Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

runs across the body in an oblique form, and completely sepa- in an atmosphere of oxygen, and the surface of the venous rates the contents of the chest from the contents of the abdo. blood will be found to take on the bright arterial hue. How men or belly. It is convex above, and concave below. Now is this effected? The carbonic acid of the blood, and the surwhen we inspire or take a breath, this muscle changes its upper rounding oxygen will overcome by their mutual attraction the surface from the form of a high arch to nearly a plane surface, obstacle offered by the bladder, and as the carbonic acid leaves and the ribs being raised by other muscles, the cavity of the the blood, its place will be filled up by the oxygen. The chest is thus enlarged and affords room for the expansion or oxygen that passes inwards exceeds the carbonic acid that dilatation of the lungs. In again giving back our breath, the passes outwards in the proportion of 1,174 to 1,000. Now if diaphragm assumes its former arch-like form, the ribs contract the lungs throw off only 1,000 out of this 1,174, in the form of or draw closer together, and thus the cavity of the chest is carbonic acid, what becomes of the remaining 174? It is supdiminished. It follows that the air in the lungs is to a certain posed that part of this enters into combination with the sul. degree exchanged with every successive breath, and differs in phur and phosphorus found in the original elements of the quantity. The following facts are worthy of attention and body, and passes off in the form of sulphuric and phosphoric remembrance :

acid, and the rest is evaporated in the form of moisture from In the case of healthy young and middle-aged men, the the lungs. quantity of air that is changed in the lungs in each act of ordi- If the state of the blood conditions and determines all the nary tranquil breathing, is from twenty to twenty-five cubic functions of the body, and if the atmosphere which surrounds inches.

us, and which we are constantly inhaling, be the grand puri. Each individual draws his breath, upon an average, eighteen fier and regenerator of the blood, then these two things times every minute ; at each respiration or breathing, a pint of follow :air is introduced into the lungs, making eighteen pints in a First.-That nothing is more essential to health and life minute, upwards of two hogsheads in an hour, and more than than good air. The atmosphere may be so deteriorated and fifty-seven in the twenty-four hours.

poisoned as to be fatal to both. For example :-carbonic acid In taking a very deep, full breath, we may completely fill the is formed and given off with great rapidity after death, both in lungs, but in letting our breath go back, we can never empty the plant and in the animal, and, therefore, all animal and vethem. This would be fatal to life. What we give back is getable substance in a state of decomposition or decay, should not more than one-fifth of what we retain. That is to say, be at once removed from our dwellings, nor be suffered to have if we give up twenty cubic inches in the act of expiration, there a place in the neighbourhood of living men. It gives birth to will be one hundred cubic inches still remaining in these disease ;—the evil spreads—and pestilence and death assert organs.

their reign. We should study habits of cleanliness. We To meet and appropriate the immense volume of air which should make a free use of soap and water, and remove ourwe take in at every breath, the heart sends to the lungs at each selves to the farthest possible distance from all impurity and

filth. We should select the best-aired neighbourhood for our dwelling, and every day breathe a pure atmosphere. The blood freed from its excess of carbon, and supplied with fresh oxygen from the inspired air, will bound through the system with unchecked activity, and make the whole man as elastic and buoyant as an angel's wing.

SECONDLY.–Care should be taken that nothing is allowed to interfere with the free play of the lungs. It is a most painful fact that in our country, some sixty thousand of the popu. lation--and these chiefly among the young and the most gifted -annually fall victims to pulmonary consumption or disease of the lungs. It is the disease of England:-and yet thousands might be saved. The physical education of man has been too much and too long overlooked. The gymnastic exercises through which children go, not only aid in the development of the bodily frame, but tend very much to give an impulse and even an additional force to mental activity. The children of those schools in which physical training is combined with mental and moral instruction, will ever be found more healthy, more active, and more disposed to apply themselves to their duties. And, therefore, next to the healthy structure of the lungs themselves, are those exercises which favour the free expansion of the chest. If grief and fear, and other depressing passions of the mind, retard the circulation, impair respiration, lower vitality, and render the body more susceptible of disease, then it becomes a duty to cherish all those emotions which will call into exercise our physical powers and functions.

There is true philosophy in a good laugh, and it contributes to This engraving shows on the left one of the Lungs, with its numberless air- health; so does singing, cheerful conversation, good society,

in the lungs, and so bring the blood into contact with the air which we soul. It is true that we cannot always be gay and merry ; still cells, and on the right those beautiful little blood-vessels which ramify and whatever can excite the more pleasurable feelings of the

we may give attention to health. Pure air is essential to life, pulsation two ounces of blood, that is, one hundred and forty- and what is more invigorating than a good walk into the open six ounces, or above a gallon, every minute, four hundred and field of Nature ?-or, if we cannot always get abroad, “the lungs eighty pints in an hour, or rather more than eleven thousand may be exercised indirectly by such kinds of bodily or muscu. pints in twenty-four hours.

lar exertion as require quicker and deeper breathing; and To ensure the air in the remoter cells being renewed, there directly, by the employment of the voice in speaking, reading comes into play the law of MUTUAL DIFFUSION, which is com- aloud, crying, or singing. In general, both ought to be con. mon to all gaseous substances that do not unite chemically joined. But where the chief object is to improve the lungs, with each other. It is according to this law that there takes those kinds which have a tendency to expand the chest, and place an interchange of oxygen and carbonic acid between the call the organs of respiration into play, are to be especially air and the blood in the lungs. Between the blood and the preferred. Rowing a boat, fencing, quoits, shuttlecock, and air in the lungs there is nothing but a very thin or delicate the proper use of the skipping-rope, dumb-bells, and gymnasmembrane. This membrane interferes not with the law of tics are of this description. All of them employ actively the mutual diffusion, as may be proved from the following experi. muscles of the chest and trunk, and excite the lungs them. ment. Fill a bladder with venous blood, suspend the bladder selves to freer and fuller expansion."

breathe.

THE PROCESS OF SECRETION,

It matters little what be the mode of exercise, so that it shares with the lungs the office of removing a certain portion amount to a real recreation. But you ask what degree of exer- of the carbon which has entered into the vital and life-giving cise should be taken for the purpose of preserving health, or to fluid. what point should it be carried! Our answer is, till you begin It acts as Nature's aperient or purgative medicine. The to perspire or are in a sweat. This is a sure test that exercise regular relief of the bowels depends on the liver doing its has answered its purpose. We shall discover the truth of this duty, and nothing is so good to set the liver at work as exerwhen we come to speak of the important functions of the skin. cise. It is a fact, that exercise promotes the circulation of the

blood, and this circulation affects the secretion of the bile. When

the blood flows with strength and rapidity, a much greater Just as the blood contains within itself the materials which quantity is sent into the liver in a given time, and hence the quanare required for the renovation of the solid tissues, there are tity of bile secreted is much larger. It is on this principle that certain substances produced by the decay of these solid tissues we explain the excess of bile in those who live in hot climates, which require to be separated from the blood, and thrown off and especially in cases of fever. Be assured that the best from the body. In this sense, SECRETION is only another term way to take medicine is to take exercise. Nature will do for for SEPARATION. For example :-respiration may be regarded you more than the doctor. You will need neither antibilious as belonging to the process of secretion, inasmuch as in the nor digestive pills. Health and length of days will be your act of breathing, we throw off a certain quantity of carbonic reward. acid, which could not be retained in the blood without the In His boundless love, has the Creator thus placed life and most injurious consequences. Its retention even for a few health in our keeping, and so arranged the laws of our whole minutes would be fatal to life.

being, that we may convert this world and our existence into For effecting the chief secretions of the body, we have a set a never-failing source of happiness and delight. The air of special organs named GLANDS. A secreting gland consists which we breathe, the food which we eat, the duties which

essentially of an assemblage we perform, the exercise which we take, are all adapted to
of small cavities in com- minister to our enjoyment. It is a grand thing to have a
munication with the cuta. sound mind in a sound body; and in proportion to the health,
neous surface, where the vigour, and activity of the physical system, will be the free.
secretion is poured out. In dom and the force of the intellectual power.
other words, a true gland
consists of a closely-packed

QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.
collection of follicles, or What do you mean by respiration, or the process of healthy
small open cells, disposed breathing?
in clusters at the extremity

How many air-cells are there in the human lungs, and what is of the secreting canal, and their diameter ? all of which open into a

How do you prove that the lungs have the power of expansion

and contraction ?
common channel, from which
the product passes by one or

What is the diaphragm ?-how is it situated ?--and what does

it separate ? more execretory ducts or passages. These organs are divided

Can you state the quantity of air that is changed in the lungs in ded into conglomerate or inferior glands, such as the salivary, each act of ordinary tranquil breathing ? lachrymal, mammary, pancreatic, and prostrate glands, and How much air do we inspire in a minute, in an hour, in a whole into visceral or superior glands, including the liver, the kidneys, day? the urethra, and kindred organs. The appa

What purpose does the air serve in the lungs ? ratus for the secretion of the gastric juice in the

How much blood does the heart send to the lungs at each pulsahuman stomach, is an arrangement of complex

tion, and to what does this amount in twenty-four hours ? follicles, as may be seen fro the annexed

What do you understand by the law of mutual diffusion ?

Give an example of this law. engraving. This apparatus never attains any

What influence has good air on health and life? higher condition. The follicles or little cavities

Why should nothing be allowed to interfere with the free play are lodged in the walls of the stomach, and by

of the lungs ? separate openings pour their contents into it to

To what point should exercise be carried to keep health ? mingle with the food in the process of digestion.

What is meant by the process of SECRETION ? The LIVER, in some form or other, is found in all but the Give an example of this process in connexion with the lungs very lowest members of the animal kingdom. It is situated in What organs have we for effecting this secretion ? the human body under the diaphragm, and in the right side. Describe what you mean by a gland. Its figure is convex above, and concave below, and its sub- Is the liver found in all members of the animal kingdom ? stance is of a dusky reddish colour. It is divided into two

Describe its situation, figure, colour, divisions, and importance.

What are the three important functions it performs ? lobes or distinct parts, and on the under surface of the right

Why is exercise the medicine of nature ?
or great lobe, there are three smaller lobes. It is held in its
place by a certain number of ligaments, and by the vessels which
enter it and go out from it, the liver is one of the most import-
ant organs of the human body. All the veins of the stomach, LESSONS IN FRENCH.--No. XI.

of the intestines, of the
B
spleen, of the pancreas,

By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D.
and of the omenta or

SECTION XXIV, coverings of the intestines, meet in one great tive of almost all those French verbs, which in that person

1. In the first person singular of the present of the indica6 Ponta of the liver. This have only one syllable, the common interrogative form (Sect.

large vein is thus filled 22. 9] is not allowed. To render the verb interrogative, the
with venous blood, and expression est-ce que is prefixed to the affirmative form (98,
from this venous blood (5) (6)].
the bile is secreted.

Est-ce que je vends du drap?
Now bile fulfils three
Est-ce que je joue souvent ?

Do I play often
Connexion of the lobules of the liver with its

important functions in 2. The first person singular of the indicative of avoir, lo the human system.

have ; être, to be; aller, to go; pouvoir, to be able ; devoir, to great vemn :-a represents the trunk of the vein; and bbo the lobules depending from its branches It aids the process owe; savoir, to know, etc., may, however, be conjugated inter1.ke leaves on a tree.

of digestion as the food rogatively according to the general rules. passes from the stomach into the duodenum, and in connexion Ai-je vos mouchoirs ? Have I your handkerchiefs ? with some other juices, converts the chyme into chyle.

Combien vous dois-je ? How much do I owe you ? It carries pffi impurities from the blood, inasmuch as it 3. The form est-ce que is always allowable, and sometimes

[ocr errors]

Do I sell cloth?

preferable, when the first person singular of the present of the 24. Envoyez vous ce billet à la poste. 25. Je l'envoie à son indicative of a verb has several syliables [$ 98, (6)].

adresse. Est-ce que je vous envoie des livres ? Do I send you books !

EXERCISE 48. Est-ce que je commence à parler ? Do I begin to speak?

1. Do I wear my large black hat? 2. You wear a hand.

some green hat. 3. Does the banker go to the hair-dresser's 4. Est-ce que may, in familiar conversation, be used with all this morning? 4. He goes there this morning. 5. Does he the persons of those tenses susceptible of being conjugated intend to go to the bank this morning? 6. He does not intend interrogatively :-Qu'est-ce que vous lisez ? may be said, in

to go there, he has no time. 7. Do you send your letters to stead of, que lisez vous ? What do you read!

the post-office? 8. I do not send them, they are not yet 5. INTERROGATIVE TORM OF THE INDICATIVE PRESENT OF written (écrites). 9. Do I send you a note? 10. You send

ALLER, to go. ENVOYER, to send. VENIR, to come. me a ticket, but I have no wish to go to the concert. 11. Does Est-ce que je vais ? do 1 Est-ce que j'envoie ? do Est-ce que je viens ? do your brother go to school to-morrow? 12. He goes (there) go, or am I going ? I send, or am I sending? I come, or am I coming! to-day, and remains at home to-morrow. 13. Do I go there? Vas-tu ? Enroies-tu? Viens-tu ?

14. You do not go anywhere. 15. Where do you go? 16. 1 Va-t-il ? Enroie-t-il? Vient-il ?

am going to your brothers, is he at home? 17. He is not at Allons nous ? Envoyons nous ? Venons nous ? home, he is absent since yesterday. 18. Does your brother Allez vous ? Envoyez vous ? Venez vous ?

live in this village ? 19. He does not (Sect. 23. 12), he lives Vont ils ? Eavoient ils ?

Viennent ils? at my nephew's. 20. Are you wrong to go to school? 21. 6. The article le, preceded by the proposition à is contracted No, Sir, I am right to go to church and to school. 22. into au before a noun masculine commencing with a conso

Do you wish to come to my house 23. I like to go to your nant, or an k aspirate; and into aux before a plural noun. house, and to your brother's. 24. When are you coming to [$ 13, (8)).

our house? 25. To-morrow, if I have time. 26. Does the

banker like to come here? 27. He likes to come to your Allez vous au bal ou au marché? Do you go to the ball or to the market? house. 28. Is the hair-dresser coming? 29. He is not yet

7. A l'église means at or to church ; à l'école, at or to coming.. 30. What are you sending to the scholar? 31. 1 school :

am sending books, paper, and clothes. 32. Where is he? 33.

He is at school, 34. Is the school in the village ? 35. It is Nous allons à l'église et à l'école. We go to church and to school.

there. 8. Quelque part, means somewhere, anywhere ; nulle part,

Section XXV. nowhere.

1. The verb aller, is used, in French, in the same manner as Votre neveu où est il ?

Where is your nephew ! the verb to go, in English, to indicate a proximate future.
Il est quelque part.
He is somewhere.

Allez vous écrire ce matin ?
Il n'est nulle part.
He is nowhere.

Are you going to write this morning!

Je vais écrire mes lettres. I am going to write my letters.
Résumé of EXAMPLES.

2. The verb venir is used idiomatically, in French, to indi

cate a past just elapsed. It requires, in this signification, the Est-ce que je vais à l'école ? Do I go to school!

preposition de before another verb. Vous allez à l'église aujourd'hui. You go to church to-day.

Je viens d'écrire mes lettres. I have just written my letters. Est-ce que je commence mon tra- Do I begin my work?

Nous venons de recevoir des lettres. We hare just received letters. vail ? Est-ce-que je parle anglais ? Do I speak English?

3. Aller trouver, venir trouver, are used in the sense of to Est-ce que j'envoie ce livre à mon Do I send this book to my brother !

go to, to come to, in connexion with nouns or pronouns reprefrère ?

senting persons : Allez vous au marché demain ? Do you go to market to-morrow ?

Allez trourer le ferblantier. Go to the tinman. J'y vais après-demain.

I go there the day after to morrow. J'ai envie d'aller le trouver. I have a desire to go to him, Envoyez vous vos enfants à l'école? Do you send your children to school! Venez me trouver à dix heures. Come to me at ten o'clock. Je les envoie chez le professeur. I send them to the professor's.

4. Aller chercher, means to go for, to go and fetch :Je les y envoie cette après-midi. I send them there this afternoon. Vos habits où sont ils ?

Allez chercher le médecin.

Go and fetch the physician. Where are your clothes ! Ils sont quelque part.

Je vais chercher du sucre et du café. I am going for coffee and sugar. They are somewhere. Ils ne sont nulle part. They are nowhere.

5. Envoyer chercher, means to send for, to send and fetch :Est-ce que je demeure chez vous ? Do I live at your house?

Envoyez chercher le marchand. Send for the merchant. Est-ce que je mange trop ? Do I cat too much?

J'envoie chercher des légumes. I send for vegetables. EXERCISE 47.

6. The first and second persons of the plural of the imperaAbsent, e, abernt. Cuir, m, leather. Perruquier, m. hair

tive are, with few exceptions, the same as the corresponding Adresse, f. address, Depuis, since.

dresser.

persons of the present of the indicative. The pronouns nous, Banque, f bank.

Ecole, f. school.
Point, not.

vous, are not used with the imperative, Banquier, m banker. Ecolier, m. scholar. Poste, f. post office. 7. PLURAL OF THE IMPERATIVE OF ALLER, ENVOYER, Billet, m. note.

Eglise, f, church.
Rouge, red.

AND VENIR.
Chapelier, m. hatter. Marché, m, market. Village, m. village.
Concert, m. concert. Noir, e, black

Vert, e, green.

Allons, let us go. Envoyons, let us send. Venons, let us come Couper, 1. to cut.

Allez, go.
Envoyez, send.

Venez, come. 1. Où est-ce que je vais ? 2. Vous allez chez le chapelier,

8. Tous, m. toutes, f. followed by the article les and ? 3. Est-ce que je vais à la banque? 4. Vous allez à la banque plural noun, are used in French in the same sense as the word et au concert. 5. Est-ce que je coupe votre bois? 6. Vous every in English. ne coupez ni mon bois ni mon habit. 7. Est-ce que je porie Votre frère vient tous les jours. Your brother comes every day. un chapeau vert ? 8. Vous ne portez pas un chapeau vert, Vous allez à l'école tous les matins. You go to school eery morning. vous en portez un noir. 9. Votre écolier va-t-il quelque 9. Tout, m. toute, f, followed by le or la and the noun in the part? 10. Il va à l'église, à l'école et au marché. 11. Ne singular, are used for the English expression the whole coming va-t-il pas chez le perruquier? 12. Il ne va nulle part. 13. before a noun. Ne portez vous point des bottes de cuir rouge? 14. J'en 16. N'allez vouz pas chez le banquier ?

Il reste ici toute la journée, porte de cuir noir.

He remains here the whole day. 16. Je ne vais pas chez lui, il est absent depuis hier. 17. 10. A day of the week or of the month, pointed out as the Vient il à la banque ce matin : 18. Il a l'intention d'y venir, time of an appointment or of an occurrence, is not preceded s'il a le temps.* 19. A-t-il envie d'aller au concert: 20. Il by a pre position in French, a grande envie d'y aller, mais il n'a pas de billet. 21. De-Vencz lundi ou mardi.

Come on Monday or Tresdoy. meurez vous dans ce village? 22. Oui, Monsieur, j'y demeure. Venez le quinze ou le seize avril. Come on the fifteenth or sixteenth of • The i of ei is elided before Il, ils, but in no other case.

April.
This is the only
Instance of the elison of i.

11. When the occurrence is a periodical or customary one,

mence.

the article le is prefixed to the day of the week or the time of LESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY.--No. IV. the day.

THE WILD DOG.
Il vient nous trouver le lundi He comes to us Mondays.
Il ya trouver votre père l'après-midi. He goes to your father in the afternoon.

(Order CARNIVORA, genus CANIS, the dog tribe.)
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

The genus canis includes the dog, the wolf, the jackal, and

the fox, closely assimilated as these animals are, both in anaJe vais parler à M. votre père. I am going to speak to your father.

tomical structure and external character, They have the Nous venons de recevoir de l'argent. We have just received money.

same kinds of teeth; the canine teeth being strong, conical, Que venez vous de faire ?

What have you just done? Je viens de déchirer mon habit. I have just torn my coat.

pointed, and curved slightly backwards ; the incisors, or Votre frère va-t-il trouver son ami? Does your brother go to his friend, cutting teeth, are six above and below. There are five toes on Il va le trouver tous les jours. He goes to him every day.

the fore-feet, and four on the posterior, to which is sometimes Il vient me trouver tous les lundis. He comes to me every Monday. added a small rudimentary claw, Allez vous chercher de l'argent? Do you go and fetch money

The appetite of these animals is decidedly carnivorous - yet, Je n'en vais pas chercher, I do not. (Sect. 23. 12.)

in some instances, they are partial to vegetables : thus dogs Envoyez vous chercher des livres Do you senu for Arabic books? will feed freely on them, and the old fable, in which Reynard Arabes ?

is represented as saying " the grapes are sour," when they Allez vous chez cette dame lundi ? Do you go to that lady's house on

were out of his reach, was founded on an acquaintance with Monday?

this fact. The chief dependence of this tribe of animals is, J'ai l'intention d'y aller mardi. I intend to go there on Tuesday. J'y vais ordinairement le mecredi. I generally go there on Wednesdays. thrown in their way, for the discovery of which their acute

however, the produce of the chase, or the carrion which is n va à l'église le dimanche. He goes to church on Sundays.

sense of smell is specially adapted. The strength of their EXERCISE 49.

jaws is very great; their appetite is ravenous, but they can Année, f. year. Dimanche, f. Sunday. Mardi, m, Tuesday. well endure hunger and fatigue. When plenty is before them Apprend-re, 4. ir. to Ecossais, e, Scotch.

Mercredi, m. Wednes- they gorge to repletion, and hide or bury the remainder for a learn. Ecri-re, 4. ir, to write. day.

future time. The habits of r11, excepting the dog, are nocturAprès-midi, f. afternoon. Enseign-er, 1. to teach. Dusique, f. music.

nal: in the fox alone the pupil of the eye contracts in a linear Commenc-er, 1. to com Excepté, excepr. Prochain, e, next.

manner; in the rest it is circular. Jeudi, m. Thursday. Vendredi, m. Friday. Compagne, f.companion. Journée, 1. day. Rest-er, 1. to remain, native wilds, that when seen at a little distance it is not easy

The Esquimaux dog so closely resembles the wolf of its Connaissances, f. ac- Irlandais, e, Irish.

to lire. quaintances . Lundi, m. Monday. Samedi, m. Saturday.

to distinguish between them. In both the fur is deep and Demain, to-morrow, Malade, sick.

Teinturier, m. dyer.

thick, both have the same erect ears, the same breadth of skull 1. Qu'allez vous faire ? 2. Je vais apprendre mes leçons. its native wilds, the voice of the Esquimaux dog is not a bark,

between them, and the same sharpness of muzzle ; while, in 3. N'allez vous pas écrire à vos connaissances ?

4. Je ne rais écrire à personne. 5. Qui vient de vous parler ? 6.

but a long melancholy howl. It has been sometimes supposed L'Irlandais vient de nous parler. 7. Quand l'Ecossaise that the one is a domestic variety of the other ; but this is an va-t-elle vous enseigner la musique ? 8. Elle va me l'enseig- error. The Esquimaux dog hates and fears the wolf, and will ner l'année prochaine. 9. Va-t-elle commencer mardi ou

only attack that animal when impelled by necessity, though it mercredi ? 10. Elle ne va commencer ni mardi ni mercredi, will rush on the bear with undaunted energy. elle a l'intention de commencer jeudi, si elle a le temps. 11.

The striking resemblance that subsists between the EsquiVotre compagne va-t-elle à l'église tous les dimanches ? 12.

maux dog and the wolf is, however, not more remarkable than Elle y va tous les dimanches et tous les mercredis. 13. Qui that which subsists between other varieties of the dog and some allez vous trouver ? 14. Je ne vais trouver personne.

15.

wild species of the same genus. To take an instance: the N'avez vous pas l'intention de venir me trouver demain ? 16.

Hare-Indian's dog has a long, narrow, and pointed muzzle, erect J'ai l'intention d'aller trouver votre teinturier. . 17. Envoyez The hair is fine and silky; 'in summer it is marked with

sharp ears, and a bushy tail, only slightly curved upwards. Tous chercher le médecin ? 18. Quand je suis malade, je l'envoic chercher. 19. Reste-t-il avec vous toute la journée ? Shades of brown'; but it thickens in winter and becomes white,

patches of greyish black or slate-grey, intermingled with 20. Il ne reste chez moi que quelques minutes. 21. Allez rous à l'école le matin 22. J'y vais le matin et l'après-midi. and of the Great Bear Lake, and so nearly does it resemble

or nearly so. It is found on the banks of the Mackenzie river 23. Y allez vous tous les jours ? 24. J'y vais tous les jours the arctic fox of its native regions, that the one has been sup, excepté le lundi et le dimanche: , 25. Le samedi je reste chez posed to be of the wild, and the other of the domesticated nous, et le dimanche je vais à l'église.

race. The Hare-Indian's dog is never known to bark in its EXERCISE 50.

native country, nor did the pair of these animals brought to 1. What is the Irishman going to do: 2. He is going to England by Sir John Franklin and Dr. Richardson, and teach music. 3. Has he just commenced his work 4. He placed in the gardens of the Zoological Society; but one born has just commenced it. 5. Who has just written to you? there barked as loudly as any European dog of his size and 6. The dyer has just written to me. 7. Does your little boy age. A specimen of this dog, which had been allowed comgo to church every day? 8. No, Sir, he goes to church Sun- parative liberty in the gardens, set off one day, and was not days and he goes to school every day. 9. Do you go for the retaken until he had given his pursuers as much trouule as a physician: 10. I send for him because (parceque) my sister is fox would have done. The Hare. Indian's dog is of great sick, 11. Do you go to my physician or to yours? 12. I go value to the bleak and dreary regions where the elk and rein. to mine, yours is not at home. 12. Where is he? 14. He is deer are objects of the chase. It has not, indeed, sufficient at your father's or at your brother's. 15. Do you intend to power to pull down such game, but its light make and broad send for the physician: 16. I intend to send for him. 17. feet enable it to run over the snow without sinking, if the Am I right to send for the Scotchman 18. You are wrong slightest crust be formed upon it, and thus easily to overtake to send for him, 19. Do you go to your father in the afternoon: the moose or rein deer, and keep them at bay until the hunters 20. I go to him in the morning. 21. Does your brother go to come up. your uncle's every Monday? 22. He goes there every Sunday. A wild dog, called the Dhole, is found chiefly or wholly in 23. Are you going to learn music? 24. My niece is going to one part of India (and even there only occasionally), of the learn it, if she has time, 25. Am I going to read or to write size of a small greyhound; it has unusually brilliant eyes; its 26. You are going to read to-morrow. 27. Does he go to body, which is slender and deep-chested, is thinly covered your house every day! 28. He comes to us every Wednes- with a coat of hair of a reddish brown or bay colour ; its day. 29. At what hour? 30. At a quarter before nine. 31. limbs are light, compact, strong, and equally calculated for Does he come early or late? 32. He comes at a quarter after speed and power; and its tag is dark towards the extremity. nine. 33. What do you send for? 31. We send for wine, These dogs are said to to perfectly harmless, if unmolested. bread, butter, and cheese. 35. What do you go for? 36. We They do not willingly approach persone ; but if they chance go for vegetables, meat and sugar. 37. We want sugar every to meet any one in six course, they discover no particular morning.

Anxiety to escape. They view the human race rather as objects of curiosity than of either apprehension or enmity. The an animal, these dogs may, from their custom of hunting in natives who reside near the passcs where they are seen, de- packs, easily overcome any smaller beast found in the wilds

of India,

They run mute, except that they sometimes utter a whimpering kind of note similar to that sometimes expressed by dogs, when approaching their prey. This may be expressive of their own gratification or anxiety, or may serve as a guide to other dholes to join in the chase. The speed of the chole is so strongly marked in its form as to render it probable that no animal in the catalogue of game could escape him for any distance. Many of the dholes are destroyed in these contests; for the tiger, the elk, and the boar, and even many of the smaller classes of game, are capable of making a most obstinate defence. Hence the breed of the dholes is much circumscribed.

The Thibet dog is bred in the table-land of the Hima. laya mountains, bordering on the country from which it takes its name. The colour is of a deep black, slightly clouded on the sides, its feet alone and a spot over each

[graphic]

THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. scribe them as confining their attacks entirely to wild unimals, and assert that they will not prey on sheep and goats; but others affirm that cattle are frequently lost by their depredations. “I am induced to believe," says Captain Williamson, " that the dhole is not particularly ceremonious, but will, when opportunity offers, and a meal is wanting, obtain it at the expense of the neighbouring village.

The peasants state likewise that the Dhole is eager in proportion to the size and power of the animals he hunts, preferring the elk to any other kind of deer, and particularly seeking the royal tiger. It is probable that the dhole is the principal check on the multiplication of the tiger; and although incapable individually, or perhaps in small numbers, to effect the destruction of so large and ferocious

THE HARE-INDIAN'S DOG. eye being of a full tawny or bright brown hue. Il has the broad short muzzle of the mastiff, and a singular looseness of the skin on every part. Many of these dogs are reared by the Bhoteas, and when they come down from the Himalaya mountains to the low countries at certain seasons of the year, to sell their borax and their musk, these animals remain at home and vigilantly guard the women and the flocks. They are also the defenders of almost every considerable mansion in Thibet. All who describe them speak of their noble size, their ferocity, and their antipathy to strangers.

The wild dog of Nepal prevails through the whole of northern India, and even southward of the coast of Coromandel. It hunts its prey by night as well as by day, in packs of from six to ten individuals, maintaining the chase more by the scent than by the eye, and generally succeed ing by dint of strength and perseverance. While hunting, it barks like the hound, yet the bark is peculiar and equally unlike that of the cultivated breed of dogs, and the cries of the jackal and the fox. In its form and its fur it resembles the latter animal, but it is larger and stronger. The packs of these dogs make tremendous havoc among the game of the hills, but this mischief they are said atnply to repay by destroying wild beasts, and even tigers.

A dog found wild in New South Wales, is called by the natives the Dingo. It resembles a large shepherd's dog, but the neck is thicker, and the whole body more strongly made. It has red. dish shaggy hair, a bushy tail, and erect ears. It

[graphic][ocr errors]
« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »