (fig. 7),
Fig. 7. D measure the number of inches in its length, and the number of inches in its breadth or altitude; then multiply these
p e to numbers together; and the product
will be the number of square inches it contains. Thus, if the length. A D measures 10 inches, and the breadth or altitude A R 4 inches, then, multiplying 10 by 4, you have 40 for the number of square inches in the rectangle Ancid. The reason of this process is also very obvious. For if the inches be carefully marked along the sides AD, AI, and straight lines parallel to these sides be drawn through each inch-mark as before, it is plain that, like the case of the square, there will be 10 rows of 4 square inches, and these altogether will contain 40 square inches; for 4x10=40. Also, as in the case of the square, the area of the rectangle will be in square inches, square feet, square yards, or square miles, according as the measurements of the dimensions (that is, of the length and breadth) are taken in inches, feet, yards, or miles of length.
PnobleM 3.- To find the area of a given parallelogram. In order to determine the area of a parallelogram, draw a perpendicular from any point in the base to the opposite side, or to that side produced; measure the length of the base, and the length of the perpendicular or altitude, multiply these two lengths together, and their product will be the area of the parallelogram. ...This rule is founded on the 35th proposition of Book I., Euclid's Elements, in which it is demonstrated that parallelograms upon the same base and between the same parallels are equal. Hence, if a rectangle and a parallelogram stand on the same base and between the same parallels, they are also equal. Now the breadth of the rectangle is the same as the breadth of the parallelogram; whence the area of the parallelogram is obtained, by finding the area of the rectangle that stands on the same base, and has the same breadth or altitude,namely, the distance between the parallels. It is plain that the length of the oblique side of the parallelogram, that is, oblique to the assumed base, is not to be taken into consideration, in calculating its area; for, if it extended to an indefinite number of miles between the parallels, still its area would be the Same.
PRobleM. 4.—To find the area of a given triangle. For this purpose draw a perpendicular from the vertex of any angle, to the opposite side considered as the base, or to the base produced, if necessary; measure the length of the base, and the length of the perpendicular or altitude, multiply these two lengths together, and half their product will be the area of the triangle. ...This rule is founded on the 41st proposition of Book I., Euclid's Elements, in which it is demonstrated that if a parallelogram and a triangle be on the same base and between the same parallels, the parallelogram is double of the triangle. Now, since the rectangle formed by the base and the perpendicular breadth or altitude, is equal to the parallelogram on the same base and of the same breadth or altitude, it follows that the area of this rectangle is double the area of the triangle. Hence, the truth of the rule is evident.
PROBLEM 5.--To find the area of a given trapezoid. For this purpose, draw a perpendicular from any point in the base to the opposite side, or to that side produced; measure the length of the base, the length of the opposite side, and the length of the perpendicular or altitude; then add the lengths of the two parallel sides, and multiply their sum by the length of the perpendicular, and half this product will be the area of the trapezoid. This rule is plainly founded on the principle that if a diagonal be drawn joining two opposite extremities of the parallel sides, it will divide the trapezoid into two triangles, whose areas might be found separately, by Prob. 4, or conjointly by this rule.
to add all these products together, and take half their sum, for the area of the figure. n fig. 8, the contour or boundary of the rectilineal figure is denoted by the full Z----~2. lines; and the straight lines drawn within it, to form the triangles necessary for determining its area, are denoted by the dotted lines. The perpendiculars requisite to be drawn and measured for the comutation of the triangles, are not shown ; E. from the explanations already given, they can very easily be conceived. A more convenient mode of finding the area of a rectilineal figure, and one more frequently used in practice, is to divide it Fig. 9. into trapezoids and triangles, as shown in fig. 9. Then find the | area of each trapezoid by Prob. 5, and of each triangle by Prob. 4; add all these areas together, and their sum will be the area of the
figure. In planning this division of the figure it is best to draw as near as possible a straight line across the middle of it, and then from the angular points or vertices of the angles on each side of this straight line to draw perpendiculars to it. In fig. 9 these perpendiculars are shown by the dotted lines. The contour or boundary, and the gentral line, are denoted by the full lines. It will be seen from the consideration of this figure, that the areas of most of the triangles will in this case require to be subtracted from those of the trapezoids of which they form a part, because they are on the outside of the figure. Cases, however, can easily be supposed in which they will have to be added,—viz., when they are within the figure. In all such cases the computer of areas must use his judgment, or he mayproduce a serious error in the result. The problems and rules we have just given, are sufficient to enable the intelligent and careful student to measure the area of any rectilineal figure, polygon, or surface, that may be presented to him. The fact is that they are the foundation of all the common processes of mensuration and land-surveying. With a foot rule, or a yard measure, the student may, if he understands these problems, proceed to measure surfaces of all kinds bounded by straight lines, in engineering, carpentry, F. roofing, building, painting, &c. With a measuring chain and measuring rods, he may also proceed to measure fields, commons, estates, and even townships, that are tolerably level and accessible to the taking of measurements. When greater accuracy is required, he will learn from future lessons what is necessary to be done, to accomplish this end.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—No. II, By John R. BEARD, D.D. INTRODUCTORY.
LANguage is the expression of thought by means of articulate sounds, as painting is the expression of thought by means of form and colour. The relations which subsist between our thoughts, when carefully analysed and set forth sytematically, give rise to logic. The laws and conditions under which the expression of our thoughts takes place form the basis of grammar. #. logician has to do with states of the intellect, the grammarian is concerned with verbal utterances. That there are laws of speech a cursory attention to the subject will suffice to prove. There is, indeed, no province of the universe of things but is subject to law. Each object has its own mode of existence, which, in conjunction with the sphere of circumstances in the midst of which it is, gives rise to the laws and conditions by which it is controlled. Accordingly language takes its laws from the organs by which sound is made articulate, from the culture of the intelligent beings by whom these organs are employed, from the purposes for which speech is designed, and from even the medium and other outward influences in union with which these
purposes are pursued,
Were there no such laws the science of grammar could not exist The sciences are in each case a systematic statement of generalised facts, in other words of definite laws; and grammar rests on phenomena clearly ascertained, invariable in themselves, capable of being distinctly stated, and equally capable of being wrought into a system of general truths. In many instances, indeed, the facts with which grammarians have to deal present themselves in the actual state of language, in a fragmentary and almost evanescent condition. The quick and piercing eye, however, of modern [... has succeeded in detecting no few of these, and the
have been able of themselves to supply deficiencies, and to construct edifices out of ruins, Still manythings remain involved in darkness; in relation to others sagacious conjecture has authorised only bare probability. These, however, are not embraced within the science of grammar. When doubt begins science ends, What is still unascertained or subject to difficulties remains to be explored, and can take its place as part of scientific grammar only when it has ceased to be a subject of doubt and debate. If the conditions under which thought became speech had been in all cases the same, there would only have been one language on the face of the earth. Descending as mankind did from a common progenitor the various tribes would have spoken a common tongue. But diversities soon arose. The organs of speech, while in all cases they remain substantially the same, vary in minor particulars with each individual. Outward influences are most diversified. Men's pursuits were different almost from the first. Climate and soil change with every change of locality. And both original endowments and the degree of culture superinduced by external influences (or what may be termed indirect education) would be as diverse as the tribes, not to say the individuals of which the species consisted. All these diversified influences would speedily beget varieties in speech which time would increase and harden into different languages. From this diversity, there arise two kinds of grammar, the universal, the particular, Universal grammar is formed by studying language in general, by passing in review the several languages which exist (or most of them), and selecting and classifying those facts' which are common to all. Particular grammar is the result of the study of any one given language. By a careful consideration of the usages of the best English writers we discover what constitutes English grammar. If, after we have ascertained the laws of a number of separate languages, we then compare our discoveries one with another, and mark and systematise what we find common to them all, we compose a treatise on general grammar. Particular rammar resembles the anatomy of the human frame, and limits its teachings to one set of objects. Universal grammar is like comparative anatomy which treats of the general laws of animal life, as deduced from a minute study of the animal kingdom in general. It is with particular grammar that I am here concerned;—of the grammar of our nation,-namely, the English, I have to treat. Grammar and logic, or the laws of expression and the laws of thought are, we have seen, closely connected together in the nature of things. Not easily, then, can they be sundered in manuals of instruction. If separate they are related sciences; as being related to each other, they may afford mutual light and aid. Requiring separate treatment, they each give and receive illustration. Grammar assists the logician to put his thoughts into a lucid form; and logic assists the grammarian to make his utterances correspond to the exact analogy of his thoughts. No one can be a good grammarian who is without skill in logic; and no logician who neglects grammar can successfully convey his ideas to others. But in a manual which proposes to handle the subject of grammar, and of English grammar, reference to logic must be tacit and latenti it may be felt, it must not be displayed. Yet, in at least one or two terms will our obligations to logic be more positive and outward, for I shall borrow from that science, the words subject, attribute, predicate, &c.; and this I shall do, because these terms, when once their import is understood, afford facilities for explanation far greater than the ordinary terms employed in English grammars. In these cases, however, and in other things in which I shall depart from what is usual, I shall also supply the customary views and the ordinary terms, As the English language, like other languages, was spoken before its laws were formed into a systematic treatise called a grammar, so the real facts of the language in their primary and
...; powers which have been applied to the subject, .