« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
Ja, yes ;
cises, as to avoid the necessity of referring to them while
EXERCISE 5. translating. Nothing is better adapted to fix a word in the
Bauer, m. peasant; Lehrer, m. teacher ; Vater, m, father. memory than the process of transcribing it; and, by doing this
Buch, n. book; lieben, to love ; Wagen, m. wagon; in the German character, the requisite familiarity with the word Glas, n. glass. Mann, m. man;
Zuder, m. sugar. and the peculiar chirography or handwriting of the nguage, Kamm, m. comb; oder, or ; are both secured at the same time.
Der Brauer hat den Wein, Sie The brewer has the wine, EXERCISE 4.
haben den Kaffee, und ich habe das you have the coffee, and I
have the water.
Wasser. Auch, also, too ; Haben, to have ; Nein, no;
Der Vater liebt das Kind, und das The father loves the child, Bader, m. baker; Ic, I;
and the child loves the girl. Bier, n. beer;
Das Kind hat den Apfel, und das The child has the apple, and Vrauer, m. brewer; Kaffee, m. coffee ; Thee, m. tea;
Mädchen hat das Kind.
the girl has the child. Brod, n. bread; Kind, n, child ; lind, and ;
Haben Sie den Hut?
Have you the hat?
Nein, das Kind hat den Hut. No, the child has the hat.
What has the girl ? @r, ed, he, it; Mädchen, n. girl ; Wasser, 11. water ;
Das Mädchen hat den Kamm. The girl has the comb. Fleisch, n. meat ; Mehl, n, flour ; Wein, m. wine; Fleischer, m. butcher ; Müller, m. miller ; Wer? who?
1. Lieben Sie das Kind, oder den Mann? 2. Ich liebe das Kind. 3.
Haben Sie den Zuder? 4. Nein, das Kind hat ten Zuder. 5. Liebt tas Der Brauer hat Wein, Sie haben The brewer has wine, you sind das Mädchen? 6. Ja, und tag Matchen liebt das Kind. 7. Wer Kaffee, und ich habe Wasser. have coffee, and I have water.
hat das Glas? 8. Das Kind hat das Glas. 9. Hat der Brauer den Das Pferd hat Heu, das Kind hat The horse has hay, the child Wagen? 10. Nein, der Bauer hat den Wagen. 11 Wer hat das Bier ? Brod, und das Mädchen hat Thee. has bread, and the girl has tea. 12. Der Brauer hat das Bier und den Wein. 13. Hat der Müller das
1. Wer hat Brod? 2. Der Båder hat Brod. 3. Hat der Bacfer Mehl, oder das Prod? 14. Er hat das Mehl. 15. Hat der Bäder den Mehl. 4. Ja, er hat auch Mehl. 5. Was hat der Müller ? 6. Der Wein, oder das Wasser? 16. Er hat das Wasser. 17. Lieben Sie den Müller hat Mehl und Korn. 7. Wer hat Fleisch? 8. Der Fleischer hat Bauer ? 18. Nein, ich liebe den Lehrer. 19. Haben Sie Fleisch, oder Fleisch. 9. Haben Sie Bier ? 10. Nein, der Brauer hat Bier. 11. Wein? 20. Ich habe das Fleisch. 21. Haben Sie das Prod, over den Haben Sie Wein? 12. Nein, ich habe Kaffee. 13. Was hat das Mäd. Zucer? 22. Ich habe das Prob. 23. Hat der Vater das Budy, oter den chen? 14. Das Mädchen hat Thce. 15. Hat der Brauer Korn ? 16. Kamm? 24. Er hat das Vucy. Nein, er hat nur Bier und Wein. 17. Was hat das Kind? 18. Es hat
Questions. Ilow are German verbs conjugated interroga. Wasser. 19 Hat es auch Brod ? 20. Ja, es hat Brod und auch Fleisch. tively? 2. What English verbs are generally thus conjugated ? Questions. 1. What is said of the definite Article in Ger. 3. What is the form of the article in the accusative masculine ?
4. What in the accusative neuter ? man? 2. Of the gender of German nouns ? 3. What is the masculine form of the definite article in the nominative singular ?
Nominativ, answering to the English nominative ; the
Genitiv, answering to the English possessive; the All German verbs are conjugated interrogatively, in the pre. Dativ, which has no corresponding case in English ; and the sent and imperfect tenses, like have and be in English ; that is, Accusativ, which answers to the English objective. by placing the verb before its subject, without an auxiliary. Of the four cases, the dative without a preposition, generally Ex.:
corresponds to our objective governed by to or for. Ex.: 3
gebe dem Manne bad Glas, I give (to) the man the glass. Or Haben Sie das Budy? Have you the book?
macht rem Manne einen Hut, he makes (for) the man a hat. Osten, Lesen Sie das Buch? Read you the book ? (Do you read the book?) however, the dative, in German, is construed with a preposition, Ist er hier? Is he here?
where, as above, the objective is of course employed in English. Wohnt er hier? Resides he here? (Does he reside here?)
Das Kind ist in tem Hause, the child is in the house.
Der Jäger geht nad tein Walte, the hunter goes to the forest.
Der Mann ist auf dem Sdifie, the man is on the ship. Wohnte er hier? Resided he here? (Did he reside here?)
Der Kuch ist an dem Tijde, the cook is at the table. CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT TENSE SINGULAR OF lieben.
DECLENSION OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE MASCULINE AND Assertively.
Neuter. Sie lieben, you love ; lieben Sie? love you ? (Do you love ?) Nominativ: Der, the;
da 8, the;
Dativ: dem, to or for the; dem, to or for the;
and the New. In the old declension, the genitive, like the corNominativ. Accusativ. Nominative. Objective.
responding case in English, is formed by affixing & to the nomi. Der Vater sieht den Sohn, The father loves the son.
native. Ex.: Der Sohn liebt ben Vater,
loves the father.
Nom. der Vater, the father; Gen. des Vaters, the father's.
Nouns ending in 8, 1, 3, or two consonants, generally add Nominativ Accusativ. Nominative.
Objective. in the genitive; thus, like our words which end with the sound Das Kind liebt das Mädchen, The child loves the girl.
of s, x, 2, soft c or s, forming an additional syllable. Ex.: Das Mädchen liebt das Kind,
loves the child. Nom. das Res, the horse ; Gen. de Rosses, the horse's.
NEUTER IN THE SINGULAR.
AND NEUTER IN THE NOMI-
THE MASCULINE FORMS.
THE NEUTER FORM.
RULES POR FORMING THE CASES OF NOUNS ACCORDING TO 1. Sind Sie der Freund des Baders ? 2. Nein, ich bin der Freund deß THE OLD DECLENSION.
Tischlers. 3. Was hat der Freund des Fleischers ? 4. Er hat den Hund . RULE I. The genitive adds 8 or es to the nominative.
und das Pferd des Bauers. 5. Wo ist das Mehl. 6. Es ist in dem Rule II. The dative drops the 8 of the genitive ($ 13. Note). Sace des Müllers. 7. Wo ist das Korn? 8. Es ist in dem Korbe des RULE III. The accusative is like the nominative.
Bauer8. 9. Wer licht den Lehrer ? 10. Der Schiler liebt den Lehrer. DECLENSION OF NOUNS ADDING & IN THE GENITIVE. ll. Sind Sie schläfrig? 12. Nein, ich bin durstig. 13. Wo ist der Masculine.
Bal des Bruders? 14. Das Kind hat den Ball der Bruders in dem Hute N. Der Vater, the father ; $a Mädchen, the girl ;
des Vaters. 15. Wo ist das Pferd des Lehrers ? 16. && ist in dem G. Des Vaters, the father's ; des Mädchens, the girl's; D. Dem Bater, to, for the father ; dem Mädchen, to, for the girl; Stalle
. 17. lobt der Tischler den Zimmermann? 18. Nein, der Sohn A. Den Vater, the father; das Mädchen, the girl.
des Zimmermanns lobt ben Sohn des Lehrer8. 19. Wo ist der Stuhl bes
Tischlers ? 20. Gr (Sect. 18. III.) ist in dem Zimmer bes Lehrers. 21. DECLENSION OF NOUNS ADDING $ IN THE GENITIVE. Masculine
Liebt der Zimmermann den Lehrer ? 22. Ja, er liebt und lobt den Lehrer. N. Der Mann, the man,
Das Kind, the child;
23. Der Mann ist an dem Tische, das Buch ist auf dem Tische, und der Ø. Des Mannes, the man's; des Kindes, the child's ; Hund ist unter dem Tische. D. Dem Manne, to, for the man; dem Kinde, to, for the child;
Questions. 1. How many cases are there in German? 2. To a Den Mann, the man.
Das Kind, the child.
which of these cases are there corresponding ones in English CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT SINGULAR OF Sein and loben. 3. How is the dative supplied in English? 4. How is the Ich bin, I am ; ich lobe, I praise ;
genitive formed in the old declension ? 5. How the dative? Sie sind, you are ; Sie loben, you praise ;
6. What is the form of the dative when the genitive adds ex ? Er ist, he is; er lobt, he praises.
7. What when it adds only 8? 8. What analogy between the
declension of German and English nouns? 9. Can you state EXAMPLE OF THE SEVERAL CASES.
the substance of the preceding note ?
The camel is strong.
LESSONS IN PHYSIOLOGY.-No. VI.
PERSPIRATION or breathing, is common to all organised beings. Das Wasser tes Meeres ist salzig. The water of the sea is salt.
If you attempt to hold your breath for even a few seconds of Der Baum tes Waltes ist groß. The tree of the forest is large. time, you have a peculiar feeling of distress, which so increases Des Sintes Ball ist weid). The child's ball is soft.
as to prompt and force the respiratory movement. If at such a Whether in cases of this kind, where the genitive is used to moment anything were to prevent the free admission of air to denote possession, we should say, ber Ball des Kindes (the ball of the lungs, not only would the breathing be difficult, but the the child), or des Kindes Ball (the child's ball) is a point regu- most violent effort would be made to get the needed supply of lated by no certain rule. The former mode is the more com air; and if such supply could not be obtained, there would mon in German.
come on irregular convulsive actions:- these would be followed Nominative and dative.
by insensibility :-within a short time all movement would
cease; the circulation of the blood would be arrested, and a Der Brief ist von dem Vater. The letter is from the father.
stop be put to all the living operations of the body. Keep Der Bauer ist in dem Felde. The peasant is in the field. this fact, then, in your memory—that the process of respiration St (dhidt ef tem Freunde. He sends it to the friend.
or healthy breathing, essentially consists of an interchange of Nominative and accusative.
oxygen and carbonic acid, and this interchange takes place
between the blood, as it passes into the lungs, and the surround. Der Hund beißt den Dieb. The dog bites the thief.
ing external atmosphere. Carbonic acid is given out by the Der Schmied håmmert das Eisen. The smith hammers the iron. blood while the oxygen enters by the air which we breathe. Das Kind liebt und lobt den Vater. The child loves and praises the The number of air-cells in the human lungs has been comfather.
puted at six hundred millions, and their diameter varies from
adoth to the oth of an inch. In their structure, the lungs Nominative, dative, genitive, and accusative.
possess considerable elasticity, which gives them the power of Der Vater res Kindes giebt dem The father of the child gives contraction and dilatation. If you stand before a dressingBruter ten Vogel.
(to) the brother the bird. Der Gerrider des Staates sdict The ruler of the state sends (to) tem Krieger tas Sówert.
the warrior the sword.
EXERCISE 6. An, at; 3n, in ;
Sohn, m. son;
Sorb, m. basket; Stall, m. stable;
Arrangement of the Capillaries of the air-cells of the Human Lung.
phragm plays the more important part. It is a muscle which runs across the body in an oblique form, and completely sepa- in an atmosphere of oxygen, and the surface of the venous rates the contents of the chest from the contents of the abdo. blood will be found to take on the bright arterial hue. How men or belly. It is convex above, and concave below. Now is this effected? The carbonic acid of the blood, and the surwhen we inspire or take a breath, this muscle changes its upper rounding oxygen will overcome by their mutual attraction the surface from the form of a high arch to nearly a plane surface, obstacle offered by the bladder, and as the carbonic acid leaves and the ribs being raised by other muscles, the cavity of the the blood, its place will be filled up by the oxygen. The chest is thus enlarged and affords room for the expansion or oxygen that passes inwards exceeds the carbonic acid that dilatation of the lungs. In again giving back our breath, the passes outwards in the proportion of 1,174 to 1,000. Now if diaphragm assumes its former arch-like form, the ribs contract the lungs throw off only 1,000 out of this 1,174, in the form of or draw closer together, and thus the cavity of the chest is carbonic acid, what becomes of the remaining 174? It is supdiminished. It follows that the air in the lungs is to a certain posed that part of this enters into combination with the sul. degree exchanged with every successive breath, and differs in phur and phosphorus found in the original elements of the quantity. The following facts are worthy of attention and body, and passes off in the form of sulphuric and phosphoric remembrance :
acid, and the rest is evaporated in the form of moisture from In the case of healthy young and middle-aged men, the the lungs. quantity of air that is changed in the lungs in each act of ordi- If the state of the blood conditions and determines all the nary tranquil breathing, is from twenty to twenty-five cubic functions of the body, and if the atmosphere which surrounds inches.
us, and which we are constantly inhaling, be the grand puri. Each individual draws his breath, upon an average, eighteen fier and regenerator of the blood, then these two things times every minute ; at each respiration or breathing, a pint of follow :air is introduced into the lungs, making eighteen pints in a First.-That nothing is more essential to health and life minute, upwards of two hogsheads in an hour, and more than than good air. The atmosphere may be so deteriorated and fifty-seven in the twenty-four hours.
poisoned as to be fatal to both. For example :-carbonic acid In taking a very deep, full breath, we may completely fill the is formed and given off with great rapidity after death, both in lungs, but in letting our breath go back, we can never empty the plant and in the animal, and, therefore, all animal and vethem. This would be fatal to life. What we give back is getable substance in a state of decomposition or decay, should not more than one-fifth of what we retain. That is to say, be at once removed from our dwellings, nor be suffered to have if we give up twenty cubic inches in the act of expiration, there a place in the neighbourhood of living men. It gives birth to will be one hundred cubic inches still remaining in these disease ;—the evil spreads—and pestilence and death assert organs.
their reign. We should study habits of cleanliness. We To meet and appropriate the immense volume of air which should make a free use of soap and water, and remove ourwe take in at every breath, the heart sends to the lungs at each selves to the farthest possible distance from all impurity and
filth. We should select the best-aired neighbourhood for our dwelling, and every day breathe a pure atmosphere. The blood freed from its excess of carbon, and supplied with fresh oxygen from the inspired air, will bound through the system with unchecked activity, and make the whole man as elastic and buoyant as an angel's wing.
SECONDLY.–Care should be taken that nothing is allowed to interfere with the free play of the lungs. It is a most painful fact that in our country, some sixty thousand of the popu. lation--and these chiefly among the young and the most gifted -annually fall victims to pulmonary consumption or disease of the lungs. It is the disease of England:-and yet thousands might be saved. The physical education of man has been too much and too long overlooked. The gymnastic exercises through which children go, not only aid in the development of the bodily frame, but tend very much to give an impulse and even an additional force to mental activity. The children of those schools in which physical training is combined with mental and moral instruction, will ever be found more healthy, more active, and more disposed to apply themselves to their duties. And, therefore, next to the healthy structure of the lungs themselves, are those exercises which favour the free expansion of the chest. If grief and fear, and other depressing passions of the mind, retard the circulation, impair respiration, lower vitality, and render the body more susceptible of disease, then it becomes a duty to cherish all those emotions which will call into exercise our physical powers and functions.
There is true philosophy in a good laugh, and it contributes to This engraving shows on the left one of the Lungs, with its numberless air- health; so does singing, cheerful conversation, good society,
in the lungs, and so bring the blood into contact with the air which we soul. It is true that we cannot always be gay and merry ; still cells, and on the right those beautiful little blood-vessels which ramify and whatever can excite the more pleasurable feelings of the
we may give attention to health. Pure air is essential to life, pulsation two ounces of blood, that is, one hundred and forty- and what is more invigorating than a good walk into the open six ounces, or above a gallon, every minute, four hundred and field of Nature ?-or, if we cannot always get abroad, “the lungs eighty pints in an hour, or rather more than eleven thousand may be exercised indirectly by such kinds of bodily or muscu. pints in twenty-four hours.
lar exertion as require quicker and deeper breathing; and To ensure the air in the remoter cells being renewed, there directly, by the employment of the voice in speaking, reading comes into play the law of MUTUAL DIFFUSION, which is com- aloud, crying, or singing. In general, both ought to be con. mon to all gaseous substances that do not unite chemically joined. But where the chief object is to improve the lungs, with each other. It is according to this law that there takes those kinds which have a tendency to expand the chest, and place an interchange of oxygen and carbonic acid between the call the organs of respiration into play, are to be especially air and the blood in the lungs. Between the blood and the preferred. Rowing a boat, fencing, quoits, shuttlecock, and air in the lungs there is nothing but a very thin or delicate the proper use of the skipping-rope, dumb-bells, and gymnasmembrane. This membrane interferes not with the law of tics are of this description. All of them employ actively the mutual diffusion, as may be proved from the following experi. muscles of the chest and trunk, and excite the lungs them. ment. Fill a bladder with venous blood, suspend the bladder selves to freer and fuller expansion."
It matters little what be the mode of exercise, so that it shares with the lungs the office of removing a certain portion amount to a real recreation. But you ask what degree of exer- of the carbon which has entered into the vital and life-giving cise should be taken for the purpose of preserving health, or to fluid. what point should it be carried? Our answer is, till you begin It acts as Nature's aperient or purgative medicine. The to perspire or are in a sweat. This is a sure test that exercise regular relief of the bowels depends on the liver doing its has answered its purpose. We shall discover the truth of this duty, and nothing is so good to set the liver at work as exerwhen we come to speak of the important functions of the skin. cise. It is a fact, that exercise promotes the circulation of the
blood, and this circulation affects the secretion of the bile. When THE PROCESS OF SECRETION,
the blood flows with strength and rapidity, a much greater Just as the blood contains within itself the materials which quantity is sent into the liver in a given time, and hence the quanare required for the renovation of the solid tissues, there are tity of bile secreted is much larger. It is on this principle that certain substances produced by the decay of these solid tissues we explain the excess of bile in those who live in hot climates, which require to be separated from the blood, and thrown off and especially in cases of fever. Be assured that the best from the body. In this sense, Secretion is only another term way to take medicine is to take exercise. Nature will do for for SEPARATION. For example :respiration may be regarded you more than the doctor. You will need neither antibilious as belonging to the process of secretion, inasmuch as in the nor digestive pills. Health and length of days will be your act of breathing, we throw off a certain quantity of carbonic reward. acid, which could not be retained in the blood without the In His boundless love, has the Creator thus placed life and most injurious consequences. Its retention even for a few health in our keeping, and so arranged the laws of our whole minutes would be fatal to life.
being, that we may convert this world and our existence into For effecting the chief secretions of the body, we have a set a never-failing source of happiness and delight. The air of special organs named GLANDS. A secreting gland consists which we breathe, the food which we eat, the duties which
essentially of an assemblage we perform, the exercise which we take, are all adapted to
QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.
How do you prove that the lungs have the power of expansion
and contraction ? common channel, from which
What is the diaphragm ?-how is it situated ?-and what does the product passes by one or
it separate ? more execretory ducts or passages. These organs are divided
Can you state the quantity of air that is changed in the lungs in ded into conglomerate or inferior glands, such as the salivary, each act of ordinary tranquil breathing? lachrymal, mammary, pancreatic, and prostrate glands, and How much air do we inspire in a minute, in an hour, in a whole into visceral or superior glands, including the liver, the kidneys, day? the urethra, and kindred organs. The appa
What purpose does the air serve in the lungs ? ratus for the secretion of the gastric juice in the
How much blood does the heart send to the lungs at each pulsahuman stomach, is an arrangement of complex
tion, and to what does this amount in twenty-four hours ? follicles, as may be seen from the annexed
What do you understand by the law of mutual diffusion ?
Give an example of this law. engraving. This apparatus never attains any
What influence has good air on health and life? higher condition. The follicles or little cavities
Why should nothing be allowed to interfere with the free play are lodged in the walls of the stomach, and by
of the lungs ? separate openings pour their contents into it to
To what point should exercise be carried to keep health ? mingle with the food in the process of digestion.
What is meant by the process of SECRETION ? The LIVER, in some form or other, is found in all but the Give an example of this process in connexion with the lungs very lowest members of the animal kingdom. It is situated in What organs have we for effecting this secretion ? the human body under the diaphragm, and in the right side. Describe what you mean by a gland. Its figure is convex above, and concave below, and its sub
Is the liver found in all members of the animal kingdom ? stance is of a dusky reddish colour. It is divided into two Describe its situation, figure, colour, divisions, and importance. lobes or distinct parts, and on the under surface of the right
What are the three important functions it performs ?
Why is exercise the medicine of nature ?
LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. XI.
By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D.
SECTION XXIV. coverings of the intestines, meet in one great tive of almost all those French verbs, which in that person
1. In the first person singular of the present of the indica
6 PORTA of the liver. This have only one syllable, the common interrogative form (Sect. a
large vein is thus filled 22. 9] is not allowed. To render the verb interrogative, the
Do I sell cloth ?
Do I play often? important functions in 2. The first person singular of the indicative of avoir, to Connexion of the lobules of the lirer with its
the human system,
have ; être, to be ; aller, to go; pouvoir, to be able; devoir, to great vem :--a represents the trunk of the vein; and bbo the lobules depending from its branches
It aids the process
owe; savoir, to know, etc., may, however, be conjugated inter1.ke leaves on a tree.
of digestion as the food rogatively according to the general rules. passes from the stomach into the duodenum, and in connexion Ai-je vos mouchoirs ? Have I your handkerchiefs ? with some other juices, converts the chyme into chyle.
Combien vous dois-je ? Horo much do I owe you ? It carries rei' impuritics from the bload, inasmuch as it 3. The form est-ce que is always allowable, and sometimes preferable, when the first person singular of the present of the 24. Envoyez vous ce billet à la poste. 25. Je l'envoie à son indicative of a verb has several syliables [$ 98, (6)].
adresse. Est-ce que je vous envoie des livres ? Do I send you books !
EXERCISE 48. Est-ce que je commence à parler ? Do I begin to speak?
1. Do I wear my large black hat? 2. You wear a hand.
some green hat. 3. Does the banker go to the hair-dresser's 4. Est-ce que may, in familiar conversation, be used with all this morning? 4. He goes there this morning. 5. Does he the persons of those tenses susceptible of being conjugated intend to go to the bank this morning? 6. He does not intend interrogatively :-Qu'est-ce que vous lisez ? may be said, in
to go there, he has no time. 7. Do you send your letters to stead of, que lisez vous ? What do you read!
the post-office? 8. I do not send them, they are not yet 5. INTERROGATIVE TORM OF THE INDICATIVE PRESENT OF written (écrites). 9. Do I send you a note? 10. You send
ALLER, to go. ENVOYER, to send. VENIR, to come. me a ticket, but I have no wish to go to the concert. 11. Does Est-ce que je vais ? do 1 Est-ce que j'envoie ? do Est-ce que je viens ? do your brother go to school to-morrow? 12. He goes (there) go, or am I going ? I send, or am I sending? I come, or am I coming! to-day, and remains at home to-morrow. 13. Do I go there? Vas-tu ? Enroies-tu? Viens-tu ?
14. You do not go anywhere. 15. Where do you go? 16. 1 Va-t-il ? Enroie-t-il? Vient-il ?
am going to your brothers, is he at home? 17. He is not at Allons nous ? Envoyons nous ? Venons nous ? home, he is absent since yesterday. 18. Does your brother Allez vous ? Envoyez vous ? Venez vous ?
live in this village ? 19. He does not (Sect. 23. 12), he lives Vont ils ? Eavoient ils ?
Viennent ils? at my nephew's. 20. Are you wrong to go to school? 21. 6. The article le, preceded by the proposition à is contracted No, Sir, I am right to go to church and to school. 22. into au before a noun masculine commencing with a conso
Do you wish to come to my house 23. I like to go to your nant, or an k aspirate; and into aux before a plural noun. house, and to your brother's. 24. When are you coming to [$ 13, (8)).
our house? 25. To-morrow, if I have time. 26. Does the
banker like to come here? 27. He likes to come to your Allez vous au bal ou au marché? Do you go to the ball or to the market? house. 28. Is the hair-dresser coming? 29. He is not yet
7. A l'église means at or to church ; à l'école, at or to coming.. 30. What are you sending to the scholar? 31. 1 school :
am sending books, paper, and clothes. 32. Where is he? 33.
He is at school, 34. Is the school in the village ? 35. It is Nous allons à l'église et à l'école. We go to church and to school.
there. 8. Quelque part, means somewhere, anywhere ; nulle part,
Section XXV. nowhere.
1. The verb aller, is used, in French, in the same manner as Votre neveu où est il ?
Where is your nephew ! the verb to go, in English, to indicate a proximate future.
Allez vous écrire ce matin ?
Are you going to write this morning!
Je vais écrire mes lettres. I am going to write my letters.
2. The verb venir is used idiomatically, in French, to indi
cate a past just elapsed. It requires, in this signification, the Est-ce que je vais à l'école ? Do I go to school!
preposition de before another verb. Vous allez à l'église aujourd'hui. You go to church to-day.
Je viens d'écrire mes lettres. I have just written my letters. Est-ce que je commence mon tra- Do I begin my work?
Nous venons de recevoir des lettres. We hare just received letters. vail ? Est-ce-que je parle anglais ? Do I speak English?
3. Aller trouver, venir trouver, are used in the sense of to Est-ce que j'envoie ce livre à mon Do I send this book to my brother !
go to, to come to, in connexion with nouns or pronouns reprefrère ?
senting persons : Allez vous au marché demain ? Do you go to market to-morrow ?
Allez trourer le ferblantier. Go to the tinman. J'y vais après-demain.
I go there the day after to morrow. J'ai envie d'aller le trouver. I have a desire to go to him, Envoyez vous vos enfants à l'école? Do you send your children to school! Venez me trouver à dix heures. Come to me at ten o'clock. Je les envoie chez le professeur. I send them to the professor's.
4. Aller chercher, means to go for, to go and fetch :Je les y envoie cette après-midi. I send them there this afternoon. Vos habits où sont ils ?
Allez chercher le médecin.
Go and fetch the physician. Where are your clothes ! Ils sont quelque part.
Je vais chercher du sucre et du café. I am going for coffee and sugar. They are somewhere. Ils ne sont nulle part. They are nowhere.
5. Envoyer chercher, means to send for, to send and fetch :Est-ce que je demeure chez vous ? Do I live at your house?
Envoyez chercher le marchand. Send for the merchant. Est-ce que je mange trop ? Do I cat too much?
J'envoie chercher des légumes. I send for vegetables. EXERCISE 47.
6. The first and second persons of the plural of the imperaAbsent, e, abernt. Cuir, m, leather. Perruquier, m. hair
tive are, with few exceptions, the same as the corresponding Adresse, f. address, Depuis, since.
persons of the present of the indicative. The pronouns nous, Banque, f bank.
Ecole, f. school.
vous, are not used with the imperative, Banquier, m banker. Ecolier, m. scholar. Poste, f. post office. 7. PLURAL OF THE IMPERATIVE OF ALLER, ENVOYER, Billet, m. note.
Eglise, f, church.
Vert, e, green.
Allons, let us go. Envoyons, let us send. Venons, let us come Couper, 1. to cut.
Venez, come. 1. Où est-ce que je vais ? 2. Vous allez chez le chapelier,
8. Tous, m. toutes, f. followed by the article les and ? 3. Est-ce que je vais à la banque? 4. Vous allez à la banque plural noun, are used in French in the same sense as the word et au concert. 5. Est-ce que je coupe votre bois? 6. Vous every in English. ne coupez ni mon bois ni mon habit. 7. Est-ce que je porie Votre frère vient tous les jours. Your brother comes every day. un chapeau vert ? 8. Vous ne portez pas un chapeau vert, Vous allez à l'école tous les matins. You go to school eery morning. vous en portez un noir. 9. Votre écolier va-t-il quelque 9. Tout, m. toute, f, followed by le or la and the noun in the part? 10. Il va à l'église, à l'école et au marché. 11. Ne singular, are used for the English expression the whole coming va-t-il pas chez le perruquier? 12. Il ne va nulle part. 13. before a noun. Ne portez vous point des bottes de cuir rouge? 14. J'en 16. N'allez vouz pas chez le banquier ?
Il reste ici toute la journée, porte de cuir noir.
He remains here the whole day. 16. Je ne vais pas chez lui, il est absent depuis hier. 17. 10. A day of the week or of the month, pointed out as the Vient il à la banque ce matin : 18. Il a l'intention d'y venir, time of an appointment or of an occurrence, is not preceded s'il a le temps.* 19. A-t-il envie d'aller au concert: 20. Il by a pre position in French, a grande envie d'y aller, mais il n'a pas de billet. 21. De-Vencz lundi ou mardi.
Come on Monday or Tresdoy. meurez vous dans ce village? 22. Oui, Monsieur, j'y demeure. Venez le quinze ou le seize avril. Come on the fifteenth or sixteenth of • The i of ei is elided before Il, ils, but in no other case.
11. When the occurrence is a periodical or customary one,