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broken, fragile (from frango, I break); pecco, I sin. fail, err; solen Ocean; and he rejected the positive information of Herodotus 2, I am uccustomed; contemno 3, 1 de spise; existu 3, I stand out, on this point. He acknowledged little regard for the authority become, exist; quod, conj. that ; praedico 1, I speak before, declare of this ancient historian, and his doubt on the subject of the (E. R. preach). EXERCISES.--LATIN-ENGLISH.

voyages of Pytheas, Hanno, and Eudoxus, showed his igno

rance of many important geographical questions. Quot sunt homines, tot sunt sententiae; tantum malum est hoc, Strabo adopted the division of the earth into climates quod peccant principes, quantum illud quod permulti imitatores recognised by Greek and Roman authors previous to his time. principum exisiunt; quot genera orationuin sunt, totidem oratorum Long after him, indeed, as well as before him, the globe was genera reperiunrur; quales sun' duces, tales sunt milites ; qualis divided into five zones, of which two were the frigid or frozen est rex, talis est grex ; quales in republica sunt principes, tales zones near the poles, one scorched by the sun and extending solent esse cives; vir bonus non contemnit homines miseros, quilescunque sunt; corporis et fortunae bona, quantacunque along the equatorial line on each side of it, called the torrid sunt, sunt incerta et fragilia ; quoiquot homines sunt, omnes vitam

zone; and two others called the temperate zones, occupying amant; quotcunque sunt scriptores, omnes Aristidis justitiam the rest of the world. The latter were considered to be the praedicant.

only habitable portions of the globe; and as to the torrid zone, ENGLISH-LATIN.

it was supposed to be condemned, on account of its fiery As many men so many minds (the minds are as numerous as the climate, not only to eternal solitude, but to present an invin. min); as many boys so many girls; as many fathers so many cible obstacle to the exploration of the countries situated mothers; as great as is thy grief so great is my joy ; such as are beyond the equator. It will afford an illustration of the force parents such are children (liberi); as is the shepherd so is the flock; of those ideas which prevailed on the subject of the zones of I do not despise the things whatever they are ; Aristides is declared the globe, and on the relative position of the great divisions of just by all writers how many soever they are.

the earth, when we reflect on the fact that they maintained their ground in the minds of men for a period of no less than twelve centuries of the history of the world.

When we consider the advanced state of the arts and sciences LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-No. III.

in the age of Augustus Cesar, at least compared with those NOTIONS OF THE GREEKS AND ROMANS.

which preceded it, we cannot but wonder at the imperfect state

of geographical knowledge which existed in the Roman world The desire for nautical expeditions, which, under the excite at this period. Horace considered Great Britain and the ment of commercial enterprise, had begun to spread among the Thames as the confines of the earth ; and Virgil, as we have nations, was restrained by the conquests of the Romans. already remarked, placed the source of the Nile in India. The These conquests, however, if th-y did not extend the boun- geographical productions of Dionysius Periegetes and of Pomdaries of the known world, at least enriched the domain of ponius Mela, written within a period of fifty years after the geographical knowledge with new facts, and more exact than | Christian era, contain nothing worthy of notice, being mere those which had been collected and taken for granted by the compilations of what was then kuown, and by no means imwriters of former ages. The three Punic (Carthaginian) wars, proved. the Illyrian war, the contests with the Gauls, the expeditions When the legions of the Emperor Claudius Cesar, A.D. 40, against Spain, and those of Aetius Gallus into Arabia and marched to the conquest of Britain, this country was a new Ethiopia, all contributed, in their turn, to give to this science world to the Romans. The fleet of Agricola, thirty-five years a more positive character and more varied details. Polybius, afterwards, circumnavigated Scotland, explored the surroundabout 150 years before the age of Hipparchus, gave a descrip- ing seas, and rediscovered the famous Thule. But even at this tion of the world which, notwithstanding his numerous errors, epoch Great Britain was still a mysterious country ; Tacitus evinced remarkable progress in the knowledge of the globe. says it was bounded on the east by Germany, on the south by The new acquisitions of the Romans, and of Mithridates Gaul, and on the west by Spain. As to Ireland, he places it Eupator, the campaigns of Julius Cesar in Gaul and in Bri- midway between Spain and Great Britain. The interior of tain, rendered accessible the knowledge of countries hitherto Germany became known to the Romans in consequence of their but partially explored, or altogether unknown. Thus, for active commerce with certain northern parts of Ểurope, which example, it was discovered that Ireiand was not a fabulous arose from the passion of the Roman ladies for succinum or country, as geographers had formerly asserted. Posidonius, a yellow amber. In the east a discovery of very great importance Syrian, resident at Rhodes, endeavoured to correct the mea- advanced the progress of navigation and geography. Hippalus, surement of the earth's circumference formerly made by about the middle of the first century, established the fact of Eratosthenes, He observed that when the star Canopus, in the periodicity of the monsoons, or trade-winds, in the Indian the constellation Argo, became visible in the horizon of ocean, which from that period has regulated the motions of the Rhodes, it was elevated seven degrees and a half above the western navigators to India and the Asiatic Archipelago. hurizon of Alexandria. He supposed these places to be under On the south, the expedition of the Consul Suetonius Pauthe same meridian, and, from the reckoning of navigators, he linus into the country of Sejelmissa, on the borders of Sahara, found the distance between these two places to be 5,000 or the great Desert of Africa, disclosed the zone of the constadia. Now, seven degrees and a half being the forty-eighth tinent which extends from the southern side of Mount Atlas part of a great circle of the sphere, this gives the circum- to the south of Mauritania Tingitana, or part of modern Barference of the earth equal to 240,000 stadia. This was a bary. The campaign of Cornelius Balbus in a neighbouring nearer approximation to the truth than that of Eratosthenes, and parallel region, was accompanied with still more interestand, according to the length of the stadium given by some ing results. The Roman army set out from Tripoli, traversed authors, was pretty nearly correct. But it was founded on the desert, penetrated into Fezzan, and advanced even into erroneous data ; for the arc of the great circle between the the country recently visited by Messrs. Denham and Clapper. two places above mentioned was only about five degrees and a ton; that is, to the vicinity of Bornou. Of the scientific inquarter, and the difference between their two meridians was formation gained by these enterprises, the celebrated Caius rather more than two degrees.

Secundus Pliny availed himself, in his Natural History. He Strabo, who flourished under the reign of Augustus Cæsar, also knew how to dip with considerable discernment into the was the next geographer who corrected many preceding errors, writings of the Greeks ; but he appears not to have considered and made some of his own. The limits of his knowledge of it necessary to consult the work of Strabo. From the inquiries the world, were on the north, Ierne or Ireland, and the mouth and information he had obtained in this way, he assigned to of the Elbe. He denied the existence of Thule, and asserted the different quarters of the world then known, the following that the earth was not habitable at the distance of 4,000 stadia magnitudes :-To Europe one-third, to Asia one-fourth, and north of Britain. On the east, he considered Ceylon or to Africa one-fitth of the whole. Taprobane and Thinæ the borders of the world, and it is Marinus of Tyre, who preceded Ptolemy, was distinguished doubtful whether his knowledge of it extended as far as the for his geographical knowledge. He took advantage of all mouths of the Ganges. He knew the western coast of Africa ancient and contemporary writers, to compose a complete as far as Cape Nun. But he partook of the error of those treatise on the subject of geography and maps; and he even who represented the Caspian Sea as united to the Northern prepared new editions of his books, corrected and improved in

the Divisor.

23391 20304

proportion as he obtained more exact information ; but it is to

MODE OF OPERATION. be regretted that these have not reached us. At last appeared, about the middle of the second century, the famous Ptolemy,

Here you mark off three ciphers (000) from the divisor, and who lived at Alexandria in Egypt, and taught astronomy there three figures (700) from the dividend. You then perform the His system of astronomy and geography which stood unim-division by Rule 3, and obtain the quotient 3152588. The repeached for about twelve centuries, and received the name of mainder after this division is performed is 260 ; to this number ihe Prolemaic system from its author, was not superseded till annex 700, the figures marked off from the dividend, and you Copernicus appeared ; and notwithstanding his errors, due bave 260700 for the complete remainder, answering to the complete more to the ignorance of mankind, than to himself, his name divisor 397000. The result of the process may now be represented is still revered as a geographer and astronomical observer. His as usual, thus : work entitled the Megale Syntaxis, or Great Construction,"


= 3152588 384708 is a monument of his labour and his learning. He examined

397000 the ratio of the length of the gnomon or style of the sundial to its shadow at the equinoxes and the solstices; he mainder might be expressed more briefly, thus : $$47.

On the principle formerly explained, this fractional reealculated eclipses; he investigated the calculations founded on the difference of climate, and carefully consulted the reports EXAMPLE 2.-Divide 15875494569000 by 67680000. of travellers and navigators. He reduced his information and

Divisor. Dividend. Quotient. observations into a regular system, and expressed the positions

6768,0000) 1587549456,9000 (234567 of places by longitude and latitude, after the manner of Hip- Multiples of

13536 parchus. His great work corsists nearly of an elementary picture of the earth, in which its âgure and size and the posi

67681 tions of places on its surface, are determined. It contains only

13536 2

30909 a very short outline of the division of countries, with scarcely any historical notice. It is supposed that a detailed account 20304 | 3

27072 was added to this outline, but it has not reached us. His


38374 geography is contained in eight books, and is certainly more

33840 scientific rhan any previous work on the subject. He calcu

33840 5

45345 lated the circumference of the earth at 180,000 stadia ; but the 406086

40608 value of this calculation depends entirely on the assumed 47376 7

47376 length of the stadium, which, according to some estimates


47376 of that length, brings his calculation very near the truth. He taught how to determine the longitude by lunar eclipses, and 609129

9000 complete remainder. by this method ascertained that of many places with tolerable accuracy.

In this example, which is worked exactly like the preceding, there is no remainder after the process of division is performed; there.

fore, 9000, the figures marked off from the right of the dividend, LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-No. XI.

form the complete remainder. The result may now be repre

sented thus :SIMPLE DIVISION- Continued.

15875494569000 When the divisor is a number consisting both of significant and


67680000 insignificant figures, and the dividend a number consisting of the preceding rules will, it is hoped, render the process of simple figures either wholly significant, or like the divisor, proceed ac

division in any case easier to our readers, than those which are cording to the following rule :

usually given Rule 4.- From the right of the divisor mark off all the insignificant figures or ciphers; then, from the right of the dividend, mark off the same number of figures or ciphers as were marked off in the SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS AND QUERIES. divisor, Perform the division with the remaining figures of the

(From No. 7, page 111.) divisor and dividend, according to the preceding Rule. If there be a remainder when this process bas been performed, annex to it 1. Draw a straight line at right angles to a given straight line from the figures or ciphers which were marked off from the dividend, in one of its extremities, without producing it; and give a demonstraorder to form the complete remainder answering to the compleietion with as few propositions from Euclid as possible, but still geo. divisor. If there be no remainder, after the process has been per metrically correct. formed, then the figures, or figures and ciphers marked off, form

Fig. I. the complete remainder as before; but, if cipbers only were marked


G off from the dividend, then in this case, there will be no remainder, as ciphers alone have no value. EXAMPLE 1.-Divide 1251677696700 by 397000.

Divisor. Dividend. Quotient. 397,000) 1251577696,700 (3152588


605 Multiples of

(в 397

F the Divisor.

A 2087 397 1

1985 794 2

1027 1191

794 1588 :

2336 1985 5 1985

H н 2382 6


Let F B, fig. 1, be the given straight line. Take any point a iny 2779 17 3436

B; and upon A B, describe the equilateral triangles, ABC, ABD 3176 i 8 3176

(1.1); and upon B c the equilateral triangle BC B. Bisect (I. 9) 3673 19

the angle C B E by the straight line B G; BQ

is drawn at right angles 260 partial remainder. 260700 complete remainder. Produce G B to R. Then, because every equilateral triangle is also


to AB.

equiangular, the three angles of the triangle A B C are equal to one ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. another; and also the three angles of the triangle ABD. And because the three sides of A B C are equal to those of A B D, their as of the establishment of an Educational Society in Oldbam. Go on,

E. INGHAM (Oldham): We have received his kind letter, informing angles also are equal (1.8); therefore, the angle A B C is equal to and prosper. We will communicate with him by letter on the other the angle A BD. But because the angle c B E is bisected by BG, subjects inentioned in his epist.e. the angle c B G is equal to the angle G BE; and the angle G BE is equal to the angle d bu (1. 15); therefore the angle cbg is Pythagorean Theorem, are new to us, and very ingenious. We do

A. B. C. (Pembroke Dock): His remarks on the six cases of the equal to the angle D B H. But the angle A B C was proved equal no see the nec: ssity, however, of reconstructing the right angled co the angle A B D ; therefore the whole angle A BG is equal to triangle on the other side of its base ; this originates a number of other the whole ABH. And because the adjacent angles AB G, A BH, lines of which it is necessary to give some account. Neither do we are equal to one another, therefore each of them is a right angle think Prop. 4, exactly a parallel case as regards the coincidence of the (Def. 10), and G B is perpendicular to A B.

angles. If the addition of angles be taken negatively as in algebra, as James Veecock.

some of our correspondents have justly remarked, one demonstration

might serve all the six diagrams -J. SOWDEN (Devonport): His solu2. If sound travels at the rate of 1,142 feet per second, and a tions of the Problems and Queries in No. 7. p. 111, are complete and stone falis through 16 feet 1 inch in a second; from what beight ingenious. We regret the difficulty of reading the penmanship; we would a stone fall, which would occupy the same time in falling would otherwise have made some immediate use of them.--J. L. N. through it, that sound would occupy in ascending it?

(Dublin): His solutions also good and ingenious.-JAMES VEECOCK Let t = the time of falling, and s the space fallen through ;

(London): His answers are all correct. Then, 8 = 11421, by the law of uniform motion.

A Typo's complaints shall receive our careful supervision. Also, s= 16', by the law of gravity.

LATIN-GUERNSEY is right. Our readers will please to make the

following correction : page 115, col. 1, line 14, for singular read plural. Wbenice, 16* = 1142t, by axiom 1, Euc. Book I.

This lesson has been inaccurately printed in other respects. Dr. Beard,

in accordance with the latest philological researches, had made the but, 193t = 13704, by division and clearing of fractions. genitive of neuter nouns of the fourth declension in , the same as that

of masculine and feminine nouns in us. Keeping to the opinions of the Therefore, t =

= 71

older grammarians, from whose works we learned Latin, we took the Whence the space may be easily found.

liberty of restoring the neuter nouns to their indeclinable state in the

singular number, under the impression that the change made by Dr. 3. In the fig. of the 47th proposition, Book I., Euclid, to prove Beari was a slip of the pen ; and we were confirmed in this impression that if FD, GH, and K , fig. 2, be joined, the three triangles bd, by the second edition of his own book, entitled “ Latin Made Easy." GA R, and kce, are all equal.

which was lying before us. At Dr. Beard's request, we make the fole

lowing corrections in the Lesson referred to :Fig. 2,

Page 115, line 24, col. 1, erase the words and are indeclinable. G

39, 1, for i read is.

» 1, for cornu read cornus. 8, 1, for u read tis.

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ist of every month, price iwopence-32 pages enclosed in a beat [We have received several other solutions exactly similar to the wrapper. Vois. I. and 11., neatly bound in cloth and lettered, price above. The demonstration may, without much difficulty, be 25. sd, each, are now ready. adapted to the other five modes of constructing the figure of the Printed and Published by JOIN CASSELL, 335, Strand, and Ludgate-bill, 4766.)

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The Egyptians strove to throw off the Persian yoke; but when would have been invaded. About four years afterwards, he Alexander the Great became King of Macedon, they submitted gained a decisive victory over the Egyptian fleet that came to without opposition. Nearly two centuries had been spent under protect the island of Cyprus; but neither he nor his father Antithe yoke of a foreign power; and the reign of Alexander lasted gonus succeeded in the reduction of Egypt. but thirteen years. When he marched into Thrace, in order to Antigonus having been slain in the battle at Ipsus in Phrygia. bring into subjection those Grecian states which sought to free more than twenty years after the death of Alexander, the kingthemselves from the Macedonian usurpation, it is said that dom of Egypt passed into the hands of PTOLEMY LAGUs, its Thebes took advantage of his absence and entered into a revolt; former governor, and one of the wisest of statesmen. His entire that on his return, Alexander took that city by storm, made a reign extended over a period of 39 years; he was devoted to thio fearful slaughter of the inhabitants, and destroyed all their interests of his people. He aimed at the regeneration of their buildings. His own sudden death prevented him from making social system. He revived their ancient religious and political arrangements for the succession to the throne, and the kingdom constitution ; restored the priestly caste to many of its former became distracted by internal quarrels. The widow of Alex- privileges, renewed the division of the country into separato ander gave birth to a posthumous son and heir. Perdiccas, a districts; constituted Memphis the capital of the kingdom, and Macedonian nobleman, the confidant of Alexander, to whom he made the temple of Phtha the national sanctuary, in which alone gave his ring, was appointed regent. He was far from being the kings could be anointed and crowned. He paid great attenpopular, and a league was secretly formed against him. To tion to trade and navigation. Under his administration, colonists reduce the northern provinces of Asia Minor, he equipped a from every quarter of the globe settled in Alexandria; and to

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considerable army, and sent orders to Antigonus aud Leonatus, | escape the persecution of their Syrian masters, the Jews cams the governors of Western Asia, to join the expedition with all thither in great and increasing numbers. By the conquest of the their forces. Having disobeyed these commands, they were Syrian îrontiers, of the ancient kingdom of Cyrene, of part of summoned to the tribunal of the regent. Antigonus, seeing his Ethiopia, and of the island of Cyprus, he rendered Egypt comdanger, entered into an alliance with Ptolemy, the satrap of paratively safe from foreign invasion, and added greatly to its Egypt, with Antipater, the governor of Macedon, and with external security. He was the liberal patron of literature and several other noblemen, to overthrow the regency. At first, science. Philosophers and men of letters found in Egypt a quiet Antigonus was foiled in his attempt, and death soon removed retreat from the storms and the conflicts which threatened every Perdiccas beyond his reach. Through the influence of Anti.

other part of the world.

The city of Alexandria, which was founded by Alexander the gonus and Seleucus, the regency was assumed by Antipater, Great, owod much of its increase and magnificence to Ptoleniy whose possession of the supreme power was limited to three Lagus. According to Strabo, the celebrated Greek historian, years. After a few more changes and struggles, Antigonus Alexandria was four miles and a half in length, and one mile in began openly to aim at the sovereignty of the Macedonian em- miles. These walls, part of which are still standing, having

brendth, which made the circumference of its walls nearly twelvo pire. His arms struck terror into all his enemies

. He sent his great square towers, two hundred paces distant, with gates of sou Demetrius against the Egyptian Ptolemy; but Ptolemy Thebaic and granite marble, were washed on the south by the overthrew Demetrius near Gaza. The triumph of the Egyptians lake Marcotis, and on the north by the Mediterranean Sea. The was short-lived; for at the commencement of the next campaign one street of two thousand feet width, which began at the gate they were defeated, and but for the fact of Demetrius having at of the sea, and terminated at the gate' of Campus, was adorned abat moment been engaged in a war with the Arabs, Egypt with the most olegant buildings, houses, temples, and obelisks; VOL. 1.


and was deemed the most magnificent street in the world. The Asiatic campaigns were more for plunder than territory, by his palace occupied more than one-fourth of the city, and in- wars in the south he added a great part of Abyssinia and the cluded within itself the Museum or College of Philosophy, a Arabian peninsula to his Egyptian dominions, and he opened up common rendezvous or place of meeting for the learned; academic new channels for trade and commerce through these more disgroves, royal buildings, and a temple in which the body of Alex. tant countries. It is said that Evergetes visited Jerusalem, there ander was deposited in a golden coffin. In the eastern part of the offered sacrifice to the true God, and ever afterwards showed city was the Gymnasium, with its splendid porticoes of more great favour to the Jewish nation. His kingdom rapidly rose to than six hundred feet in length, supported by several rows of the height of power, and promised again to take the first place marble pillars. It became the centre of science and civilisation among the nations. But after his death arose a succession of -the rival of Rome in magnitude and grandeur-and the first weak and irresolute princes, and Egypt declined to her fall. commercial city of the world. A mole or mound, of a mile in From this period she makes no figure in history. length, divided its great harbour into two, at the entrance of Ptolemy Evergetes died B.C. 221, and was succeeded by his which was erected the celebrated Pharos, or lighthouse. In son Ptolemy Philopater, a prince who gave himself up to the inthe height of its prosperity, it had a free population of more than fuence of flatterers and favourites, and whose life was one of 300,000 souls, and nearly an equal number of slaves. It was a debauchery and crime. He began his reign with the murder of place of great magnificence; 'it became the regal capital of his brother Magus, and of Cleomenes, the exiled king of Sparta. Egypt, and for two centuries was the residence of the Ptolemies. Taking advantage of Philopater's weakness and incapacity,

The death of Ptolemy Lagus, B.C. 284, filled his subjects, Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, waged war against Egypt, who revered and honoured him as a father, with deep and uni- but he was defeated. Instead of taking advantage of this temversal grief. Before his decease, his son PAILADELPHUS was porary success, he threw his own kingdom into confusion and associated with him in the government of the kingdom. Though ruin by his cruelty. It is said that he threatened to exterminate he possessed neither the wisdom nor the enterprise of his father, all the Jews in his dominion; that he caused the death of his yet the empire was essentially benefited under his peaceful ad- own wife and sister; that he sunk into the most beastly dissipaministration. Commerce was extended; ports were constructed tion, and died abhorred in the prime of life, leaving only one son for the Indian and Arabian trade; caravan roads were made to about five years of age. the Upper Nile, and the lower river was united to the Red Sea by a canal which communicated with the lesser harbour on the Lake Moeris; the trade with Ethiopia was revived, and even the remoter countries of Central and Southern Africa were LESSONS IN GERMAN.—No. III. thrown open to the enterprise of the Alexandrian merchants. The rebellion of Magus, the governor of Libya and Cyrene,

We introduce our third lesson with a few remarks on German was encouraged by Antiochus Theos, king of Syria. The utmost writing. It is plain that the students of this language will in efforts of Philadelphus failed to reduce the rebel, and the affair general hare neither the time nor the tact sufficient to enable was compromised by a marriage between the only daughter of them to write out their exercises in the printed letters of the Magus and Ptolemy's eldest son. An alliance was formed with language ; they will, therefore, be under the usual necessity of the Roman republic, and to the Roman ambassadors who visited writing them out in the written characters used by the GerEgypt, the sovereign not only showed every possible mark of mans, of which we gave the alphabets, large and small, with kindness, but explained to them those Grecian arts with which specimens of their application, in our last number. In learn. they were till then unacquainted. It was in consequence of ing these written characters, it will be useful to observe that this visit and this alliance, that a silver coinage was afterwards the leading letter of the small alphabet is m, which is written introduced into Rome.

Such was the number of Jews that had settled in Alexandria, in the usual angular style adopted by most well-educated that a temple was erected in Egypt similar to that in Jerusalem, people in our own country, especially the ladies. Taking one and during the preceding and present reigns a Greek version of leg of the m, which we shall call the

elementary leg, and which the llebrew Scriptures was made expressly for their use. This consists of a black middle stroke and two hair-strokes; if you version is known by the name of the SEPTUAGINT, or transla- add to the last hair-stroke, when you bring it up, a small turn tion of the SEVENTY. The tradition of one Aristeas, who re- or loop, you have then made an o. If now, as soon as you have lated that it was executed in seventy-two days by seventy-two made the loop of the o, you draw downwards from the very learned Jews, who had been sent for the purpose by the high short hair-stroke of the loop another black stroke, and then its priest Eleazar to Alexandria at the request of Ptolemy Phila-hair-stroke upwards, you have at last made an a. You make delphus, is a mixture of truth and fiction. This version was made about B.c. 280, and acquired the highest authority among own written 7. You have learned to make c already, as it is

ab, by adding to the o a large top-loop, as we do in making our the Jews of Palestine. In proof of this it may be observed that the leg of the m already described. If you take this sane Though the introduction of Coptic or pure Egyptian words, and elementary leg, and carry up its second hair-stroke, as we do the rendering of Hebrew ideas in the Egyptian manner, prove in our written d, making this hair-stroke end in a loop or cir. beyond all doubt that the translators were natives of Egypt; and clet at top, you have the letter d complete. though the difference of style evinces that the work could not be

The letter e is peculiar; it is formed of the elementary leg the production of one individual, but of several writers, yet it is without the second hair-stroke, to which is joined a shorter of great importance, not only for correcting the Hebrew text, elementary leg by a hair-stroke drawn from the foriner very but also for ascertaining the meaning of particular modes of near the top of the black stroke. The letter f is very like our thought and expression which we find in the New Testament. own written fi you first make a long hair-stroke both above

It was during the preceding reign that the ALEXANDRIAN and below the line, terminating at the top in a loop like the LIBRARY was founded for the use of those who were devoted letter b, and cross it in the middle by the elementary leg of the to letters and to science. All the Ptolemies continued to enrich m, writing it from left to right, insiead of from right to left. and enlarge this library, till it numbered upwards of 700,000 To make the letter g, first make an o, and then from the short volumes. This immense collection was secured by seizing all the books which were brought into Egypt by the Greeks or other hair-stroke of the loop draw a hair-stroke downwards, foreigners, transcribing their contents, delivering the copies, and making it terminate below the line like our own written g. retaining the originals. This splendid library was burned by The letter h is exactly like the long s used in writing by order of the Caliph Omar in the beginning of the seventh cen- ourselves; it seems to have consisted of the elementary leg tury, on the usual bigoted principle, that if they agreed with the with a loop of hair-stroke above and another below. "The KORAN they were useless, and if they differed they were worse letter i consists of the elementary leg with a dot above it; that useless.

if you forget the dot it will be taken for a c. The letter As Egypt became wealthy and prosperous, she became luxuri- j is that part added to o which makes it a g, with a dot ous and corrupt. Philadelphus fell into all the effeminate dissi- 'above it. The letter k is so like our own that it can hardly be pation of eastern monarchs; he denied the sacredness of the mistaken, but it has no loop at the top. The letter I is just the inarriage vow, became dissolute and profligate, and died after a letter b without the loop. The letter m has been described. reign of eight-and-thirty years, leaving an indelible spot upon The letter - consists of two legs of the letter m; and the letter his

name and his memory. His son ascended the throne B.C. 246, under the title of o has been described. PTOLEMY III., surnamed EVERCETES, or the BENEFACTOR.

The letter p is formed of the elementary leg by turning He was of an enterprising and warlike spirit, and carried his round the second hair-stroke in a larger loop than usual, and conquests into the remoter regions of the east and the south. He terminating it below the line like a j; we have no letter like succesfully extended his arms as far as Bactria; and though his it. The letter q is like g with this difference, that it is pointed

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