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the article le is prefixed to the day of the week or the time of LESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY.--No. IV. the day.
THE WILD DOG.
(Order CARNIVORA, genus CANIS, the dog tribe.)
The genus canis includes the dog, the wolf, the jackal, and
the fox, closely assimilated as these animals are, both in anaJe vais parler à M. votre père. I am going to speak to your father.
tomical structure and external character, They have the Nous venons de recevoir de l'argent. We have just received money.
same kinds of teeth; the canine teeth being strong, conical, Que venez vous de faire ?
What have you just done? Je viens de déchirer mon habit. I have just torn my coat.
pointed, and curved slightly backwards ; the incisors, or Votre frère va-t-il trouver son ami? Does your brother go to his friend, cutting teeth, are six above and below. There are five toes on Il va le trouver tous les jours. He goes to him every day.
the fore-feet, and four on the posterior, to which is sometimes Il vient me trouver tous les lundis. He comes to me every Monday. added a small rudimentary claw, Allez vous chercher de l'argent? Do you go and fetch money
The appetite of these animals is decidedly carnivorous - yet, Je n'en vais pas chercher, I do not. (Sect. 23. 12.)
in some instances, they are partial to vegetables : thus dogs Envoyez vous chercher des livres Do you senu for Arabic books? will feed freely on them, and the old fable, in which Reynard Arabes ?
is represented as saying " the grapes are sour," when they Allez vous chez cette dame lundi ? Do you go to that lady's house on
were out of his reach, was founded on an acquaintance with Monday?
this fact. The chief dependence of this tribe of animals is, J'ai l'intention d'y aller mardi. I intend to go there on Tuesday. J'y vais ordinairement le mecredi. I generally go there on Wednesdays. thrown in their way, for the discovery of which their acute
however, the produce of the chase, or the carrion which is n va à l'église le dimanche. He goes to church on Sundays.
sense of smell is specially adapted. The strength of their EXERCISE 49.
jaws is very great; their appetite is ravenous, but they can Année, f. year. Dimanche, f. Sunday. Mardi, m, Tuesday. well endure hunger and fatigue. When plenty is before them Apprend-re, 4. ir. to Ecossais, e, Scotch.
Mercredi, m. Wednes- they gorge to repletion, and hide or bury the remainder for a learn. Ecri-re, 4. ir, to write. day.
future time. The habits of r11, excepting the dog, are nocturAprès-midi, f. afternoon. Enseign-er, 1. to teach. Dusique, f. music.
nal: in the fox alone the pupil of the eye contracts in a linear Commenc-er, 1. to com Excepté, excepr. Prochain, e, next.
manner; in the rest it is circular. Jeudi, m. Thursday. Vendredi, m. Friday. Compagne, f.companion. Journée, 1. day. Rest-er, 1. to remain, native wilds, that when seen at a little distance it is not easy
The Esquimaux dog so closely resembles the wolf of its Connaissances, f. ac- Irlandais, e, Irish.
to lire. quaintances . Lundi, m. Monday. Samedi, m. Saturday.
to distinguish between them. In both the fur is deep and Demain, to-morrow, Malade, sick.
Teinturier, m. dyer.
thick, both have the same erect ears, the same breadth of skull 1. Qu'allez vous faire ? 2. Je vais apprendre mes leçons. its native wilds, the voice of the Esquimaux dog is not a bark,
between them, and the same sharpness of muzzle ; while, in 3. N'allez vous pas écrire à vos connaissances ?
4. Je ne rais écrire à personne. 5. Qui vient de vous parler ? 6.
but a long melancholy howl. It has been sometimes supposed L'Irlandais vient de nous parler. 7. Quand l'Ecossaise that the one is a domestic variety of the other ; but this is an va-t-elle vous enseigner la musique ? 8. Elle va me l'enseig- error. The Esquimaux dog hates and fears the wolf, and will ner l'année prochaine. 9. Va-t-elle commencer mardi ou
only attack that animal when impelled by necessity, though it mercredi ? 10. Elle ne va commencer ni mardi ni mercredi, will rush on the bear with undaunted energy. elle a l'intention de commencer jeudi, si elle a le temps. 11.
The striking resemblance that subsists between the EsquiVotre compagne va-t-elle à l'église tous les dimanches ? 12.
maux dog and the wolf is, however, not more remarkable than Elle y va tous les dimanches et tous les mercredis. 13. Qui that which subsists between other varieties of the dog and some allez vous trouver ? 14. Je ne vais trouver personne.
wild species of the same genus. To take an instance: the N'avez vous pas l'intention de venir me trouver demain ? 16.
Hare-Indian's dog has a long, narrow, and pointed muzzle, erect J'ai l'intention d'aller trouver votre teinturier. . 17. Envoyez The hair is fine and silky; 'in summer it is marked with
sharp ears, and a bushy tail, only slightly curved upwards. Tous chercher le médecin ? 18. Quand je suis malade, je l'envoic chercher. 19. Reste-t-il avec vous toute la journée ? Shades of brown'; but it thickens in winter and becomes white,
patches of greyish black or slate-grey, intermingled with 20. Il ne reste chez moi que quelques minutes. 21. Allez rous à l'école le matin 22. J'y vais le matin et l'après-midi. and of the Great Bear Lake, and so nearly does it resemble
or nearly so. It is found on the banks of the Mackenzie river 23. Y allez vous tous les jours ? 24. J'y vais tous les jours the arctic fox of its native regions, that the one has been sup, excepté le lundi et le dimanche: , 25. Le samedi je reste chez posed to be of the wild, and the other of the domesticated nous, et le dimanche je vais à l'église.
race. The Hare-Indian's dog is never known to bark in its EXERCISE 50.
native country, nor did the pair of these animals brought to 1. What is the Irishman going to do: 2. He is going to England by Sir John Franklin and Dr. Richardson, and teach music. 3. Has he just commenced his work 4. He placed in the gardens of the Zoological Society; but one born has just commenced it. 5. Who has just written to you? there barked as loudly as any European dog of his size and 6. The dyer has just written to me. 7. Does your little boy age. A specimen of this dog, which had been allowed comgo to church every day? 8. No, Sir, he goes to church Sun- parative liberty in the gardens, set off one day, and was not days and he goes to school every day. 9. Do you go for the retaken until he had given his pursuers as much trouule as a physician: 10. I send for him because (parceque) my sister is fox would have done. The Hare. Indian's dog is of great sick, 11. Do you go to my physician or to yours? 12. I go value to the bleak and dreary regions where the elk and rein. to mine, yours is not at home. 12. Where is he? 14. He is deer are objects of the chase. It has not, indeed, sufficient at your father's or at your brother's. 15. Do you intend to power to pull down such game, but its light make and broad send for the physician: 16. I intend to send for him. 17. feet enable it to run over the snow without sinking, if the Am I right to send for the Scotchman 18. You are wrong slightest crust be formed upon it, and thus easily to overtake to send for him, 19. Do you go to your father in the afternoon: the moose or rein deer, and keep them at bay until the hunters 20. I go to him in the morning. 21. Does your brother go to come up. your uncle's every Monday? 22. He goes there every Sunday. A wild dog, called the Dhole, is found chiefly or wholly in 23. Are you going to learn music? 24. My niece is going to one part of India (and even there only occasionally), of the learn it, if she has time, 25. Am I going to read or to write size of a small greyhound; it has unusually brilliant eyes; its 26. You are going to read to-morrow. 27. Does he go to body, which is slender and deep-chested, is thinly covered your house every day! 28. He comes to us every Wednes- with a coat of hair of a reddish brown or bay colour ; its day. 29. At what hour? 30. At a quarter before nine. 31. limbs are light, compact, strong, and equally calculated for Does he come early or late? 32. He comes at a quarter after speed and power; and its tag is dark towards the extremity. nine. 33. What do you send for? 31. We send for wine, These dogs are said to to perfectly harmless, if unmolested. bread, butter, and cheese. 35. What do you go for? 36. We They do not willingly approach persone ; but if they chance go for vegetables, meat and sugar. 37. We want sugar every to meet any one in six course, they discover no particular morning.
Anxiety to escape. They view the human race rather as objects of curiosity than of either apprehension or enmity. The an animal, these dogs may, from their custom of hunting in natives who reside near the passcs where they are seen, de- packs, easily overcome any smaller beast found in the wilds
They run mute, except that they sometimes utter a whimpering kind of note similar to that sometimes expressed by dogs, when approaching their prey. This may be expressive of their own gratification or anxiety, or may serve as a guide to other dholes to join in the chase. The speed of the chole is so strongly marked in its form as to render it probable that no animal in the catalogue of game could escape him for any distance. Many of the dholes are destroyed in these contests; for the tiger, the elk, and the boar, and even many of the smaller classes of game, are capable of making a most obstinate defence. Hence the breed of the dholes is much circumscribed.
The Thibet dog is bred in the table-land of the Hima. laya mountains, bordering on the country from which it takes its name. The colour is of a deep black, slightly clouded on the sides, its feet alone and a spot over each
THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. scribe them as confining their attacks entirely to wild unimals, and assert that they will not prey on sheep and goats; but others affirm that cattle are frequently lost by their depredations. “I am induced to believe," says Captain Williamson, " that the dhole is not particularly ceremonious, but will, when opportunity offers, and a meal is wanting, obtain it at the expense of the neighbouring village.
The peasants state likewise that the Dhole is eager in proportion to the size and power of the animals he hunts, preferring the elk to any other kind of deer, and particularly seeking the royal tiger. It is probable that the dhole is the principal check on the multiplication of the tiger; and although incapable individually, or perhaps in small numbers, to effect the destruction of so large and ferocious
THE HARE-INDIAN'S DOG. eye being of a full tawny or bright brown hue. Il has the broad short muzzle of the mastiff, and a singular looseness of the skin on every part. Many of these dogs are reared by the Bhoteas, and when they come down from the Himalaya mountains to the low countries at certain seasons of the year, to sell their borax and their musk, these animals remain at home and vigilantly guard the women and the flocks. They are also the defenders of almost every considerable mansion in Thibet. All who describe them speak of their noble size, their ferocity, and their antipathy to strangers.
The wild dog of Nepal prevails through the whole of northern India, and even southward of the coast of Coromandel. It hunts its prey by night as well as by day, in packs of from six to ten individuals, maintaining the chase more by the scent than by the eye, and generally succeed ing by dint of strength and perseverance. While hunting, it barks like the hound, yet the bark is peculiar and equally unlike that of the cultivated breed of dogs, and the cries of the jackal and the fox. In its form and its fur it resembles the latter animal, but it is larger and stronger. The packs of these dogs make tremendous havoc among the game of the hills, but this mischief they are said atnply to repay by destroying wild beasts, and even tigers.
A dog found wild in New South Wales, is called by the natives the Dingo. It resembles a large shepherd's dog, but the neck is thicker, and the whole body more strongly made. It has red. dish shaggy hair, a bushy tail, and erect ears. It
does not bark, but utters a melancholy howl. When it bites,
LESSONS IN BOTANY.—No. VI. whether in fighting or attacking its prey, it does not seize and
CLASS IV.--TETRANDIA. keep hold, but snaps like a poodle. It is very destructive when
Plants bearing flowers with Four Stamens. among a flock of sheep, as it snaps at all in its way, and its bite
ORDER I. MONOGYNIA. One Pistil. is so severe, that the wounded almost invariably die. If these dogs be taken young, they may be trained to the chase of emus The teazle is a plant which is probably not a native of this and kangaroos ; but when domesticated, they remain addicted country, but like canary-grass, woad, and some others, was to destroying sheep and poultry. If some of these dogs, when originally introduced by some of the numerous foreign artisans living in the gardens of the Zoological society, have lost a por- to settle in England. It has been essential
, and still is, to tion of their native ferocity, it has been retained in its utmost force by others. One that was brought hither broke its chain our woollen manufactures. The teazle is cultivated in some of at night, scoured the surrounding country, and before dawn, the strong clay lands of Wilts, Essex, Gloucester, and Somerset. had destroyed several sheep.
A disposition is sometimes displayed by the dog, as also by the cat, to abandon the domestic, and to return to the savage state. Of this, the following is one of many instances. A dog was left by a smuggling vessel on the coast of Northumberland. Finding himself deserted, he began to worry sheep, and did so much mischief as to create considerable alarm in the surrounding country. Several of the sheep which he mangled were found alive by the shepherds; and, by proper attention, some not only recovered, but had lambs. He was frequently pursued by hounds and greyhounds, but when the dogs came up with him, he lay down on his back, as if asking for mercy, and in that position they never hurt him; he therefore continued to lie quietly till the hunters approached, when he made off without being followed by the hounds, till they were again excited to the pursuit, which always terminated unsuccessfully. He was one day pursued from Howick to a distance of more than thirty miles, but returned thither, and killed a shcep the same evening. His general residence was upon the Heigh-hill, near Howick, where he had a view of four roads th it approached it;
and where, after many fruitless attempts, he was at last shot.
Happily, however, in numerous instances, man maintains the power which he has acquired over the creatures of this large tribe, and renders them subservient to different purposes. When our traveller Burchell was in Africa, a pack of dogs of various descriptions formed a part of his caravan, to provide him occasionally with food, but more frequently to defend him from robbers and wild beasts. With great force he remarks :“While almost every other quadruped fears man as his most formidable enemy, there is one who regards him as his com
The Teazle. panion, and follows him as his friend. We must not mistake It throws up its buds in July and August, and these are cut the nature of the case. It is not because we train him to our from the plant by hand, and then fastened to poles for use, and have made choice of him in preference to other ani- drying. When dry they are picked and sorted into bundles mals, but because this particular species of animal feels a for sale. natural desire to be useful to man, and from spontaneous im- The teazle affords a striking and rare instance of a natural pulse attaches himself to him. Were it not so, we should see production being applied to mechanical purposes in the actual in various countries an equal familiarity with other quadrupeds, state in which it is produced. It is used to draw out the ends according to their habits, and the taste or caprices of different of the wool from the manufactured cloth, so as to bring a nations; but everywhere it is the dog only that takes delight regular pile or nap upon the surface, free from twistings and in associating with us, and in sharing our abode. It is he knottings, and to comb off the coarse and loose parts of the who knows us personally, watches over us, and warns us of wool. The head of the true teazle is composed of incorporated danger. It is impossible not for the naturalist to feel a con- flowers, each separated by a long, rigid, chaffy substance, the viction that this friendship between creatures so different from terminating point of which is furnished with a fine hook. Many each other must be the result of the laws of nature; nor can of these heads are fixed in a frame; and with this the surface of the humane and feeling mind avoid the belief that kindness the cloth is teased or brushed, until all the ends are drawn out, to these animals, from which he derives continued and essen- the loose parts combed off, and the cloth ceases to impede the tial assistance, is part of the moral duty of man.
free passage of the wheel, or frame, of teazles. Should the “Often in the silence of the night, when all my people have hook of the chaff, when in use, become fixed in a knot, or find been fast asleep around the fire, have I stood to contemplate sufficient resistance, it breaks, without injuring or contending these faithful animals watching by their side, and have learned with the cloth, and care is taken by successive applications to to esteem them for their social inclination towards mankind. draw the impediment out. In this consists its manifest supeWhen wandering over pathless deserts, oppressed with vexa- riority. All mechanical inventions, previously employed, tion and distress at the conduct of my own men, I have turned offered resistance to the knot; and, instead of yielding or to these as my only friends, and felt how much inferior to breaking, as the teazle does, resisted and tore out the knot, them was man when actuated only by selfish views.” making a hole, or injuring the surface. The plant, thus em
And so he is, it may be added, in other circumstances. It ployed, is called the “ fuller's teazle," and is distinguished has been justly observed by Sir Walter Scott :-"The from the "small," and the "wild teazle." Almighty, who gave the dog to be the companion of our In the month of July the several kinds of scabious are pretty pleasures and our trials, hath invested him with a nature noble and common flowers. The field scabious is very frequent on and incapable of deceit. He forgets neither friend nor foe- dry fields, and has large convex heads of flowers, of a beautiful remembers, and with accuracy, both benefit and injury. He purplish-lilac. The devil's-bit scabious grows in meadow hath a share of man's intelligence, but no share of man's lands, and is remarkable for its abrupt root, which seems as if falsehood. You may bribe a soldier to slay a man with his it had been bitten off.“ Old fantastic charmers report," sword, or a witness to take away life by false accusation, but says Gerard, " that the devil did bite it for envy, because it is you cannot make a hound tear his benefactor. He is the friend an herb which hath so many good virtues, and is so beneficial to of man, save when man justly incurs his enmity," mankind.” It is a curious fact, and one not yet explained,
that the top of the root actually dies away, and then a hori. Of the madder there are several varieties. The field madder zontal root is formed. No virtues can be now found in the has a small root, numerous spreading stems, leaves six and a remainder of the root or herb.
whorl, and pale purplish-blue flowers. It is common in corn The sweet woodruff, with its clear white cluster of small and fallow fields, flowering from May to July. The prepared fluwers, and its rings of green leaves, blooms in May, around root of the cultivated plant is extensively used as a red dye the roots of trees. Its fresh leaves are almost scentless, but stuff. It yields colours of the greatest permanence, and is
employed for dying linen and cotton red. It is also employed in calico printing, and in making madder lakes.
We have five wild species of plantain; one of the most common is the broad-leaved kind, the greater plantain, the seeds of which are so frequently given to cage-birds. The leaves of this species are often applied to wounds. The Highlanders call it the healing plant. The ribwort plantain frequently appears in our meadows and pastures, towering, like the former, during June and July, and indicating wherever it abounds, a dry soil. When it grows among grass, its leaves rise to a considerable height, but they are shorter, broader, more spreading, and sometimes of a silvery hue, on barren soils. The Welsh call another species, common on our seacoasts, the "Suet-producing," from its being much relished by sheep. This plant flowers at the time already mentioned.
ORDER I. MONOGINIA. One Pistil.
places, and flowers in May; but is not common, as its name Sweet Woodruff,
denotes. The sea gromwell flowers in July and August;
grows on gravelly beaches on the sea-shore in the north of we have no native flower which so long retains its odour whe England, in Ireland, and in Scotland. dried. Its strongly aromatic flowers infused in water make a The comfrey, a very rough-leaved plant, blossoms in May, beverage which is agreeable to many palates,
chiefly on the banks of rivers or other moist grounds. It bears clusters of yellowish-white drooping bells. A variety has purple flowers. The rough foliage is spotted like the lungs of animals, and hence it was supposed that it was inten ded to heal pulmonary complaints The roots are glutinous and mucilaginous, and are frequently used by villagers for coughs. The tuberous comfrey, rare in England but common in Scotland. grows on the banks of rivers and ditches, and flowers in July. The flowers are drooping, of a yellowish white, and tinged with green.
In May, the small bugloss, with its bright blue flowers, is not uncommon on hedge-banks and in corn fields. It is one f several rough-leaved plants, which bloom at the same time. The hairs on iis leaves are very strong and sharp, and each one is seated on a white tubercle. Its flowers are especially attractive to bees. The roots contain a great quantity of mu. cilage; we use them but little; but in China, where the plant is abundant, they form an important medicine.
The viper's bugloss grows on the chalky hill, the barren wall, the heap of rubbish, and too frequently on the corn. ands. Alluding to its being found in barren places near the sea, Crabbe says,
"Here poppies, nodding, mock the hopes of toil
Here ihe blue buy loss paints the sterile soil.” It flowers in June, and then appears in singular beauty. So thickly, however, is its foliage beset with prickles, that even the donkey, accustomed to browse on the thistle tops, shrinks from its spiny leaves and stems; and when the bees pause in their flight, to suck the honey from its rich blue bells, their delicate wings are torn before they can escape from the plant. The agriculturists of Cambridge have remarked that it appears most beautiful every third year, when the fields are quite blue with its flowers. It is singular that the Spaniard and the Frenchman, as well as ourselves, connect with this plant the
nanie of the viper. The spotted stem, however, resembles the The Cultivated Madder : its flower and seed.
skin of a snake, and the seeds are each like a viper's head, and
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.
Does Alfred read ?
to this the fancy must be traced, as well as that which led to the full and lofty eloquence of Milton's immortal essay on the notion that the plant was designed to heal the bite of that behalf of the liberty of the press. reptile.
The sentence, as it stands, is what is called an affirmative The borage grows in waste ground, near houses, and flowers proposition; that is, it affirms or declares something; it affirms in June and July. Its flowers are of a beautiful blue. The or declares that Alfred reads. The term affirmative is used in whole plant is covered with very pungent bristles. Some opposition to the term negative. Negative propositions are
those ir which something is denied.
An affirmative may singular facts have been discovered in reference to this plant. Thus, if a decoction of its leaves be evaporated to a syrup, and become a negative proposition by the introduction of the adverb kept for some days, it yields salt crystals, partly in the forms of not ; thus, Alfred reads not. In English it is more common to needles, and partly cubical; the needles are proved to be per- thus see that the words does (do, or dost, as may be required)
employ also the emphatic does, as Alfred does not read. You fect nitre, and the cubical ones sea-salt. If, too, a dried piece and not convert an affirmative into a negative proposition. of this plant be held in a flame, it emits, from the nitre it con- Sentences in which a question is asked we term interrogative; tains, a kind of coruscation, attended by a slight noise. It is,
as, does Alfred read? Here by the help of the emphatic form in consequence, sometimes an ingredient of match-paper. phur-yellow to white, on the one hand, and to bright yellow sentence we introduce the negative not, we have an interrogaThe primrose varies in colour, from the common pale sul- does, and the inversion of the terms does and Alfred, we make
an affirmative into an interrogative sentence. If into this last and purple on the other. Clare exclaimed, as he gazed upon tive negative sentence, as does not Alfred read? We put these
four forms of a proposition together,
FORMS OF A PROPOSITION.
Alfreil does not read.
4. Interrogative Negative Does Alfred not read?
You thus see an example of the ease and extent with which
the original form may be changed and multiplied. The proThe welcome news of sweet returning spring !"
position, Alfred reads, is a simple proposition. Propositions are
either simple or compound. Compound propositions are made The primrose is in its greatest beauty in May, but occasional up of two or more simple propositions. Of compound proposiplants may be found in flower from Michaelmas, and even
tions I shall speak in detail hereafter. Here only a few words throughout the winter. But the number of plants in this order may be allowed in order to illustrate what is meant by a simple are far too numerous to be now described; including, as it proposition. If I were to say, When Alfred reads, he is listened does, the forget-me-not, the pimpernel, known as the poor to, I should employ a compound proposition. In these words man's weather-glass, the wild convolvuluses, the bell flowers, there are two statements, and consequently two sentences. the violets, the nightshades, the honeysuckles, the currants, These two statements are, Alfred reads, and Alfred is listened to. the ivy, and the large class of umbelliferous plants, of which the The two statements, united by the term when, constitute a cowparsley and hemlock are examples; and therefore we must compound sentence. In one form, at least, a compound procontent ourselves with the specimens already given. Very position may easily be mistaken for a simple proposition; numerous, too, are the plants which are ranged under the five namely, in this - Alfred reads and writes. Here, in reality, we following orders of the same class; but for these the reader have a compound sentence, for when analysed, these words must be referred to works on botany, particularly that of are equivalent to these two statements, Alfred reads, and Alfred Withering, condensed by Macgillivray.
writes. There being in the sentence these two statements, the proposition is compound.
Let us now consider the two words in their own individual cha. LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-No. III.
racter- Alfred reads. The first obviously represents a person,
the second as clearly represents an act. Now, in grammar, By John R. BEARD, D.D.
words which represent persons and things, are called nouns ; SIMPLE PROPOSITIONS.
and words which represent acts, are called verts. Noun is a
Latin term, and signities name; hence you see the noun is the Alfred reads.
name of any person or thing; and were we as wise as were the THESB two words form what is called a proposition; they Latins, we should not employ a foreign word, but call nouns form a simple proposition. Proposition is a word of Latin simply names. Thus Alfred is the name of a person. Book, origin, signifying something that is put before you. As being also, is a name; so is house ; so is pen; so is paper ; these are something that is put before you, it is a statement; it is a each the name or vocal sign by which Englishmen distinguish statement of a fact or a thuught; a statement of something in and agree to call these objects severally. Nor is there any the mind, or something out of the mind. Here the statement mystery in the term vocal. Here, too, we have a Latin term is that Alfred reads. Such a statement is also termed a sen- which signifies simply word. With the Latins the verb was tence. Sentence is also from the Latin, and signifies a form the word ; that is, the chief word in a sentence. By us the of words comprising a thought or sentiment. These words, verb might be termed the word. Had English grammarians then,-namely, sentence, proposition, and statement, have the employed as their scientific terms, words of Saxon origin, same signification; and they each denote an utterance, the the study of English grammar would have been very easy. utterance of a fact, an idea, an emotion. Observe that both We shall endeavour 10 simplify it, by translating the words are essential to the proposition. Take aw ay Alfred, you Latin terms, unhappily now become indispensable, into then have reads, but rı ads is no proposition ; for nothing is stated. their English equivalenis. That the verb is the word, the Take away reads, you leave Alfred; but Alfred by itself says chief word of a sentence, you may learn by reflecting nothing, makes no statement, and therefore forms no proposition on the proposition, Alfred reads. It is reads, you see, that or sentence. The two words must concur to make a proposition. forms the very essence of the statement Reads, too, distinIf so, less than two words do not make a proposition ; and a guishes this statement from other statements, as Alfred runs, proposition or sentence may consist of not more than two Alfred sings. Look back on the several instances of proposi. words.
tions I have given, and endeavour to ascertain what is the In these simple statements you have in the germ the substance quality in which they all agree. They have a common quaof the doctrine of sentences. If you understand what I have now lity. That quality is averment. They all aver or declare said, you have laid the foundation for a thorough acquaintance something. This they do by means of their verbs. Accordingly, with language in general, and with the English language in averment is the essential quality of the verb. Every verb is a particular ; for 10 a form of words similar in sinplicity to that word which makes an averment. Here, then, we learn that which stands at the head of this lesson, is all speech reducible; the noun names, and the verb avers. By these tokens way all and thai model presents the germ out of which are evolved the nouns and all verbs be knovin. Whatever names is a noun; long and involved sentences of our old English divines, and whatever avers is a verb. Chair is a noun, because it is the