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does not bark, but utters a melancholy howl. When it bites,

LESSONS IN BOTANY.—No. VI. whether in fighting or attacking its prey, it does not seize and

CLASS IV.--TETRANDIA. keep hold, but soaps like a poodle. It is very destructive when

Plants bearing flowers with Four Stamens. among a flock of sheep, as it snaps at all in its way, and its bite

ORDER I. MONOGYNIA. One Pistil. is so severe, that the wounded almost invariably die. If these

native of this dogs be taken young, they may be trained to the chase of emus The teazle is a plant which is probably not and kangaroos ; but when domesticated, they remain addicted country, but like canary-grass, woad, and some others, was to destroying sheep and poultry. If some of these dogs, when originally introduced by some of the numerous foreign artisans living in the gardens of the Zoological society, have lost a por- who have at various times found an asylum or been encouraged tion of their native ferocity, it has been retained in its utmost to settle in England. It has been essential, and still is, to force by others. One that was brought hither broke its chain our woollen manufactures. The teazle is cultivated in some of at night, scoured the surrounding country, and before dawn, the strong claylands of Wilts, Essex, Gloucester, and Somerset. had destroyed sereral sheep.

A disposition is sometimes displayed by the dog, as also by the cat, to abandon the domestic, and to return to the savage state. Of this, the following is one of many instances. A dog was left by a smuggling vessel on the coast of Northumberland. Finding himself deserted, he began to worry sheep, and did so much mischief as to create considerable alarm in the surround. ing country. Several of the sheep which he mangled were found alive by the shepherds; and, by proper attention, some not only recovered, but had lambs. He was frequently pursued by hounds and greyhounds, but when the dogs came up with him, he lay down on his back, as if asking for mercy, and in that position they never hurt him; he therefore continued to lie quietly till the hunters approached, when he made off without being followed by the hounds, till they were again excited to the pursuit, which always terminated unsuccessfully. He was one day pursued from Howick to a distance of more than thirty miles, but returned thither, and killed a shcep the same evening. His general residence was upon the Hergh-hill, near Howick, where he had a view of four roads that approached it; and where, after many fruitless attempts, he was at last shot.

Happily, however, in numerous instances, man maintains the power which he has acquired over the creatures of this large tribe, and renders them subservient to different purposes. When our traveller Burchell was in Africa, a pack of dogs of various descriptions formed a part of his caravan, to provide him occasionally with food, but more frequently to defend him from robbers and wild beasts. With great force he remarks :"While almost every other quadruped fears man as his most formidable enemy, there is one who regards him as his companion, and follows him as his friend. We must not mistake It throws up its buds in July and August, and these are cut the nature of the case. It is not because we train him to our from the plant by hand, and then fastened to poles for use,

and have made choice of him in preference to other ani- drying. When dry they are picked and sorted into bundles mals, but because this particular species of animal feels a for sale. natural desire to be useful to man, and from spontaneous im- The teazle affords a striking and rare instance of a natural pulse attaches himself to him. Were it not so, we should see production being applied to mechanical purposes in the actual in various countries an equal familiarity with other quadrupeds, state in which it is produced. It is used to draw out the ends according to their habits, and the taste or caprices of different of the wool from the manufactured cloth, so as to bring a nations ; but everywhere it is the dog only that takes delight regular pile or nap upon the surface, free from twistings and in associating with us, and in sharing our abode. It is he knottings, and to comb off the coarse and loose parts of the who knows us personally, watches over us, and warns us of wool. The head of the true teazle is composed of incorporated danger. It is impossible not for the naturalist to feel a con- flowers, each separated by a long, rigid, chaffy substance, the viction that this friendship between creatures so different from terminating point of which is furnished with a fine hook. Many each other must be the result of the laws of nature ; nor can of these heads are fixed in a frame; and with this the surface of the humane and feeling mind avoid the belief that kindness the cloth is teased or brushed, until all the ends are drawn out, to these animals, from which he derives continued and essen. the loose parts combed off, and the cloth ceases to impede the tial assistance, is part of the moral duty of man.

free passage of the wheel, or frame, of teazles. Should the “Often in the silence of the night, when all my people have hook of the claff, when in use, become fixed in a knot, or find been fast asleep around the fire, have I stood to contemplate sufficient resistance, it breaks, without injuring or contending these faithful animals watching by their side, and have learned with the cloth, and care is taken by successive applications to to esteem them for their social inclination towards mankind. draw the impediment out. In this consists its manifest supeWhen wardering over pathless deserts, oppressed with vexa- riority All mechanical inventions, previously employed, tion and distress at the conduct of my own men, I have turned offered resistance to the knot; and, instead of yielding or to these as my only friends, and felt how much inferior to breaking, as the teazle does, resisted and tore out the knot, them was man when actuated only by selfish views.”

making a hole, or injuring the surface. The plant, thus emAnd so he is, it may be added, in other circumstances. It ployed, is called the " fuller's teazle,” and is distinguished has been justly observed by Sir Walter Scott:— "The from the “small,” and the “wild teazle." Almighty, who gave the dog to be the companion of our In the month of July the several kinds of scabious are pretty pleasures and our trials, hath invested him with a nature noble and common flowers. The field scabious is very frequent on and incapable of deceit. He forgets neither friend nor foe- dry fields, and has large convex heads of flowers, of a beautiful remembers, and with accuracy, both benefit and injury. He purplish-lilac. The devil's-bit scabious grows in meadow hath a share of man's intelligence, but no share of man's lands, and is remarkable for its abrupt root, which seems as if falsehood. You may bribe a soldier to slay a man with his it had been bitten off. « Old fantastic charmers report,' sword, or a witness to take away life by false accusation, but says Gerard, " that the devil did bite it for envy, because it is you eannot make a hound tear his benefactor. He is the friend an herb which hath so many good virtues, and is so beneficial to of man, save when man justly incurs his enmity,"

mankind." It is a curious fact, and one not yet explained,


The Teazle.

that the top of the root actually dies away, and then a hori. Of the madder there are several varieties. The field madder zontal root is formed. No virtues can be now found in the has a small root, numerous spreading stems, leaves six and a remainder of the root or herb.

whorl, and pale purplish-blue flowers. It is common in corn The sweet woodruff, with its clear white cluster of small and fallow fields, flowering from May to July. The prepared fluwers, and its rings of green leaves, blooms in May, around root of the cultivated plant is extensively used as a red dye the roots of trees. Its fresh leaves are almost scentless, but stuff. It yields colours of the greatest permanence, and is

employed for dying linen and cotton red. It is also employed in calico printing, and in making madder lakes.

We have five wild species of plantain; one of the most common is the broad-leaved kind, the greater plantain, the seeds of which are so frequently given to cage-birds. The leaves of this species are often applied to wounds. The Highlanders call it the healing plant. The ribwort plantain frequently appears in our meadows and pastures, towering, like the former, during June and July, and indicating wherever it abounds, a dry soil. When it grows among grass, its leaves rise to a considerable height, but they are shorter, broader, more spreading, and sometimes of a silvery hue, on barren soils. The Welsh call another species, common on our seacoasts, the "Suet-producing," from its being much relished by sheep. This plant flowers at the time already mentioned.

The holly—the pond-weeds—the tassel-grass--the peari-
worts—and a few other species of plants, are found in this

Plants bearing flowers with Fire Stamens,

There are four kinds of gromwell. The corn gromwell, a
plant about a foot high, with narrow-pointed leaves, covered
with white hairs and very hard seeds, is, in the month of June,
very general in the corn fields and waste places. The creeping
or purple gromwell is rare, growing in mountainous and woody
pastures in Wales and the south of England, and flowering in
April and May. The common gromwell grows in dry gravelly

places, and flowers in May; but is not common, as its name Sweet Woodruff,

denotes. The sea gromwell flowers in July and August;

grows on gravelly beaches on the sea-shore in the north of we have no native flower which so long retains its odour whe England, in Ireland, and in Scotland. dried. Its strongly aromatic flowers infused in water make a The comfrey, a very rough-leaved plant, blossoms in May, beverage which is agreeable to many palates,

chiefly on the banks of rivers or other moist grounds. It bears clusters of yellowish-white drooping bells. A variety has purple flowers. The rough foliage is spotted like the lungs of animals, and hence it was supposed that it was inten ded to heal pulmonary complaints The roots are glutinous and mucilaginous, and are frequently used by villagers for coughs. The tuberous comfrey, rare in England but common in Scotland. grows on the banks of rivers and ditches, and flowers in July. The flowers are drooping, of a yellowish white, and tinged with green.

In May, the small bugloss, with its bright blue flowers, is not uncommon on hedge-banks and in corn fields. It is one f several rough-leaved plants, which bloom at the same time. The hairs on iis leaves are very strong and sharp, and each one is seated on a white tubercle. Its flowers are especially attractive to bees. The roots contain a great quantity of mu. cilage; we use them but little; but in China, where the plant is abundant, they form an important medicine.

The viper's bugloss grows on the chalky hill, the barren wall, the heap of rubbish, and too frequently on the corn. ands. Alluding to its being found in barren places near the sea, Crabbe says,

"Here poppies, nodding, mock the hopes of toil

Here ihe blue buy loss paints the sterile soil.” It flowers in June, and then appears in singular beauty. So thickly, however, is its foliage beset with prickles, that even the donkey, accustomed to browse on the thistle tops, shrinks from its spiny leaves and stems; and when the bees pause in their flight, to suck the honey from its rich blue bells, their delicate wings are torn before they can escape from the plant. The agriculturists of Cambridge have remarked that it appears most beautiful every third year, when the fields are quite blue with its flowers. It is singular that the Spaniard and the Frenchman, as well as ourselves, connect with this plant the

nanie of the viper. The spotted stem, however, resembles the The Cultivated Madder : its flower and seed.

skin of a snake, and the seeds are each like a viper's head, and

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Does Alfred read ?

to this the fancy must be traced, as well as that which led to the full and lofty eloquence of Milton's immortal essay on the notion that the plant was designed to heal the bite of that behalf of the liberty of the press. reptile.

The sentence, as it stands, is what is called an affirmative The borage grows in waste ground, near houses, and flowers proposition; that is, it affirms or declares something; it affirms in June and July. Its flowers are of a beautiful blue. The or declares that Alfred reads. The term affirmative is used in whole plant is covered with very pungent bristles. Some opposition to the term negative. Negative propositions are

those ir which something is denied.

An affirmative may singular facts have been discovered in reference to this plant. Thus, if a decoction of its leaves be evaporated to a syrup, and become a negative proposition by the introduction of the adverb kept for some days, it yields salt crystals, partly in the forms of not ; thus, Alfred reads not. In English it is more common to needles, and partly cubical; the needles are proved to be per- thus see that the words does (do, or dost, as may be required)

employ also the emphatic does, as Alfred does not read. You fect nitre, and the cubical ones sea-salt. If, too, a dried piece and not convert an affirmative into a negative proposition. of this plant be held in a flame, it emits, from the nitre it con- Sentences in which a question is asked we term interrogative; tains, a kind of coruscation, attended by a slight noise. It is,

as, does Alfred read? Here by the help of the emphatic form in consequence, sometimes an ingredient of match-paper. phur-yellow to white, on the one hand, and to bright yellow sentence we introduce the negative not, we have an interrogaThe primrose varies in colour, from the common pale sul- does, and the inversion of the terms does and Alfred, we make

an affirmative into an interrogative sentence. If into this last and purple on the other. Clare exclaimed, as he gazed upon tive negative sentence, as does not Alfred read? We put these

four forms of a proposition together,
“How much thy presence beautifies the ground:
How sweet thy modest unaffected pride

Glows on the sunny bank and wood's warm side!

1. Affirmative

Alfreil reads.
And when thy fairy flowers, in groups, are found,

2. Negative

Alfreil does not read.
The school boy roams enchantingly along,

3. Interrogative
Plucking the fairest with a rude delight;

4. Interrogative Negative Does Alfred not read?
While the meek shepherd stops his simple song,
To gaze a moment on the pleasing sight,

You thus see an example of the ease and extent with which
O'erjoyed to see the flowers that truly bring

the original form may be changed and multiplied. The proThe welcome news of sweet returning spring !"

position, Alfred reads, is a simple proposition. Propositions are

either simple or compound. Compound propositions are made The primrose is in its greatest beauty in May, but occasional up of two or more simple propositions. Of compound proposiplants may be found in flower from Michaelmas, and even

tions I shall speak in detail hereafter. Here only a few words throughout the winter. But the number of plants in this order may be allowed in order to illustrate what is meant by a simple are far too numerous to be now described; including, as it proposition. If I were to say, When Alfred reads, he is listened does, the forget-me-not, the pimpernel, known as the poor to, I should employ a compound proposition. In these words man's weather-glass, the wild convolvuluses, the bell flowers, there are two statements, and consequently two sentences. the violets, the nightshades, the honeysuckles, the currants, These two statements are, Alfred reads, and Alfred is listened to. the ivy, and the large class of umbelliferous plants, of which the The two statements, united by the term when, constitute a cowparsley and hemlock are examples; and therefore we must compound sentence. In one form, at least, a compound procontent ourselves with the specimens already given. Very position may easily be mistaken for a simple proposition; numerous, too, are the plants which are ranged under the five namely, in this - Alfred reads and writes. Here, in reality, we following orders of the same class; but for these the reader have a compound sentence, for when analysed, these words must be referred to works on botany, particularly that of are equivalent to these two statements, Alfred reads, and Alfred Withering, condensed by Macgillivray.

writes. There being in the sentence these two statements, the proposition is compound.

Let us now consider the two words in their own individual cha. LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-No. III.

racter- Alfred reads. The first obviously represents a person,

the second as clearly represents an act. Now, in grammar, By John R. BEARD, D.D.

words which represent persons and things, are called nouns ; SIMPLE PROPOSITIONS.

and words which represent acts, are called verts. Noun is a

Latin term, and signities name; hence you see the noun is the Alfred reads.

name of any person or thing; and were we as wise as were the THESB two words form what is called a proposition; they Latins, we should not employ a foreign word, but call nouns form a simple proposition. Proposition is a word of Latin simply names. Thus Alfred is the name of a person. Book, origin, signifying something that is put before you. As being also, is a name; so is house ; so is pen; so is paper ; these are something that is put before you, it is a statement; it is a each the name or vocal sign by which Englishmen distinguish statement of a fact or a thuught; a statement of something in and agree to call these objects severally. Nor is there any the mind, or something out of the mind. Here the statement mystery in the term vocal. Here, too, we have a Latin term is that Alfred reads. Such a statement is also termed a sen- which signifies simply word. With the Latins the verb was tence. Sentence is also from the Latin, and signifies a form the word ; that is, the chief word in a sentence. By us the of words comprising a thought or sentiment. These words, verb might be termed the word. Had English grammarians then,-namely, sentence, proposition, and statement, have the employed as their scientific terms, words of Saxon origin, same signification; and they each denote an utterance, the the study of English grammar would have been very easy. utterance of a fact, an idea, an emotion. Observe that both We shall endeavour 10 simplify it, by translating the words are essential to the proposition. Take aw ay Alfred, you Latin terms, unhappily now become indispensable, into then have reads, but ads is no proposition ; for nothing is stated. their English equivalenis. That the verb is the word, the Take away reads, you leave Alfred; but Alfred by itself says chief word of a sentence, you may learn by reflecting nothing, makes no statement, and therefore forms no proposition on the proposition, Alfred reads. It is reads, you see, that or sentence. The two words must concur to make a proposition. forms the very essence of the statement Reads, too, distinIf so, less than two words do not make a proposition ; and a guishes this statement from other statements, as Alfred runs, proposition or sentence may consist of not more than two Alfred sings. Look back on the several instances of proposi. words.

tions I have given, and endeavour to ascertain what is the In these simple statements you have in the germ the substance quality in which they all agree. They have a common quaof the doctrine of sentences. If you understand what I have now lity. That quality is averment. They all aver or declare said, you have laid the foundation for a thorough acquaintance something. This they do by means of their verbs. Accordingly, with language in general, and with the English language in averment is the essential quality of the verb. Every verb is a particular ; for 10 a form of words similar in sinplicity to that word which makes an averment. Here, then, we learn that which stands at the head of this lesson, is all speech reducible; the noun names, and the verb avers. By these tokens way all and thai model presents the germ out of which are evolved the nouns and all verbs be knovin. Whatever names is a noun; long and involved sentences of our old English divines, and whatever avers is a verb. Chair is a noun, because it is the THE POPULAR EDUCATOR.



a noun.



name of an object ; stands is a verb, because it avers or declares


Predicate. something of chair; and the union of the two, as chair stands,

Alfred forms a proposition.

is good. Sentences, then, in their simplest form, consist of a noun You observe that reads and is good hold the same place and and a verb. A noun and a verb are indispensable. Whatever perform the same function in the two propositions. They in more you may have, you cannot have anything less than a each case form the predicate of the sentence. The predicate noun and a verb in a sentence or proposition. As a substitute is that which is predicated, declared, or averred of the subject for the noun, you may have a pronoun. Pronoun, again, is a of a proposition. In the former instance, reads is that which word of Latin origin, signifying a word which stands instead of is averred; in the latter, is good is that which is averred.

Thus we may put the pronoun he instead of Alfred'; Mark, that neither is nor good alone forms the predicate, for e.g. (Latin, exempli gratiâ ; that is, for example):

what is asserted is not that Alfred is,—that is, exists, but that he Alfred reads

is good. Accordingly, the predicate here consists of two words,He reads

namely, is good ; but in the former example, it consists of merely where he holds the place of Alfred. We must accordingly

one word,- that is, reads. Of these two words, good we have qualify our statement, and say that sentences, in their simplest what is called the copula, a Latin term which may here be

seen is the attribute. It remains to state that the word is forms form, consist of a verb and á noun or pronoun. One or two rendered link. The term describes its office. The word is in the other qualifications might be stated; but here, at least, instead of entering into them, it will be better to put the statement in sentence links the subject with the predicate. The whole may

be exhibited thus:its most general form, a form in which it will embrace all particular cases, and render qualification unnecessary. I say,


Predicate. then, that in every sentence there must be a subject and a

Alfred verb. I have thus set before you a new term. That term I must explain. Subject is a Latin word, and denotes that

Copila. Attribute. which receives, that which lies under, is liable or exposed to; from By ordinary grammarians what we have termed the subject,


good Accordingly, the subject of a proposition is that to which the is objectionable, for it is incorrect by not being sufficiently com. of a proposition is the agent, the actor, the doer. The subject healthful. To ride' is the

subject of the proposition, and the of a proposition answers to the question who? or what as, who reads ? Answer ; Alfred reads. The term subject is used subject, therefore, to the verb is. But is to ride a nominative with special reference to the corresponding term, predicate. The case: Ask the grammarians, and they will tell you that it is predicate of a proposition is that which is attributed to the sub- the infinitive mood of the verb ride. If an infinitive mood, it ject. What is attributed in our model sentence ? This,

is not a nominative case. Cases pertain to nouns, moods to namely, that Alfred reads. “Reads,” then, here the predi.

verbs. cate, or that which is ascribed to, or asserted of Alfred.

But here, we meet with an instance of the complexity and Hence you see the propriety of the term subject, since-Alfred obscurity that have been brought into English grammar by atis subject to the averment that he reads. Now, in the gram- have

but one case, the genitive; or, if the nominative be allowed

tachment to Latin forms. Our nouns in their actual condition matical construction of the sentence, it matters not whether you say, Alfred reads, or he reads.

In both cases you have a be said to have. Why should inore be assigned to them? It

to be a case, then two cases are the utmost that our nouns can subject and verb, or predicate ; and consequently you have a may be doubted, indeed, whether what is called the nominacomplete enunciation of thought, or a perfect sentence.

The sentence thus analysed and explained may be set forth tive can be properly termed a case, for it differs from the Latin in this form :

nominative, which is formed from a stem common to all the

cases through which the noun passes; whereas in English, the Subject.


nominative is the stem itself. However this may be, in Eng. Alfred


lish, nouns now possess no more than two cases. This fact As the subject undergoes a change by passing, when neces the mother of the English, has several cases. It is with the

is in no way affected by the allegation that the Anglo-Saxon, sary, into he, so may the predicate be modified. Instead of a daughter, not with the mother that we are here concerned. predicate in one word, you may have a predicate in two words, by substituting a verb and an adjective; as, Alfred is good.

LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. XI. Another new term demands another explanation. What is the meaning of adjective: Adjective in Latin signifies that

By Join R. BEARD, D.D. which is added to, or thrown to (ad, to; and jacio, I throw). To RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. what are adjectives thrown or added: To nouns, as in this Relative-Qui, quae, quod, who or echich. Interrogative - Quis, quae, instance. Adjectives, therefore, in their very nature, cannot

quid ? who or which ? stand alone. They perform their office in being added to or

RELATIVE. connected with nouns. They are connected with nouns in

Singular. order to qualify the meaning of those nouns, and to answer to Cases.

F. the question of what kind? What kind of a boy is Alfred ? Nom.

quae, who

quod, which Answer," he is a good boy.” An adjective, then, is an epithet,

cujus, whose
cujus, whose

cujus, of which (a Greek word, which denotes that which is attributed to a

cui, to uchom
cui, to whom

cui, to which noun or a person); e.g., green fields, tall men, hard rocks,

quem, uchom
quam, achom

quod, which where green, tall, and hard are epithets, or adjectives, inasmuch as

quo, by whom
quā, by ichom

quo, by which they assign the quality of their several subjects. Now, what

Plural. we call qualities, we call also attributes. The attributes of a

qui, icho

quae, rokich body are its qualities. Attribute is a word from the Latin,

quarum, rchose

quorum, of chick denoting that which is attributed or ascribed to an object.

quibus, to whom

quibus, to achom quibus, to ichich Adjectives, therefore, describe the qualities or attributes of


quos, uchom the persons or things they are connected with. In the instance


quibus, by uchom quibus, by whom quibus, by which given above, good is the attribute of the proposition; thus,




quis ? before a noun, quid ? before But this explanation leaves is unexplained. The word is on Gen.

quae? noun, quod reflection you will recognise as a verb, seeing that it avers ;

cujus ? for it avers or declares that Alfred is good. By comparing Acc.



M. qui, ucho



quae, who


quorum, those

quas, uchom

quae, uchich


cujus ?

cui? together the two forms

quem ?
quam ?

quid ?

quis ?








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quae ? quarum ? quibus ? quas ?

quibus ?

quae ?

qui ?


quibus ?


quae ?

quibus ?
quibus ?
The preposition cum is sometimes set after the pronoun; as,
quocum, quacum, quibuscum, with whom, with which.
Quis is repeated so as to form the compound pronoun quis-
quis, whosoever. In this case, both parts are declined thus,
quisquis, m.; quaequae, f.; quicquid, n. When the neuter is
used as a substantive it is generally written quidquid. Take
as instances: quoquo modo res habet, in whatever way the
thing is: quicquid id est, whatever that is. In quicunque,
whosoever, the qui is declined, and to its parts cunque is added,
as cujuscunque, quodcunque, &c.*


Civitas, átis, f. the state; lex, legis, f. a law (E. R. legal); mors,
mortis, f. death (E. R. mortal); justus, a, um, just; maleficus, a,
um, wicked, as a noun, an evil-doer; probus, a, um, good, kind
(E. R. probity); sanctus, a, um, holy (E. R. sanctity); mitis, e,
mild (E. R. mitigate); curo 1, I care for, take care of (E. R. a
cure); devasto I, I lay waste, devastate; guberno 1, I govern;
honóro 1, I honour; gero 2, I carry (E. R. gestation); succurro 3,
I hasten to aid, I succour; exaudio 4, I hear the request of:
ardenter, adv. ardently, glowingly (E. R. ardent); tibi placet,
thou art pleased.

Rex qui civitatem gubernat, civium salutem, curare debet; regi
cujus imperium mite et justum est, omnes cives libenter parent;
regem cui leges sunt sanctae, cives colunt; felix est rex quem
omnes cives amant; O rex qui civitatem nostram gubernas, tibi
placet honorare bonos cives, terrere maleficos, succurrere miseris,
exaudire probos.

Kings who govern states must care for the safety of all the
citizens; good men willingly obey kings whose government is
mild and just; kings whose laws are holy are willingly obeyed by
good citizens; the kings are happy who are dear to their citizens;
O kings who rule our states, ye ought to honour a good and great
man; O God, we worship thee who art pleased to succour the
wretched; the enemies with whom you contend lay waste your


What dost thou sav? who is that man? who is that woman? with whom does thy friend walk? whom seekest thou? what book dost thou read? to whom dost thou write this letter? however the things are (habere, &c. &c.) we praise your view (sententia).

indefinite import, any one soever; and runs thus: quispiam, quaepiam, quidpiam; adj. quodpiam.


Quis in a dependent form undergoes slight changes in
declination: thus, quis, qua or quae, quid; pl. qui, quae, quae.
When it is used as an adjective pronoun, then quis may be-
come qui, qua becomes quae, and quid becomes quod. The
same is the case with aliquis, some one; thus, sub. aliquis,
aliqua, aliquid; adj. aliqui, aliqua, aliquod. So alicujus,
alicui, &c. In the plural, quis, &c., become qui, quae, quae,
or qua, aliqui, aliquae, aliqua.
Quis united with piam, becoming quispiam, acquires an
See more on these and other compounds in the author's "Latin made
Easy." Price 3s. 6d. Fourth Edition, p. 137.

Another form is quisquam (quis and quam), every one, which is declined, nom. quisquam, quicquam; gen. cujusquam; dat. cuiquam; quidam, a certain one, stands thus: nom. quidam, quaedam, quiddam; adj. quoddam ; gen. cujusdam, and so on. Quisque answers to our each one; nom. quisque, quaeque, quidque (quodque); gen. cujusque; dat. cuique; acc. quemque, &c.

Unusquisque, every one, brings the idea of individuality into greater prominence, and is formed thus, unusquisque, unaquaeque, unumquidque; adj. unumquodque; the pronoun is made up of que, and, quis, who or which, and unus, one.

In quivis, quaevis, quidvis (quodvis), the termination vis, thou wilt, increases the indefiniteness, so that quivis is, who or what you will, cujusvis; acc. quemvis, quamvis, &c. A similar import is found in quilibet (libet, it pleases), quaelibet, quidlibet (quodlibet), who or what you please; so, gen. cujuslibet.

Alius, another; alter, the other, the second of a pair; the latter, corresponding to the former; ullus, any; nullus (non ullus), no one; uter, which (of the two); neuter (non uter), neither, neither the one nor the other; take the genitive singular in ius, and the dative in I, like unus. See the next chapter on numbers.


Graecia, f. Greece; pecunia, ae, f. money; locus, i, m. a place (E. R. local, locality); augurium, i, n. augury; seculum, i, n. an age (E. R. secular); error, óris, m. terror; dignitas, átis, f. dignity; mens, mentis, f. a mind (E. R. mental); jus, juris, n. right, law (E. R. jury, jurisdiction); justitia, ae, f. justice; futúrus, a, um. future; insitus, a, um, inborn; impendeo 2, I hang over (E. R. impend); inhaereo 2, I stick to; adimo 3, I take away; idcirco, therefore; quasi, as if; tribuo 3, I assign, allot.


Some terror always hangs over the bad; what terror (quid Luscinia, ae, f. a nightingale; peccatum, i, n. a sin; opinio, ónis, f. terroris, literally, what of terror?) hangs over thee? if thou takest an opinion; Veritas, átis, f. truth (E. R. verity); honestus, a, um, fortune from any one thou art blamed; they hold a certain small honourable (E. R. honesty); falsus, a, um, false; ingratus, a, um, part of Greece; in every bad nan evil (malum) dwells; justice unthankful (E. R. ingratitude); utilis, e, useful (E. R. utility); am-allots to every one his merits (merita); certain ones have money. bulo 1, I walk abroad; cogito 1, I think; excrucio 1, I torture (E. R. excruciate, from crux, a cross); repugno 1, I fight against; (E. R. repugnance, pugilist); habeo 2, I have; me habeo, I have myself (that is, in a certain condition) I am; ago 3, I drive, I do; quaero 3, I seek; curro 3, I run, pass away; indulgeo 2, I am lenient to (E. R. indulge). EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH.



Si mortem timemus semper aliqui terror nobis impendet; si cuipiam pecuniam fortuna adimit idcirco miser non est; Graecia parvum quendam (quemdam) locum Europae tenet; inhaeret in mentibus nostris quasi quoddam augurium futurorum saeculorum; in unoquoque virorum bonorum habitat deus; justitia jus unicuiqué tribuit pro dignitate cujusque; cuique nostrum amor vitae est insitus.

Quis me vocat? quid agis, mi amíce? quis scribit has litteras?
quid cogitas? quid ago? cur me excrucio? quæ amicitia est
inter ingratos? quod carmen legis? quis homo venit? quis poeta
dulcior est quam Homerus? cujus vox suavior est quam vox
luscinia? quibus peccatis facillime indulgemus? quicquid est
honestum, idem est utile; quicquid vides, currit cum tempore; Qualis, of what kind?
quoquo modo res sese habet, ego sententiam meam defendo;
quaecunque opinio veritati repugnat, falsa est.


Quantus, how great?
Quot, how many?

Correlative is a term denoting mutual relation, in such a way, that of two or more things, as is the one, so is the other. Take, as an instance, the pair of correlative pronouns, qualis and talis; meaning as and as; thus qualis sum ego, talis es tu, such as I am, such art thou.

These correlative pronouns are various, and are exhibited in this table of


Indefinite. aliquantus, of some size aliquot, some number Relative Indefinite. qualiscunque, of what kind soever quantuscunque, how great soever quotcunque, quotquot, of whatever number

Quot, tot, aliquot; quot, quotcunque, and quotquot, are inde clinable, and are used only in the plural number; as, quot homines sunt? how many men are there? aliquot homines, some men; tot homines quot video, as many men as I see; quotcunque homines video omnes boni sunt, all the men I see are good.


Qualis, of what kind
Quantus, of what size
Quot, of what number?

Demonstrative. talis, of such kind tantus, so great tot, so many

VOCABULARY. brated Athenian; grex, gregis, m. a flock; imitator, óris, m. an Bonum, i, n. good, the good; Aristides, is, m. the name of a celeboth parts are declined; thus, rei publicae, rem publicam), the imitator; oratio, ónis, f. speech; respublica (res and publica, state, the republic, the common wealth; permultus, a, um, very much; pastor, óris, n. a shepherd (E. R. a pastor); fragilis, e, easily

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