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XXIII. Sections XLVIII., XLIX., Idioms
375 IV. First and Second Declension; Nouns and Adjectives
Pensees Morales et Maximes; Bienfait-Confiance
VIII. Fifth Declension; Tabular View of Case-endings,
II. Notions of the Poets ; Discoveries of the Greeks... 158
The Latin Verb, Conjugation of Esse
Volcanic Action of the Earth's Crust; Upheaval of
KEY TO THE LATIN EXERCISES.
VI. Surveying Instruments
Mammalia, Carnivora, Feline Tribe, the Lion at Home
VIII., IX., X., XI. Lectures on Euclid : In'roduction, II. The Tiger and the Leopard, Anecdoles
I. Sections I., II., the Alphabet, Sounds of the Letters,
Dhole, the Thibet, and other Dogs
161 | V.
The Dogs of Turkey, and of the Coasts of the Polar
Sea, the Greyhound.....
III. Sections VII., VIII., IX., Pronouns, Verb, Indefiuite VII. Tribe Lupus; The Wolf, Anecdotes
VIII. Scction XVII., Adjectives, Articles, Proper Names, &c. 279 IV. The Teeth, Liver, Stomach, and other Vessels.... 108
X. Sections XIX., XX., Participles, Indicative of Verb, VII. The Kidneys, Intestines, &c...
The Influence of Morality and Immorality on the Countenance
LESSONS IN ANCIENT HISTORY.–No. I. HISTORY, in its narrowest sense, is the recital of past events. mitters of great crimes, unless we have a thorough acquaintIn its wider and higher meaning, it not merely relates by ance with all the details of the act, whatever it may have gone occurrences, but inquires into their causes and conse. been, to which those motives have led. By it, as by their fruit, quences. These descriptions will hold good at whatever branch we judge of them; and thus form our opinions of the chaof it we look. There is Natural History, which has for its racters of those men who have acted a great part in the subjects the various natural occurrences which have taken history of individual nations, or of the world at lar e. As place in the world and the different orders of animal and vege- man's actions are the truest clue to his character, so it is table life which inhabit it; there is Life History, or biography, only from the actions of Alexander, Julius Cæsar, Cromwell, which records the sayings and doings of individual men ; and Washington, and Napoleon, that, bearing in mind the outlastly, there is the History of Nations, which tells of the ward circumstances which pressed upon each of them, we can various changes and revolutions which have occurred in hu- form an intelligent and just opinion of the charac'ers of man society, with the causes which led to them and the these men. Nor is the making us acquainted with great results by which they have been followed. It is to this last l actions, and thus with their authors, the only or chief advantage
class of subjects that the general term History is usually which a knowledge of history brings with it. Presenting applied.
human nature, as it does, in so many different lights, it Now as all the changes which have taken place in the in- spreads out, as in a map, the varied experience of ages, for ternal or external circumstances of nations, from the earliest the instruction and self-guidance of him who reflects while he ages up to the present time, have appeared only the visible reads. And from this he learns that the chief elements of results of the workings of individual minds, it follows that human character are the same in all; that the same mental history, in its most exalted province, becomes a record of system, however undeveloped in some, and highly cultithe human mind in the successive developments which it has vated in others, belongs to the whole human family, and thus undergone, and of the progress which it has made from the wholesome and warning lesson is taught him, that, in all age to age. But this is, as we have said, the highest de- ages of the world, and under every variety of circumstances, partment of historical science; and before attempting the study whether it refer to men as individuals, or men collectively of it, an intimate familiarity with the facts of history is ne- as nations, the maxim holds good, that "vice is its own cessary. We cannot properly put a value upon the motives punisher, and virtue its own rewarder." How great, then, which have influenced the achievers of great actions or the com is the advantage of the man who is well versed in history, ove
those of his fellows who are not! He possesses a rich and Persians. Which is the most ancient? This question has
HISTORY OF EGYPT.
about from place to place for convenience of pasturage, and As a necessary accompaniment to the study of history, an had not more rixed habitations than the Bedouin Arabs of the acquaintance with two allied branches of knowledge is in- present day. After ages spent in the pastoral state, they dispensable; we mean GEOGRAPHY and CHRONOLOGY, which began to apply themselves to agriculture, and to erect per. Dr. Hales calls "the joint handmaids of history.” Geo-manent villages to dwell in. During these ages they were graphy gives the student a clear idea of the places in which governed by priests, who pretended to have received the law: the events he reads of occurred; whilst Chronology teaches which they enforced, immediately from the gods. This form him the relation in which they stood towards each other of government, which is called a theocracy, afforded the widest in point of time. To the former of these important subjects, & opportunity for the exercise of priestly injustice and oppresspecial department of the POPULAR EDUCATOR will be devoted; sion, and 'for a very long period retarded the progress of whilst it will be our object to combine all necessary instruc- civilisation. It had divided the nation into three distinct. tion in the latter, with the main subject of these papers, so classes or castes ; first the priests, then the military, and, far as they extend. It is hoped that the student will thus lastly, the people. The people alone laboured, and all the be furnished with such an epitome of geographical and histori. fruit of their toils was devoured by the avarice of the priests, cal knowledge as shall not altogether imperfectly supply the who paid the military for keeping the rest of the population in place of costly and discursive works upon these important check. A time at length arrived, however, when the military branches. Endeavouring to attain the medium between a themselves became weary of yielding a blind obedience to mere dry detail of facts, and diffuse reflection upon them, their priestly masters, and a revolution took place which enthe first being insufficient, and the last unnecessary, for the tirely and forever changed the form of government. Theocracy purposes of popular education-we shall aim at giving the was exchanged for monarchy, or government by a king reader as interesting and connected a sketch of the history of Menes was the leader of the revolution, and the first king the ancient world, as the best sources of information will of Egypt. Different chronologers give different dates for furnish, and as the nature of the subjeet itself will permit. We this very remote event, but that deduced from recent insert on the opposite page an ethnographic table, showing discoveries fixes its occurrence about the year 2782 B.C. the descent of the various nations of the earth from the families Josephus says that Menes lived many years before Abraof the sons of Noah; it will go a great way to supply the ham, and that he governed Egypt more than 1300 years want of the early history of nations, being founded on the before Solomon. All that is known of his reign has been account given in the tenth chapter of Genesis, which is the most conveyed to us through the obscure and uncertain chan. ancient and most valuable historical document in the world. nel of tradition. This tells us that he diverted the course of In the construction of this table, very considerable use has been the Nile, which before his time had washed the base of the made of two similar tables of great value, recently published ; sandy ridge, near the borders of the Libyan desert, and thus the one, by Dr. Rosenmuller, to be found in his “ Biblical protected from the overflowings of the river, the ground on Geography;" and the other, by the late reverend and learned which Memphis, the future capital of the kingdom was after. Dr. J. Pye Smith, inserted in the “Biblical Cyclopædia." wards erected. He also acquired glory in war; but his best
Ancient History, in its widest sense, extends from the renown consists in having liberated and improved his country,
I. SHEM, or SEM. (3315 B.C.)
6. BHBMITES, or SEMITES (Gen. xi. 11).
The Arabian Tribes, from 1. Isaac. (2045 B.C.)
3. SONS OF KETURAH. HUZ, BUZ, ARAM, &c.
| The Ishmaelites; the Na-1 | The Arabian Trives; 1. JACOB (1985 B.C.) 2. Esau.
reans, Arabians, &c. danites, Midianites, &c. | The Hebrews; Israelites, The Edomites, Tema-1
II. HAM, or CHEM. (3314 B.c.)
| The Moabites, (Arabia | | The Ammonites (Arabia Petræa),
5. HAMITES, or CHEMITES; ZUZIMS, ZAMZUMMINS, &c. (Gen. xiv. 5; Deut. ii. 20; 1 Chron. iv. 40; and Ps, ev, 23).
1 The Ethiopians of Africa and Arabia (Nubla, Abyssinia, I 1 The Egyptiana of Middle, Upper, 1 Ine African Tribes of Libyal | The Canaanites; including Hit- I Hedjaz); and from SEBA (Suba, or Meroe. The Tribes or Lower Egypt. The African (Futa, Central Africa).
les from HETH; the JEBUSITES,
AMORITES, GIRGASHITES, HI-
vites, ARKITES, SINITES, AR-
VADITES, ZEMARITES, HAMATH-
ITES, &c. (Palestine). Sidonians,
from SIDON; Tyrians, Pheni. (Chalonitis, or Ctesiphon) in Shinar or Chaldea. tines from PUILISTIM (Philistia,
cians (Phænice). or Palestine). Cretans, Cyprians, from CAPHTORIM (Crete, Cyprus).
III. JAPHETE, or JAPETUS. (3317 s.c.)
| The Elamites, or Elymwans (Elymæis, or Susiana).
1 Reu, or RAGAU,
1. ABRAHAM. (2145 B.C.)
batheans, Cedreans, Hu- including Sabæans, De
(Gen. xxv, 1). Jews. nites, Idumeans.
lyricum, Pannonia), nia). Riphaean or Uralian mountains.
his three_successors, Thothmosis I, Thothmoris II., and power to the borders of the Red Sea, and threatened encroach. Meris or Thothmosis III., were devoted to the object of re-esta- ment upon the Egyptian territory. Moris and his successors blishing a regular government, and raising up the nation, were thus drawn into wars, which resulted in constant advan. which had been crushed by so many years of servitude under tages to the Egyptian nation. Amenoph II., the son of A foreign yuke. At the time of their invasion, they had burned Mæris, rendered tributary Syria and the ancient kingdom of the cities, thrown down the temples of the gods, put the in Babylon ; Thothmosis IV. invaded Abyssinia and Sennaar; habitants in large numbers to death, and spread ruin all over whilst Amenoph III, made equally successful expeditions into the land. On their expulsion, therefore, everything had to be other parts of Asia. It was the latter king who built the re-constructed. Amenoph and his successors_gradually temple of Sohleb, in Upper Nubia, the magnificent palace of re-established order throughout the whole kingdom. The canals, Luxor, and all that part south of the grand palace of Carnac which had been neglected or destroyed, were repaired or at Thebes. It is conjectured that it was under one of the re.formed; whilst agriculture and the arts, encouraged and princes of this dynasty, 1864 s.c., that Joseph the son of protected by the sovereigns, soon brought back abundance, Jacob became prime minister of Egypt, and afterwards brought and at once increased and perpetuated the resources of govern. thither the family of his father, which thus became the source ment. In a little time the towns were re-built ; edifices con of the Israelitish nation. In the history of the eighteenth secrated to religion appeared on all sides, and several of the dynasty, we meet with nothing of interest or importance, monuments which even yet excite the admiration of the tra- till we come to the reign of Rameses the Great. This prince, veller on the banks of the Nile, belong to this interesting who is known also in history by the name of Sebostris, was
THE GRAND COURT OF THE PALACE OF CARNAC. epoch of the restoration of Egypt by the wisdom and energy, the first mighty warrior whose conquests are recorded with of its kings. Of this number are the monuments of Semneh any degree of clearness. The date of his reign, which is and Amada in Nubia, and several of those of Carn.c and the most extraordinary portion of Egyptian history, has been Medinet-Abou, which are the works of Thothmosis I., or of variously fixed. Some chronologers are of opinion that he Mæris, Thothmosis III. This latter king, under whom the is the Shishak who plundered Jerusalem in the reign of two obelisks of Alexandria were erected, is the Pharaoh who Rehoboam 986 B.C. ; others contend that he was the Pharaoh achieved the greatest undertakings; it is to him that Egypt who pursued the Israelites, and was drowned in the Red owes the existence of the great lake Fayoum. By immense Sea 1639 B.C. ; whilst by others, with more probability, the works which he executed, and by means of canals and sluices, commencement of his reign is fixed about the beginning of the this lake became a reservoir, which served to maintain, in the thirteenth century before Christ. His whole history seems lower country, a perpetual balance between the over- largely tinged with fable and romance; it deserves, however, flowings of the Nile; to supply water when these were insuf- a more lengthened notice than has been given to any of his fieient, or to withdraw it when they were excessive. Formerly predecessors. it went by the name of its constructor, being called Lake His father was told in a dream, by the god Ptha (so goes Moris ; it now bears the Arabic name Birket-el-Karoun. the story), that his son, then newly born, should be lord of
Whilst Egypt was thus advancing in civilisation and inter- the whole earth. Upon the credit of this vision, he collected nal prosperity, several nations of Asia had extended their all the males of Egypt who were born on the same day with