Εικόνες σελίδας

--does not bark, but utters a melancholy howl. When it bites, whether in fighting or attacking its prey, it does not seize and keep hold, but snaps like a poodle. It is very destructive when among a flock of sheep, as it snaps at all in its way, and its bite is so severe, that the wounded almost invariably die. If these dogs be taken young, they may be trained to the chase of emus and kangaroos; but when domesticated, they remain addicted to destroying sheep and poultry. If some of these dogs, when living in the gardens of the Zoological society, have lost a portion of their native ferocity, it has been retained in its utmost force by others. One that was brought hither broke its chain at night, scoured the surrounding country, and before dawn, had destroyed several sheep. A disposition is sometimes displayed by the dog, as also by the cat, to abandon the domestic, and to return to the savage state. Of this, the following is one of many instances. A dog was left by a smuggling vessel on the coast of Northumberland. Finding himself deserted, he began to worry sheep, and did so much mischief as to create considerable alarm in the surrounding country. Several of the sheep which he mangled were found alive by the shepherds; and, by proper attention, some not only recovered, but had lambs. He was frequently pursued by hounds and greyhounds, but when the dogs came up with him, he lay down on his back, as if asking for mercy, and in that position they never hurt him; he therefore continued to lie quietly till the hunters approached, when he made off without being followed by the hounds, till they were again excited to the pursuit, which always terminated unsuccessfully. He was one day pursued from Howick to a distance of more than thirty miles, but returned thither, and killed a sheep the same evening. His general residence was upon the Hengh-hill, near Howick, where he had a view of four roads to it approached it; and where, after many fruitless attempts, he was at last shot. Happily, however, in numerous instances, man maintains the power which he has acquired over the creatures of this large tribe, and renders them subservient to different purposes. When our traveller Burchell was in Africa, a pack of dogs of various descriptions formed a part of his caravan, to provide him occasionally with food, but more frequently to defend him from robbers and wild beasts. With great force he remarks:– “While almost every other quadruped fears man as his most formidable enemy, there is one who regards him as his companion, and follows him as his friend. We must not mistake the nature of the case. It is not because we train him to our use, and have made choice of him in preference to other animals, but because this particular species of animal feels a natural desire to be useful to man, and from spontaneous imulse attaches himself to him. Were it not so, we should see in various countries an equal familiarity with other quadrupeds, according to their habits, and the taste or caprices of different nations; but everywhere it is the dog only that takes delight in associating with us, and in sharing our abode. It is he who knows us personally, watches over us, and warns us of danger. It is impossible not for the naturalist to feel a conviction that this friendship between creatures so different from each other must be the result of the laws of nature; nor can the humane and feeling mind avoid the belief that kindness to these animals, from which he derives continued and essential assistance, is part of the moral duty of man. “Often in the silence of the night, when all my people have been fast asleep around the fire, have I stood to contemplate these faithful animals watching by their side, and have learned to esteem them for their social inclination towards mankind. When wandering over pathless deserts, oppressed with vexation and distress at the conduct of my own men, I have turned to these as my only friends, and felt how much inferior to them was man when actuated only by selfish views.” And so he is, it may be added, in other circumstances. It has been justly observed by Sir Walter Scott: – “The Almighty, who gave the dog to be the companion of our pleasures and our trials, hath invested him with a nature noble and incapable of deceit. He forgets neither friend nor foe— remembers, and with accuracy, both benefit and injury. He hath a share of man's intelligence, but no share of man's falsehood. You may bribe a soldier to slay a man with his sword, or a witness to take away life by false accusation, but you cannot make a hound tear his benefactor. He is the friend of man, save when man iustly incurs his enmity,”

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-No. VI. CLASS IV.-TETRANDIA. Plants bearing flowers with Four Stamens. ORDER I. MonoGYNIA. One Pistil. THE teazle is a plant which is probably not a native of this country, but like canary-grass, woad, and some others, was originally introduced by some of the numerous foreign artisans who have at various times found an asylum or been encouraged to settle in England. It has been essential, and still is, to our woollen manufactures. The teazle is cultivated in some of the strong claylands of Wilts, Essex, Gloucester, and Somerset.

The Teazle.

It throws up its buds in July and August, and these are cut from the plant by hand, and then fastened to poles for drying. When dry they are picked and sorted into bundles for sale. The teazle affords a striking and rare instance of a natural production being applied to mechanical purposes in the actual

state in which it is produced. It is used to draw out the ends of the wool from the manufactured cloth, so as to bring a regular pile or nap upon the surface, free from twistings and knottings, and to comb off the coarse and loose parts of the wool. The head of the true teazle is composed of incorporated flowers, each separated by a long, rigid, chaffy substance, the terminating point of which is furnished with a fine hook. Many of these heads are fixed in a frame; and with this the surface of the cloth is teased or brushed, until all the ends are drawn out, the loose parts combed off, and the cloth ceases to impede the free passage of the wheel, or frame, of teazles. . Should the hook of the chaff, when in use, become fixed in a knot, or find sufficient resistance, it breaks, without injuring or contending with the cloth, and care is taken by successive applications to draw the impediment out. In this consists its manifest superiority. All mechanical inventions, previously employed, offered resistance to the knot; and, instead of yielding or breaking, as the teazle does, resisted and tore out the knot, making a hole, or injuring the surface... The plant, thus employed, is called the “fuller's teazle,” and is distinguished from the “small,” and the “wild teazle.” In the month of July the several kinds of scabious are pretty and common flowers. The field scabious is very frequent on dry fields, and has large convex heads of flowers, of a beautiful purplish-lilac. The devil’s-bit scabious grows in meadow lands, and is remarkable for its abrupt root, which seems as if it had been bitten off. “Old fantastic charmers report." says Gerard, “that the devil did bite it for envy, because it is an herb which hath so many good virtues, and is so beneficial to mankind.” It is a curious fact, and one not yet explained,


that the top of the root actually dies away, and then a hori

Of the madder there are several varieties. The field madder

zontal root is formed. No virtues can be now found in the has a small root, numerous spreading stems, leaves six and r

remainder of the root or herb.

The sweet woodruff, with its clear white cluster of small and fallow fields, flowering from May to July.

It is common in corn

whorl, and pale purplish-blue flowers.
The prepared

flowers, and its rings of green leaves, blooms in May, around |root of the cultivated plant is extensively used as a red dye the roots of trees. Its fresh leaves are almost scentless, but stuff. It yields, colours of the greatest permanence, and is

Sweet Woodruff.

we have no native flower which so long retains its odour when dried. Its strongly aromatic flowers infused in water make a beverage which is agreeable to many palates,

The Cultivated Madder: its flower and seed.

employed for dying linen and cotton red. . It is also employed in calico printing, and in making madderlakes. We have five wild species ofF. one of the most common is the broad-leaved kind, the greater plantain, the seeds of which are so frequently given to cage-birds. The leaves of this species are often applied to wounds. The Highlanders call it the healing plant. The ribwort plantain uently appears in our meadows and pastures, flowering, like the former, during June and July, and indicating wherever it

abounds, a dry soil. When it, grows among grass, its leaves | rise to a considerable height, but they are shorter, broader,

more spreading, and sometimes of a silvery hue, on barren soils. The Welsh call another species, common on our seacoasts, the “Suet-producing,” from its being much relished by sheep. This plant flowers at the time already mentioned.

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There are four kinds of gromwell. The corn gromwell, a plant about a foot high, with narrow-pointed leaves, covered with white hairs and very hard seeds, is, in the month of June, very general in the corn fields and waste places. The creeping or purple gromwell is rare, growing in mountainous and woody pastures in Wales and the south of England, and flowering in April and May. The common gromwell grows in dry gravelly places, and flowers in May; but is not common, as its name denotes. The sea gromwell flowers in July and August; rows on gravelly beaches on the sea-shore in the north of #. in Ireland, and in Scotland. The comfrey, a very rough-leaved plant, blossoms in May, chiefly on the banks of rivers or other moist, grounds. . It bears clusters of yellowish-white drooping bells. A variety has purple flowers. . The rough foliage is spotted like the lungs of animals, and hence it was supposed that it was intended to heal pulmonary complaints. The roots are glutinous and mucilaginous, and are frequently used by villagers for coughs. The tuberous comfrey, rare in England but common in Scotland, grows on the banks of rivers and ditches, and flowers in July. The flowers are drooping, of a yellowish white, and tinged with green. In May, the small bugloss, with its bright blue flowers, is not uncommon on hedge-banks and in corn fields. It is one of several rough-leaved plants, which bloom at the same time. The hairs on its leaves are very strong and sharp, and each one is seated on a white tubercle. Its flowers are especially attractive to bees. The roots contain a great quantity of mucilage; we use them but little; but in China, where the plant is abundant, they form an important medicine. The viper's bugloss grows on the chalky hill, the barren wall, the heap of rubbish, and too frequently on the cornands. Alluding to its being found in barren places near the -ea, Crabbe says, “Here poppies, nodding, mock the hopes of toilHere the blue bugloss paints the sterile soil.”

It flowers in June, and then appears in singular beauty. So thickly, however, is its foliage beset with prickles, that even the donkey, accustomed to browse on the thistle tops, shrinks from its spiny leaves and stems; and when the bees pause in their flight, to suck the honey from its rich blue bells, their delicate wings are torn before they can escape from the plant. The agriculturists of Cambridge have remarked that it appears most beautiful every third year, when the fields are quite blue with its flowers. It is singular that the Spaniard and the Frenchman, as well as ourselves, connect with this plant the name of the viper. The spotted stem, however, resembles the

skin of a snake, and the seeds are each like a viper's head, and to this the fancy must be traced, as well as that which led to the motion that the plant was designed to heal the bite of that reptile.


The borage grows in waste ground, near houses, and flowers in June and July. Its flowers are of a beautiful blue. The whole plant is covered with very pungent bristles. Some singular facts have been discovered in reference to this plant; Thus, if a decoction of its leaves be evaporated to a syrup, and kept for some days, it yields salt crystals, partly in the forms of needles, and partly cubical; the needles are proved to be perfect nitre, and the cubical ones sea-salt. If, too, a dried piece of this plant be held in a flame, it emits, from the nitre it contains, a kind of coruscation, attended by a slight noise. It is, in consequence, sometimes an ingredient of match-paper. The primrose varies in colour, from the common pale sulphur-yellow to white, on the one hand, and to bright yellow and purple on the other. Clare exclaimed, as he gazed upon lowt, “How much thy presence beautifies the ground: How sweet thy modest unaffected pride Glows on the sunny bank and wood's warm side l And when thy fairy flowers, in groups, are found, The school boy roams enchantingly along, Plucking the fairest with a rude delight; While the meek shepherd stops his simple song, To gaze a moment on the pleasing sight, O'erjoyed to see the flowers that truly bring The welcome news of sweet returning spring 1"

The primrose is in its greatest beauty in May, but occasional plants may be found in flower from Michaelmas, and even throughout the winter. But the number of plants in this order are far too numerous to be now described; including, as it does, the forget-me-not, the pimpernel, known as the poor man's weather-glass, the wild convolvuluses, the bell flowers, the violets, the nightshades, the honeysuckles, the currants, the ivy, and the large class of umbelliferous plants, of which the cowparsley and hemlock are examples; and therefore we must content ourselves with the specimens already given. Very numerous, too, are the plants which are ranged under the five following orders of the same class; but for these the reader must be referred to works on botany, particularly that of Withering, condensed by Macgillivray.

By John R. BEARD, D.D.

Alfred reads.

THEse two words form what is called a proposition; they
form a simple proposition. Proposition is a word of Latin
origin, signifying something that is put before you. As being
something that is put before you, it is a statement; it is a
statement of a fact or a thought; a statement of something in
the mind, or something out of the mind. Here the statement
is that Alfred reads. Such a statement is also termed a sen-
tence. Sentence is also from the Latin, and signifies a form
of words comprising a thought or sentiment. These words,
then, namely, sentence, proposition, and statement, have the
same signification; and they each denote an utterance, the
utterance of a fact, an idea, an emotion. Observe that both
words are essential to the proposition. Take away Alfred, you
then have reads, but roads is no proposition; for nothing is stated.
Take away reads, you leave Afred; but Alfred by itself says
nothing, makes no statement, and therefore forms no proposition
or sentence. The two words must concur to make a proposition.
If so, less than two words do not make a proposition; and a
proposition or sentence may consist of not more than two
In these simple statements you have in the germ the substance
of the doctrine of sentences. If you understand what I have now
said, you have laid the foundation for a thorough acquaintance
with language in general, and with the English language in
particular; for to a form of words similar in siniplicity to that
which stands at the head of this lesson, is all speech reducible;
and that model presents the germ out of which are evolved the
long and involved sentences of ** English divines, and

the full and lofty eloquence of Milton's immortal essay on
behalf of the liberty of the press.
The sentence, as it stands, is what is called an affirmative
proposition; that is, it affirms or declares something; it affirms
or declares that Alfred reads. The term affirmative is used in
opposition to the term negative. Negative propositions are
those in which something is denied. An affirmative ma
become a negative proposition by the introduction of the adver
not; thus, Alfred reads not. In English it is more common to
employ also the emphatic does, as Alfred does not read. You
thus see that the words does (do, or dost, as may be required)
and not convert an affirmative into a negative proposition.
Sentences in which a question is asked we term interrogative;
as, does Alfred read? Here, by the help of the emphatic form
does, and the inversion of the terms does and Alfred, we make
an affirmative into an interrogative sentence. If into this last
sentence we introduce the negative not, we have an interroga-
tive negative sentence, as does not Alfred read? We put these
four forms of a proposition together.

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You thus see an example of the ease and extent with which
the original form may be changed and multiplied. The pro-
position, Alfred reads, is a simple proposition. Propositions are
either simple or compound. Compound §. are made
up of two or more simple propositions. Of compound proposi-
tions I shall speak in detail hereafter. Here only a few words
may be allowed in order to illustrate what is meant by a simple
proposition. If I were to say, When Alfred reads, he is listened
to, i should employ a compound proposition. In these words
there are two statements, and consequently two sentences.
These two statements are, 4. reads, and Alfred is listened to,
The two statements, united by the term when, constitute a
compound sentence. In one form, at least, a compound pro-
position may easily be mistaken for a simple, proposition;
namely, in this—Alfred reads and writes. Here, in reality, we
have a compound sentence, for when analysed, these words
are equivalent to these two statements, Alfred reads, and Alfred
writes. There being in the sentence these two statements, the
proposition is compound.
Let us now consider the two words in their own individual cha-
racter—Alfred reads. The first obviously represents a person,
the second as clearly represents an act. Now, in grammar,
words which represent persons and things, are called nouns;
and words which represent acts, are called verbe. Noun is a
Latin term, and signifies name; hence you see the noun is the
name of any person or thing; and were we as wise as were the
Latins, we should not employ a foreign word, but call nouns
simply names. Thus Alfred is the name of a person. Book,
also, is a name; so is house; so is pen; so is paper; these are
each the name or vocal sign by which Englishmen distinguish
and agree to call these objects severally. Nor is there any
mystery in the term vocal. Here, too, we have a Latin term
which signifies simply word. With the Latins the verb was
the word; that is, the chief word in a sentence. By us the
verb might be termed the word. Had English grammarians
employed as their scientific terms, words of Saxon origin,
the study of English grammar would have been very easy.
We shall endeavour to simplify it, by translating the
Latin terms, unhappily now become indispensable, into
their English equivalents. That the verb is the word, the
chief word of a sentence, you may learn by reflecting
on the proposition, Alfred reads. It is reads, you see, that
forms the very essence of the statement Reads, too, distin-
guishes this statement from other statements, as Alfred runs,
Alfred sings. Look back on the several instances of proposi-
tions I have given, and endeavour to ascertain what is the
quality in which they all agree. They have a common qua-
lity. That quality is averment. They all aver or declare
something. This they do by means of their verbs. Accordingly,
averment is the essential quality of the verb. Every, verb is a
word which makes an averment. Here, then, we learn that
the noun names, and the verb avers. By these tokens may all
nouns and all verbs be known. Whatever names is a moun,
whatever avers is a verb. Chair is a noun, because it is the

--- *name of an object; stands is a verb, because it avers or declares 8ubject. Predicate. something of chair; and the union of the two, as chair stands, A. to: g

forms a proposition. Sentences, then, in their simplest form, consist of a noun and a verb. A noun and averb are indispensable. Whatever more you may have, you cannot have anything less than a noun and a verb in a sentence or proposition. As a substitute for the noun, you may have a pronoun. Pronoun, again, is a

word of Latin origin, signifying a word which stands instead of

a noun. Thus we may put the pronoun he instead of Alfred;

e.g. (Latin, exempligratia; that is, for example):
Alfred reads
Jíe reads

where he holds the place of Alfred. We must accordingly

ualify our statement, and say that sentences, in their simplest orm, consist of a verb and a noun or pronoun. One or two other qualifications might be stated; but here, at least, instead of entering into them, it will be better to put the statement in its most general form, a form in which it will embrace all particular cases, and render qualification unnecessary. I say, then, that in every sentence there must be a subject and a verb. I have thus set before you a new term. That term I must explain. Subject is a Latin word, and denotes that which receives, that which lies under, is liable or exposed to; from sub, under, and jacio, I throw, I place; in the passive, I lie. Accordingly, the subject of a proposition is that to which the action declared in the verb, is ascribed. Hence, the subject of a proposition is the agent, the actor, the doer. The subject of a proposition answers to the question who or what? as, who reads: Answer; Alfred reads. The term subject is used with special reference to the corresponding term, predicate. The predicate of a proposition is that which is attributed to the subject. What is attributed in our model sentence * This, namely, that Alfred reads. “Reads,” then, is here the predicate, or that which is ascribed to, or asserted of Alfred. Hence you see the propriety of the term subject, since-Alfred is subject to the averment that he reads. Now, in the grammatical construction of the sentence, it matters not whether you say, Alfred reads, or he reads. In both cases you have a subject and verb, or predicate; and consequently you have a complete enunciation of thought, or a perfect sentence.

The sentence thus analysed and explained may be set forth in this form:—

Alfred reads. He reads.

As the subject undergoes a change by passing, when necessary, into he, so may the predicate be modified. Instead of a redicate in one word, you may have a predicate in two words, y substituting a verb and an adjective; as,

Alfred is good.

Another new term demands another explanation. What is the meaning of adjective: Adjective in Latin signifies that which is added to, or thrown to (ad, to; and jacio, I throw). To what are adjectives thrown or added? To nouns, as in this instance. Adjectives, therefore, in their very nature, cannot stand alone. They perform their office in being added to or connected with nouns. They are connected with nouns in order to qualify the meaning of those nouns, and to answer to the question of what kind? What kind of a boy is Alfred? Answer, “he is a good boy.” An adjective, then, is an epithet, (a Greek word, which denotes that which is attributed to a noun or a person); e.g., green fields, tall men, hard rocks, where green, tall, and hard are epithets, or adjectives, inasmuch as they assign the quality of their several subjects. Now, what we call qualities, we call also attributes. The attributes of a body are its qualities. Attribute is a word from the Latin, denoting that which is attributed or ascribed to an object. Adjectives, therefore, describe the qualities or attributes of the persons or things they are connected with. In the instance given above, good is the attribute of the proposition; thus,

Subject. Attribute.
Alfred is good.

But this explanation leaves is unexplained. The word is on reflection you will recognise as a verb, seeing that it avers; for it avers or declares that Alfred is good. By comparing together the two forms–

You observe that reads and is good hold the same place and perform the same function in the two propositions. They in each case form the predicate of the sentence. The predicate is that which is predicated, declared, or averred of the subject of a proposition. In the former instance, reads is that which is averred; in the latter, is good is that which is averred. Mark, that neither is nor good alone forms the predicate, for what is asserted is not that Alfred is, that is, exists, but that he is good. Accordingly, the predicate here consists of two words,namely, is good; but in the former example, it consists of merely one word, that is, reads. Of these two words, good we have seen is the attribute. It remains to state that the word is forms what is called the copula, a Latin term which may here be rendered link. The term describes its office. The word is in the sentence links the subject with the predicate. The whole may be exhibited thus:–

Subject. Predicate. Alfred reads ,-o-y Copula. Attribute. Alfred is good

By ordinary grammarians what we have termed the subject, is called the nominative case. The employment of such a term is objectionable, for it is incorrect by not being sufficiently comprehensive. Take, for instance, the proposition, to ride is healthful. To ride is the subject of the proposition, and the subject, therefore, to the verb is. But is to ride a nominative case? Ask the grammarians, and they will tell you that it is the infinitive mood of the verb ride. If an infinitive mood, it is . a nominative case. Cases pertain to nouns, moods to verbs. But here, we meet with an instance of the complexity and obscurity that have been brought into English grammar by attachment to Latin forms. Our nouns in their actual condition have but one case, the genitive; or, if thenominative be allowed to be a case, then two cases are the utmost that our nouns can be said to have. Why should more be assigned to them It may be doubted, indeed, whether what is called the nominative can be properly termed a case, for it differs from the Latin nominative, which is formed from a stem common to all the cases through which the noun passes; whereas in English, the nominative is the stem itself. However this may be, in English, nouns now possess no more than two cases. This fact is in no way affected by the allegation that the Anglo-Saxon, the mother of the English, has several cases. It is with the daughter, not with the mother that we are here concerned.

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Plural. Nom. qui 2 quae P quae 2 Gen. quorum ? quarum ? quorum ? Dat. quibus? quibus? quibus? Acc. quos? quas? quae P Abl. quibus? quibus? quibus?

The preposition cum is sometimes set after the pronoun; as, quocum, quacum, quibuscum, with whom, with which, Quis is repeated so as to form the compound pronoun quisquis, whosoever. In this case, both parts are declined thus, quisquis, m.; quaequae, f.; quicquid, n. When the neuter is used as a substantive it is generally written quidquid. Take as instances: quoquo modo res habet, in whatever way the thing is: quicquid id est, whatever that is. In quicunque, whosoever, the qui is declined, and to its parts cunque is added, as cujuscumque, quodcunque, &c." VocabulARY. Civitas, 4tis, f. the state; lex, legis, f. a law (E. R. legal); mors, mortis, f. death (E. R. mortal); justus, a, um, just; maleficus, a, um, wicked, as a noun, an evil-doer; probus, a, um, good, kind (E. R. probity); sanctus, a, um, holy (E. R. sanctity); mitis, e, mild (E. R. mitigate); curo 1, I care for, take care of (E. R. a cure); devasto I, I lay waste, devastate; guberno 1, I govern; hondro 1, I honour; gero 2, I carry (E. *f;...") ; succurro 3, I hasten to aid, I succour; exaudio 4, I hear the request of: ardenter, adv. ardently, glowingly (E. R. ardent); tibi placet, thou art pleased. ExERCISEs.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Rex qui civitatem gubernat, civium salutem, curare debet; regi eujus imperium mite et justum est, omnes cives libenter parent; regem cui leges sunt sanctae, cives colunt; felix est rex quem omnes cives amant; O rex qui civitatem nostram gubernas, tibi placet honorare bonos cives, terrere maleficos, succurrere miseris, exaudire probos. ENGLISH-LATIN. Kings who govern states must care for the safety of all the citizens; good men willingly obey kings whose government is mild and just; kings whose laws are holy are willingly obeyed by ood citizens; the kings are happy who are dear to their citizens; § kings who rule our states, ye ought to honour a good and great man; O God, we worship thee who art pleased to succour the wretched; the enemies with whom you contend lay waste your country. Vocabul.ARY. Luscinia, ae, f. a nightingale; peccatum, i, n. a sin; opinio, önis, f. an opinion; Veritas, atis, f. truth (E. R. verity); honestus, a, um, honourable (E. R. homesty); falsus, a, um, false; ingratus, a, um, tunthankful É. R. ingratitude); utilis, e, useful (E. R. utility); ambulo l, I walk abroad; cogito 1, I think; excrucio 1, I torture (E. R. excruciate, from crux, a cross); repugno 1, I fight against; (E. R. repugnance, pugilist); habeo 2, I have; me habeo, I have myself (that is, in a certain condition) I am; ago. 3, Idrive, I do; §". 3, I seek; curro 3, Irun, pass away; indulgeo 2, I am lenient to (E. R. indulge). ExERcises.—LATIN-ENGLISH. Quis me vocat? quid agis, mi amice quis scribit has litteras: quid cogitas 2 quid ago? cur me excrucio 2 quae amicitia est inter ingratos ? quod carmen legis 2 quis homo venit 2 quis poeta dulciorest quam Homerus 2 cujus vox suavior est quam vox lusciniac 2 quibus peccatis facillime indulgemus quicquid est honestum, idem est utile; quicquid vides, currit cum tempore; quoquo modo res sese habet, ego sententiam mean defendo; quaecunque opinio veritati repugnat, salsa est. ENGLISH-LATIN. What dost thou say? who is that man who is that woman 2 with whom does thy friend walk 2 whom seekest thou? what book dost thou read? to whom dost thou write this letter 2 however the things are (halere, &c. &c.) we praise your view (sententia). INDEFINITE PRoNouns. Quis in a dependent form undergoes slight changes in declination: thus, quis, qua or quae, quid; pl. qui, quae, quae. When it is used as an adjective pronoun, then quis may become qui, qua becomes quae, and quid becomes quod. The same is the case with aliquis, some one; thus, sub. aliquis, aliqua, aliquid; o: aliqui, aliqua, aliquod. So alicujus, alicui, &c. In the plural, quis, &c., become qui, quae, quae, or qua, aliqui, aliquae, aliqua. Quis united with piam, becoming quispiam, acquires an

* See more on these and other compounds in the author's “Latin made Kasy." Prise 3s.6d. Fourth Edition, p. 137.

indefinite import, any one soever; and runs thus: quispiam, quaepiam, quidpiam ; adj. quodpiam.

Another form is quisquam (quis and quam), every one, which is declined, nom. quisquam, quicquam; gen. cujusquam; dat. cuiquam; quidam, a certain one, stands thus: nom. quidam, quaedam, quiddam ; adj. quoddam ; gen. cujusdam, and so on. Quisque answers to our each one; nom. quisque, quaeque, quidque (quodgue); gen, cujusque; dat. cuique; acc. quemgue, &c.

Unusquisque, every one, brings the idea of individuality into greater prominence, and is formed thus, unusquisque, unaquaeque, unumquidque; adj. unumquodgue; the pronoun is made up of que, and, quis, who or which, and unus, one.

In quivis, quaevis, quidvis (quodvis), the termination vis, thou wilt, increases the indefiniteness, so that quivisis, who or what you will, cujusvis; acc. quemvis, quamvis, &c. A similar import is found in quilibet (libet, it pleases), quaelibet, quidlibet (quodlibet), who or what you please; so, gen. cujuslibet.

Alius, another; alter, the other, the second of a pair; the latter, corresponding to the former; ullus, any; nullus (non ullus), no one; uter, which (of the two); neuter (non uter), neither, neither the one nor the other; take the genitive singular in Ius, and the dative in I, like unus. See the next chapter on numbers.


Graecia, f. Greece; pecunia, ae, f. money; locus, i, m. a place (E. R. local, locality); augurium, i, n. augury; seculum, i, n. an age (E. R. secular); error, Öris, m. terror; dignitas, 4tis, f. dignity; mens, mentis, f. a mind (E. R. mental); jus, juris, n. right, law (E. R. jury, jurisdiction); justitia, ae, f. justice ; futórus, a, um, future; insitus, a, um, inborn; impendeo 2, I hang over (E. R. impend); inhaereo 2, Istick to; adimo 3, I take away; idcirco, therefore; quasi, as is; tribuo 3, I assign, allot.

ExERCIses.—LATIN-ENGLISH. Si mortem timemus semper aliqui terror nobis impendet; si cuipiam pecuniam fortuna adimit idcirco miser non est; Graecia parvum quendam (quemdam) locum Europae tenet; inhaeret in mentibus nostris quasi quoddam augurium futurorum saeculorum; in unoquoque virorum bonorum habitat deus; justitia jus unicuique tribuit pro dignitate cujusque; cuique nostrum amor vitae est insitus. ENGLISH-LATIN.

Some terror always hangs over the bad; what terror (quid terroris, literally, what of terror?) hangs over thee? if thou takest fortune from any one thou art blamed; they hold a certain small part of Greece; in every bad man evil (malum) dwells; justice allots to every one his merits (merita); certain ones have money.

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