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XXIII. Sections XLVIII., XLIX., Idioms

375 IV. First and Second Declension; Nouns and Adjectives

XXIV. Sections L., LI., The Past Definite, Changes in the

of Three Terminations, &c.

69

Stem of some Verbs

390 V. Third Declension..

91

XXV. Sections LII., LIII., the Imperfect

402 VI. Third Declension; Adjectives of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd

Declensions

102

FREXCII EXTRACTS.

VII. Fourth Declension; Nouns and Adjectives combined 115

Pensees Morales et Maximes; Bienfait-Confiance

351

VIII. Fifth Declension; Tabular View of Case-endings,

Pensees Morales et Maximes; Conscience-Douceur........ 398

English Representatives

132

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.

IX. Degrees of Comparison, Regular and Irregular Forms 153

X.

165

Adverbs and Pronouns

I.

126

Early Notions; Geography of Scripture....

XI.

188

Relative and Interrogative Pronouns..

II. Notions of the Poets ; Discoveries of the Greeks... 158

XII.

202

III. Notions of the Greeks and Romans....

190

The Numerals, Cardinal, Ordinal, &c.

213

IV. Writings of Ptolemy, Ignorance of the Middle Ages.

XIII. Prepositions, Formation of Words

223

XIV.

Arabian Notions, European Travels, Discovery of

229

The Latin Verb, Conjugation of Esse

America

254

XV.

251

Compounds of Sum

VI. Geographical Discoveries of the 16th and 17th centuries 305 XVII. The Latin Verb; General View of the Tense and

XVI. The Latin Verb: its several Terminations, Stems, &c. 270

VII. Discoveries of the 18th century....

VIII., IX., X. Discoveries of the 19th Century

275

Person-ending of the Four Conjugations, &c. ....

366, 385, 401

XVIII. Regular Verbs; the First Conjugation, Active Voice 310

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.

XIX.

Regular Verbs; the First Conjugation, Passive Voice 325

XX. On Parsing....

338

I. How to become a Geologist

145

XXI.

II. On the Crust of the Earth; its original hardening.. 197

Regular Verbs; the Second Conjugation, Active

Voice

355

III. On the Crust of the Earth; its various changes

211

iv. Ou Plutonic Changes in the stratified surface of the

XXII. Regular Verbs; the Second Conjugation, Passive

earth

371

Voice; the Third Conjugation, Active Voice

225

V. On the Changes produced in the Earth's Crust by the

XXIII. The Third Conjugation, Passive Voice; the Fourth

387

action of Volcanoes.....

248

Conjugation, Active and Passive Voices....

409

VI.

XXIV. The Four Conjugations..

Volcanic Action of the Earth's Crust; Upheaval of
Volcanic Mountains

257

KEY TO THE LATIN EXERCISES.

VII. Phenomena of Volcanic Vents and Cones..

283 Lessons II. to IV,

254

VIII. Changes in the aspect of Volcanic Mountains.. 295 Lessons IV. to VII.

271

IX. Materials erupted from Volcanoes

312

Lessons VIII. to XVII.

410

X. Hot Wells, or Thermal Springs

329

XI. Geological Phenomena connected with Earthquakes.. 344

LESSONS IN MUSIC.

XII. On the Elevation and Subsidence of Land by Earth- 1. Introduction; First Principles of Music

17

quakes

376 II.

51

Musical Scale; Exercises

XIII. On the Elevation and Subsidence of Land from other III. Tetrachords; Modulator, Exercises, Troubadour, &c. 98

causes...

392 Iv.

Metronome, Measures, Notations of the Length of

XIV. On Submarine Volcanoes

403

Notes, Standard Scale, Exercises, Griffin, &c.

129

162

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY. ,

V. Management of the Voice, Exercises, Leyburn, &c. ..

VI. Effect of Notes, Exercises, Blacksmith, &c...... 198

I. History and Definitions ....

23 VII. Leading Notes, Exercises, Mendelssohn's Song, &c. ..

244

II. Instruments used in Practical Geometry

49 VIII, Consonance, Melody, &c.

321

III. Problems in Practical Geometry.....

83 IX.

Glass Harmonicon, I Love to Linger, &c.............

372

IV. Problems in Practical Geometry and Theorems

135

V. On finding the Area of Plane Figures, Mensuration .. 172

LESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY.

VI. Surveying Instruments

Mammalia, Carnivora, Feline Tribe, the Lion at Home

VII. Surveying with the Chain

228

and Abroad

87

VIII., IX., X., XI. Lectures on Euclid : In'roduction, II. The Tiger and the Leopard, Anecdoles
Points, Lines, Planes, Angles, The Circle, 277, 309, 336, 406 11. The Wild Cat, the Domestic Cat, and the Lynx, Anec-

dotes

151

LESSONS IN GERMAN.

The Dog Tribe, the Esquimaux, lhe Hare-Indian, the

I. Sections I., II., the Alphabet, Sounds of the Letters,

Dhole, the Thibet, and other Dogs

183
Diphthongs, Umlauls, Consonants, &r .........

161 | V.

The Dogs of Turkey, and of the Coasts of the Polar
II. Sections III., IV., V., VI., Chirography, the Article,

Sea, the Greyhound.....

231

Cases, &c.

177 VI.

The Spaniels, Anecdotes.

26

III. Sections VII., VIII., IX., Pronouns, Verb, Indefiuite VII. Tribe Lupus; The Wolf, Anecdotes

327

Article, &c.

194 | VIII. Tribe Vulpes; The Fox, Anecdotes

348

IV. Sections X., XI., Adjectives, &c...

221 IX.

Tribe Ursus ; The White and Brown Bears, Anecdotes 380

V. Sections XII., XIII., Adjectives, Gender, &c..

233

VI. Sections XIV., XV., Nouns, Adjectives, Old Declen.

LESSONS IN PHYSIOLOGY.

sion, &c...

250 1.

Introduction, Man, Bones ...

19

VII. Section XVI., Plural Number, Old and New Declen- II. Man; Blood-vessels, Muscles

45

sions, &c.

260 III.

The Heart, Vessels, and Lungs

67

VIII. Scction XVII., Adjectives, Articles, Proper Names, &c. 279 IV. The Teeth, Liver, Stomach, and other Vessels.... 108
IX. Section XVIII., Personal Pronouns, Regular Verb, V. The Blood, Lungs, &c.

133

Tenses, &c.

291 | VI.

Respiration, Secretion, &c.

179

X. Sections XIX., XX., Participles, Indicative of Verb, VII. The Kidneys, Intestines, &c...

241

Demonstrative Pronoun...

331 VIII. The Nervous System

292

XI. Sections XXI., XXII., Possessive and Relative Pro- IX. The Brain, the Ear, the Eye

353

nouns...

346 X.
Animal Heat, Life, &c.

388

XII. Sections XXIII., XXIV., Perfect Tense of certain

Verbs, Idioms, &c.

361

MISCELLANEA.

XIII. Section XXV., Present and Imperfect Tenses of cer. Address to the Reader

9

tain Verbs, Idioms, &c.

382 Mathematics

11

XIV. Sections XXVI., XXVII., Idioms, Separable Par-

33

The Influence of Morality and Immorality on the Countenance
ticles, &c.
395 Female Education

65

XV. Section XXVIII., Adverbs of Place .....

405 Education of the People

97

286

LESSONS IN LATIN.

Co-instruction Societies

Glossary...

78, 158

Introduction : Utility of the Language, &c.

ii.

158

21 | Imaginary Quantities

Preliminary Instructions in the Verbs of the Four

Problems and Queries ,,,,

32, 80, 111, 223

Conjugations......

III. Nouns, Substantive and Adjective; Case-endings, &c.

34 Solutions of Proulems and Queries. .....61, 79, 110, 191, 239, 287

64 303, 319.

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LESSONS IN ANCIENT HISTORY.–No. I. HISTORY, in its narrowest sense, is the recital of past events. mitters of great crimes, unless we have a thorough acquaintIn its wider and higher meaning, it not merely relates by ance with all the details of the act, whatever it may have gone occurrences, but inquires into their causes and conse. been, to which those motives have led. By it, as by their fruit, quences. These descriptions will hold good at whatever branch we judge of them; and thus form our opinions of the chaof it we look. There is Natural History, which has for its racters of those men who have acted a great part in the subjects the various natural occurrences which have taken history of individual nations, or of the world at lar e. As place in the world and the different orders of animal and vege- man's actions are the truest clue to his character, so it is table life which inhabit it; there is Life History, or biography, only from the actions of Alexander, Julius Cæsar, Cromwell, which records the sayings and doings of individual men ; and Washington, and Napoleon, that, bearing in mind the outlastly, there is the History of Nations, which tells of the ward circumstances which pressed upon each of them, we can various changes and revolutions which have occurred in hu- form an intelligent and just opinion of the charac'ers of man society, with the causes which led to them and the these men. Nor is the making us acquainted with great results by which they have been followed. It is to this last l actions, and thus with their authors, the only or chief advantage

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class of subjects that the general term History is usually which a knowledge of history brings with it. Presenting applied.

human nature, as it does, in so many different lights, it Now as all the changes which have taken place in the in- spreads out, as in a map, the varied experience of ages, for ternal or external circumstances of nations, from the earliest the instruction and self-guidance of him who reflects while he ages up to the present time, have appeared only the visible reads. And from this he learns that the chief elements of results of the workings of individual minds, it follows that human character are the same in all; that the same mental history, in its most exalted province, becomes a record of system, however undeveloped in some, and highly cultithe human mind in the successive developments which it has vated in others, belongs to the whole human family, and thus undergone, and of the progress which it has made from the wholesome and warning lesson is taught him, that, in all age to age. But this is, as we have said, the highest de- ages of the world, and under every variety of circumstances, partment of historical science; and before attempting the study whether it refer to men as individuals, or men collectively of it, an intimate familiarity with the facts of history is ne- as nations, the maxim holds good, that "vice is its own cessary. We cannot properly put a value upon the motives punisher, and virtue its own rewarder." How great, then, which have influenced the achievers of great actions or the com is the advantage of the man who is well versed in history, ove

VOL. I.

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those of his fellows who are not! He possesses a rich and Persians. Which is the most ancient? This question has
varied store of experience, ampler than the longest lifetime been much discussed, but the weight of authority assigns the
could give him. His acquaintance with the springs of hu, palm of antiquity to the first. Adopting this opinion, which
man action is more intimate and correct than could be gained is by far the most general, we shall begin our brief sketches of
from the most extensive personal intercourse with society, the profane history of the ancient world with an account of
But then, be it remembered, it is not from a mere vague and the inhabitants of the land of Egypt."
disjointed knowledge of the main facts of history, a mechani.

HISTORY OF EGYPT.
cal remembrance of events and their dates, that these advan.
tages need be expected. Such an amount of historical The earliest tribes which peopled Egypt, probably came from
knowledge may be sufficient, if cleverly used, to gloss over a Abyssinia or Sennaar. The stream of population appears to
man's ignorance, but it will not strengthen his understanding have descended along the banks of the Nile, and to have gra.
or improve his judgment. To reap from it this advantage, dually overspread the valley fertilised by its floods. The
history must be studied. The facts stated must be considered date of this first migration, however, cannot be fixed,
rather as elements for thought, than as forming in themselves These remote settlers in Egypt were nomadic, that is, moved
the sole end of historical reading.

about from place to place for convenience of pasturage, and As a necessary accompaniment to the study of history, an had not more rixed habitations than the Bedouin Arabs of the acquaintance with two allied branches of knowledge is in- present day. After ages spent in the pastoral state, they dispensable; we mean GEOGRAPHY and CHRONOLOGY, which began to apply themselves to agriculture, and to erect per. Dr. Hales calls "the joint handmaids of history.Geo-manent villages to dwell in. During these ages they were graphy gives the student a clear idea of the places in which governed by priests, who pretended to have received the law: the events he reads of occurred; whilst Chronology teaches which they enforced, immediately from the gods. This form him the relation in which they stood towards each other of government, which is called a theocracy, afforded the widest in point of time. To the former of these important subjects, & opportunity for the exercise of priestly injustice and oppresspecial department of the POPULAR EDUCATOR will be devoted; sion, and 'for a very long period retarded the progress of whilst it will be our object to combine all necessary instruc- civilisation. It had divided the nation into three distinct. tion in the latter, with the main subject of these papers, so classes or castes ; first the priests, then the military, and, far as they extend. It is hoped that the student will thus lastly, the people. The people alone laboured, and all the be furnished with such an epitome of geographical and histori. fruit of their toils was devoured by the avarice of the priests, cal knowledge as shall not altogether imperfectly supply the who paid the military for keeping the rest of the population in place of costly and discursive works upon these important check. A time at length arrived, however, when the military branches. Endeavouring to attain the medium between a themselves became weary of yielding a blind obedience to mere dry detail of facts, and diffuse reflection upon them, their priestly masters, and a revolution took place which enthe first being insufficient, and the last unnecessary, for the tirely and forever changed the form of government. Theocracy purposes of popular education-we shall aim at giving the was exchanged for monarchy, or government by a king reader as interesting and connected a sketch of the history of Menes was the leader of the revolution, and the first king the ancient world, as the best sources of information will of Egypt. Different chronologers give different dates for furnish, and as the nature of the subjeet itself will permit. We this very remote event, but that deduced from recent insert on the opposite page an ethnographic table, showing discoveries fixes its occurrence about the year 2782 B.C. the descent of the various nations of the earth from the families Josephus says that Menes lived many years before Abraof the sons of Noah; it will go a great way to supply the ham, and that he governed Egypt more than 1300 years want of the early history of nations, being founded on the before Solomon. All that is known of his reign has been account given in the tenth chapter of Genesis, which is the most conveyed to us through the obscure and uncertain chan. ancient and most valuable historical document in the world. nel of tradition. This tells us that he diverted the course of In the construction of this table, very considerable use has been the Nile, which before his time had washed the base of the made of two similar tables of great value, recently published ; sandy ridge, near the borders of the Libyan desert, and thus the one, by Dr. Rosenmuller, to be found in his “ Biblical protected from the overflowings of the river, the ground on Geography;" and the other, by the late reverend and learned which Memphis, the future capital of the kingdom was after. Dr. J. Pye Smith, inserted in the “Biblical Cyclopædia." wards erected. He also acquired glory in war; but his best

Ancient History, in its widest sense, extends from the renown consists in having liberated and improved his country,
creation of the world to the overthrow of the Roman Empire and instructed his subjects in the useful arts of life. The
in the West, about the year 476 of the Christian era. The royal power was handed down to his descendants in the direct
knowledge which we possess of the earliest ages through line, under whom it became gradually still milder and more
which it carries us, is necessarily scanty and obscure. Dark- enlightened. Thebes, " the city of the hundred gates," which
ness all but impenetrable everywhere surrounds our path. had been built long before the overthrow of the priestly
Our only sources of trustworthy information are the Mosaic power, was the sole capital of the country, till Memphis,
records. These go back to a period long before the formation whose foundations had been laid by Menes, at a short dis-
of regular states or communities, and, being long prior to the tance from the Nile, was completed by his son, and made a
authentic annals of the profane nations, are therefore our only second capital of the rapidly flourishing Egyptian kingdom.
lights on those distant and dark ages of the infancy of the of the succeeding kings who belonged to the dynasty
human race. By them, we are told of the creation of the founded by Menes, even tradition tells us almost nothing.
world " in the beginning;" of the creation and fall of man; The last of them was Timaus, who was driven from his
of the food, and of the subsequent settlement of Noah and throne by the invasion of the Hycsos, or Shepherd-kings,
his family in the plain of Shinar, where they built the tower which took place about 2400 years before the birth of Christ.
of Babel, and where the confusion of their language took place, Accompanied by a fierce people, they poured into Egypt from
which caused their dispersion into the different regions of the the east, and under their rule, which lasted for more than two
carth. The sacred records afterwards confine themselves to the centuries and a half, the progress of civilisation was completely
history of the Israelitish people, and refer to the annals of the suspended. They were at length Lviven from the country by
other nations which, in process of time, had risen into exis- Amosis, a chief of Upper Egypt, whose father had prepared
tence after the scattering of the tribes at Babel, only so far as the way for complete expulsion of the invaders, which his son
hey are connected with those of the chosen people. Their effected. According to Manetha, a celebrated Egyptian
annals will form no part of this summary of ancient history; writer, who lived in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, the
being recorded in the sacred writings they ought to be so well | vanquished shepherds crossed the desert, and entered Syria ;
known as not to require it. Passing then from the Israelities, we but fearing the Assyrians, who were then very powerful, they
find at the point where profane history may be said to begin, entered what was afterwards called the land of Judea, and
three principal nations, an account of which, and of some other settling there, built Jebus or Jerusalem.
secondary Asiatic communities, will embrace all, or nearly all, On the expulsion of the Shepherd kings, Amenoph, the son of
the points of interest or importance in the history of antiquity. Amosis, was raised to the throne, and founded the eighteenth
l'hese three nations are the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and the dynasty of Egyptian kinge. His entire reign, and those

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I. SHEM, or SEM. (3315 B.C.)

i

6. BHBMITES, or SEMITES (Gen. xi. 11).

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2. NAHOR.

The Arabian Tribes, from 1. Isaac. (2045 B.C.)

3. SONS OF KETURAH. HUZ, BUZ, ARAM, &c.

| The Ishmaelites; the Na-1 | The Arabian Trives; 1. JACOB (1985 B.C.) 2. Esau.

reans, Arabians, &c. danites, Midianites, &c. | The Hebrews; Israelites, The Edomites, Tema-1

II. HAM, or CHEM. (3314 B.c.)

| The Moabites, (Arabia | | The Ammonites (Arabia Petræa),

Deserta).

5. HAMITES, or CHEMITES; ZUZIMS, ZAMZUMMINS, &c. (Gen. xiv. 5; Deut. ii. 20; 1 Chron. iv. 40; and Ps, ev, 23).

4. CANAAN.

1 The Ethiopians of Africa and Arabia (Nubla, Abyssinia, I 1 The Egyptiana of Middle, Upper, 1 Ine African Tribes of Libyal | The Canaanites; including Hit- I Hedjaz); and from SEBA (Suba, or Meroe. The Tribes or Lower Egypt. The African (Futa, Central Africa).

les from HETH; the JEBUSITES,
of Arabia Felix, or Yemen; and from HAVILAH (Sana), Tribes; from LUDIM (Lydians),

AMORITES, GIRGASHITES, HI-
SABTAH (Sabota, or Sabbatha), RAAMAT (Rhegma, or ANANIM (Nasamones), LERA.

vites, ARKITES, SINITES, AR-
Reama), SHEB and DEDAN (Sabe and Adeo), &c. BIM, or LUBIM, (Libyans, in-

VADITES, ZEMARITES, HAMATH-
The Babylonians, from NIMROD, founder of BABEL terior of Africa), PATHRUSIM

ITES, &c. (Palestine). Sidonians,
(Babylon), ERECH (Aracca), ACCAD (Saccada), and CALNEH Pathros, the Thebaid). Phils.

from SIDON; Tyrians, Pheni. (Chalonitis, or Ctesiphon) in Shinar or Chaldea. tines from PUILISTIM (Philistia,

cians (Phænice). or Palestine). Cretans, Cyprians, from CAPHTORIM (Crete, Cyprus).

III. JAPHETE, or JAPETUS. (3317 s.c.)

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ute

1. ELAM.

2. ASHUR.

| The Elamites, or Elymwans (Elymæis, or Susiana).

1 Reu, or RAGAU,

SERUG,

TERAH.

|

1. ABRAHAM. (2145 B.C.)

2. ISHMAEL.

batheans, Cedreans, Hu- including Sabæans, De

(Gen. xxv, 1). Jews. nites, Idumeans.

1. Cush

2. MIZRAIM.

3. PHUT.

1. GOMER.

TORGOM.

lyricum, Pannonia), nia). Riphaean or Uralian mountains.

his three_successors, Thothmosis I, Thothmoris II., and power to the borders of the Red Sea, and threatened encroach. Meris or Thothmosis III., were devoted to the object of re-esta- ment upon the Egyptian territory. Moris and his successors blishing a regular government, and raising up the nation, were thus drawn into wars, which resulted in constant advan. which had been crushed by so many years of servitude under tages to the Egyptian nation. Amenoph II., the son of A foreign yuke. At the time of their invasion, they had burned Mæris, rendered tributary Syria and the ancient kingdom of the cities, thrown down the temples of the gods, put the in Babylon ; Thothmosis IV. invaded Abyssinia and Sennaar; habitants in large numbers to death, and spread ruin all over whilst Amenoph III, made equally successful expeditions into the land. On their expulsion, therefore, everything had to be other parts of Asia. It was the latter king who built the re-constructed. Amenoph and his successors_gradually temple of Sohleb, in Upper Nubia, the magnificent palace of re-established order throughout the whole kingdom. The canals, Luxor, and all that part south of the grand palace of Carnac which had been neglected or destroyed, were repaired or at Thebes. It is conjectured that it was under one of the re.formed; whilst agriculture and the arts, encouraged and princes of this dynasty, 1864 s.c., that Joseph the son of protected by the sovereigns, soon brought back abundance, Jacob became prime minister of Egypt, and afterwards brought and at once increased and perpetuated the resources of govern. thither the family of his father, which thus became the source ment. In a little time the towns were re-built ; edifices con of the Israelitish nation. In the history of the eighteenth secrated to religion appeared on all sides, and several of the dynasty, we meet with nothing of interest or importance, monuments which even yet excite the admiration of the tra- till we come to the reign of Rameses the Great. This prince, veller on the banks of the Nile, belong to this interesting who is known also in history by the name of Sebostris, was

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THE GRAND COURT OF THE PALACE OF CARNAC. epoch of the restoration of Egypt by the wisdom and energy, the first mighty warrior whose conquests are recorded with of its kings. Of this number are the monuments of Semneh any degree of clearness. The date of his reign, which is and Amada in Nubia, and several of those of Carn.c and the most extraordinary portion of Egyptian history, has been Medinet-Abou, which are the works of Thothmosis I., or of variously fixed. Some chronologers are of opinion that he Mæris, Thothmosis III. This latter king, under whom the is the Shishak who plundered Jerusalem in the reign of two obelisks of Alexandria were erected, is the Pharaoh who Rehoboam 986 B.C. ; others contend that he was the Pharaoh achieved the greatest undertakings; it is to him that Egypt who pursued the Israelites, and was drowned in the Red owes the existence of the great lake Fayoum. By immense Sea 1639 B.C. ; whilst by others, with more probability, the works which he executed, and by means of canals and sluices, commencement of his reign is fixed about the beginning of the this lake became a reservoir, which served to maintain, in the thirteenth century before Christ. His whole history seems lower country, a perpetual balance between the over- largely tinged with fable and romance; it deserves, however, flowings of the Nile; to supply water when these were insuf- a more lengthened notice than has been given to any of his fieient, or to withdraw it when they were excessive. Formerly predecessors. it went by the name of its constructor, being called Lake His father was told in a dream, by the god Ptha (so goes Moris ; it now bears the Arabic name Birket-el-Karoun. the story), that his son, then newly born, should be lord of

Whilst Egypt was thus advancing in civilisation and inter- the whole earth. Upon the credit of this vision, he collected nal prosperity, several nations of Asia had extended their all the males of Egypt who were born on the same day with

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