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Will Maximy, the more se s one degree for every 65 of the earth. These strata of sand woma rises 14, All Booleathe mine, in ('oxnwall, it is one degree for higher, with every fresh layer deposited by the
vny 75 1. These, therefore, grunt variety in the intreuse would become visible, as dry land. In the p335 zori A In gesteutst, M, Cord er, has paid much attention to they would elevate the water of the lake or sea, and every 1). Hvijest, Idioconclusions are ---I. That the heat in. drive it off to other hollows or curves of lower letei, tri at Eprensipidly the deeper you go, %. That the increase is last sea would join sea, and form an ocean. W cqual atualiteith, but varies in different countries. This, in goological theory, was the beginning of stat a %, That the average incade, over the whole earth, is one called sometimes sedimentary rocks, and sometimes stratified degree fu ayuny tho lout in the scent,
rooks. It is, therefore, no wonder that the most ancient of In the proto in depth of wome inines, Aprings of fresh water these rooks havo much of a uniform composition, since, at bubble mji, which are of high temperature. In the Cornish thin early opoch in geological time, the water had but one kind mimea, inoke ane milerable stream of water at the tompera of material to work upon. It is necessary to mention the mount from Ho to po vyreen, whilade is about 30 or 40 degrees sedimentary rocks now, for you will find that these also have warm than the water on the surface, in one of those mines, boou acted upon by heat from under the earth's crust. Accord. the Bline, bently two millions of pallons of water are ing to lutton's theory, different parts of the crust of the earth pump Vol y fay, front a depth of 85yards, which is have been successively fused by heat in different epochs; and bo ai 100 leiere in temperature,
the progress of geology strengthens the evidence, that local Mume live concorruit that this incronan of wat in the variations in heat have melted one part of the crust after dewoont of mine is owing to the condensation of the nir. But another, and havo also much altered the superincumbent A comial geologine, Mr'
, Fun, has shown that rocks, deposited upon it.
LESSONS IN MUSIC.--No. VI.
By Joux Curwen.
We have now to treat of a most important subject, and one these la show not only that the earth has been for ages which should be thoroughly well understood by every pupil. pasting town, but that even at this day it continues in the We refer to the MENTE Effect of yotes. Let us put the por culing Ireland only by the general radiation copie in the form of a question. What is the principal source At dahil na univerzuri hue especially, and more polp of a note's power to astees the mind? We observe, for instance,
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ful sentiment, and, if they sound the note correctly, they interval, for some persons might imagine that the “ distance in cannot help doing so, This mental effect is, therefore, inde- pitch” between RAY and Lar, called a fifth, produces the pendent of the mere qualities of sound, and is governed by mental effect. Therefore, sing the word “tear," when you some other law. Let the next experiment be in relation to come to the close, thus :
You will find that every change produces a modification of ever, that the key-relation into which a note is thrown, by the the idea, but the idea itself, belonging to lah, remains still the sounds which have been heard before it, is the princ pal prosame. Interval, therefore, is not the law which governs mental ducing cause of mental effect, we must try another experimen: effect. In a similar way you may try whether singing the Take the same sound, as to absolute pitch, and vary its key. same sound to different words or syllables, or with different relationship. Strike the “chord” and scale of P, for instance, modes of "expression” (as loud, soft, &c.), will produce any and then the note B, at length, noticing its mer tal effect. Next material changes. And when you have found that none of strike the churd and scale of A, followed by the same note B these various conditions of the note can rob it of its own the same in pitch), as a long note. Notice, now, its effect on peculiar emotional character, then try another and most im- the mind! How changed ! Try, next, the chord and scale portant experiment. Vary the rate of movement. Instead of of G, and observe the note, in the same way. How changed singing the phrase slowly, sing it as rapidly as though it were again! Try other keys, and you will find that every change of a jig. You will then understand why we said that key key-relationship makes a change in the reception which the relationship, in connexion with rate of movement, was the mind gives to that particular sound of unaltered pitch. If you chief cause of mental effect. The note seems, now, to express wish to prove this to an incredulous friend, tell him that you an abandonment to gaiety, instead of sorrow. But notice that are about to play to him, on the flute or piano, a number of LAH, sung quickly, always produces this second mental effect, long notes, and that, without looking at your playing, he is to and that no other note produces the same effect, however you tell you, as well as he can, what notes they are, and describe may quicken its rate of movement. There is still, therefore, a their mental effect. Then play to him the following phrases, law presiding even in this “ duplicity'' of mental effect. This and ask him, at the close, whether the notes were the same, or, note Lai (sixth above or “minor third” below the key-note) is if not, how they differed. Unless he takes care to keep now proved to possess twin mental effects, the one showing the singing the note B all through (which would be a physical grave the other the gay side of a certain emotion. So is it with rather than a mental test) he is sure to suppose the notes every note of the scale. “Key-relationship" gives it a certain different. Of course you must be acquainted with some acceptance with the mind, and "rate of movement" has a instrument to perform this experiment. The violin will give certain way of modifying that impression. To prove, how- l it most accurately.
Why a note's standing at a particular interval from the key. | duce the note with the greater accuracy and satisfaction. From note should give it a particular musical effect, we do not know. extensive experience, we have found that infants and persons Ve can only notice the fact, and make use of it in teaching.with untrained voices are able to appreciate these points, and There must come to us, along with the actual sound itself, derive constant pleasure and assistance from the knowledge of some mental association of the relationship of interval (indicated them. The teacher will find himself well repaid by a most by preceding notes) which has been thrown around it. The careful attention to this subject. memory of notes just heard hovers around that which we now In the next lesson we shall commence an examination of the hear, and gives it its character. Quick succession approaches different notes, with this point in view, and furnish illustrain effect to co-existence, as is familiarly shown in reference to tions from the great masters. It is sufficient for us here to rethe eye by the thaumatrope and other optical toys. Thus when quest the pupil to read with care, and put to the test, the folonce the key is established by the opening notes of the tune, it lowing remarks :is still felt to be present, as a mental element, with every The notes doy, sox, and me, give to the mind an idea of rest single note that follows. In a similar manner, the effect of á and power (in degrees corresponding with the order in which given colour—the artist will tell us—is modified by the sur- they are named), while te, PAH, LAH, and Ray (in similar rounding ones, or those on which the eye has just rested. This degrees), suggest the feeling of suspense and dependence. is a deeply interesting subject, and deserves to be well studied Thus, if after we have heard the principal notes of the key, and further explored, especially in connexion with harmonic the voice dwells on the sound te, the mind is sensible of a decombinations and effects.
sire for something more, but the moment te is followed by These mental effects of notes in key have often been noticed don' a sense of satisfaction and repose is produced. In the in books of science. Dr. Calcott refers to them in his same manner the mind is satisfied when pak resolves itself into “Musical Grammar." M. Jeu de Berneval, Professor to the ME, and Lau (though not so decidedly) into som. Ray also Royal Academy of Music, in his “ Music Simplified,” illus- excites a similar feeling of inconclusiveness and expectancy, trates them very ingeniously and beautifully. Dr. Bryce which is resolved by ascending to me, or, more perfectly, by introduces them into his "Rational Introduction.” It would falling to dor. seem surprising (did we not know how the old notation, with
Notice the power and vigour given to the tunes GRIFFIN, its attempted, but inaccurate, scale of fixed sounds, takes up the LEYBURN, and Blacksmith, by the notes pou, sow, and ME. learner's time, and distracts attention from the real beauties of Sing the tunes over for the purpose of forming an independent musical science) that these interesting facts, so well calculated judgment on this point. Then, to show the effect of the to aid the pupil, have been so little used in elementary instruc- “leaning" notes, sing slowly as follows :tion. It is obvious that the moment a pupil can recognise a :dm:s|f:-m :dm:slt:-1d' : d' | s: m certain musical property in any note, he will be able to pro- 11:-- 18 :d'| 8:mri-1m :dm: 8
:8lr:-10 EXERCISE 17. BLACKSMITH. Key C. M. 138.
(The Tune Old English. The Words by the Rev. - PLUMPTRE.)
2. In searching your heart should you find you intend
RESUME OF EXAMPLES.
M'entendez vous ?
Do you hear or understand me? Je ne vous entends pas.
I do not understand or hear you. Oh! watch the bright time when the purpose shall glow;
Les entendez vous ?
Do you hear them?
Je les vois et je les entends.
I see them and understand them. IF YOU PAIL NOT TO STRIKE WHEN THE IRON IS HOT.
Il nous aime et il nous honore. He loves and honours us.
Me parlez vous de votre ami? Do you speak to me of your friend 3. Whene'er by a smithy you happen to piss,
Je vous parle de lui (R. 6). I speak to you of him.
Nous parlez vous de ces dames ? Do you speak to us about those ladies!
Je vous parle d'elles.
I speak to you of them.
Do you not speak to them
Je n'ai pas envie de leur parler. I have no wish to speak to them. Never FAIL, SIR, TO STRIKE WHILE THE IRON IS Hot," Parlez lui,-ne lui parlez pas. Speak to him or her-do not speak
to him. Note.-In the “ second part" of this tune notes poi and Tu Allez à lui, courez à lui.
Go to him-run to him. occur.
These notes will be more fully and clearly explained here- Parlez leur,-ne leur parlez pas. Speak to them, — do not speak to them. after, For is a note a little less than half a tone higher than FAH. It always follows Fau, and seems to rise out of it. It is
EXERCISE 61. called a chromatic or colouring note. Tu is nearly the same sound
Affaire, f. affair. Compagnon, m. com- Nouvelle, f. news. in pitch, being a little more than half a tone lower than son. It
Pens-er, 1. to think. holds the same relation to sow which TË holds to dok. It is, in Arbre, m. tree. fact, the seventh note of a new key, but more of this hereafter. Cerisier, m. cherry trec. Ecri-re, 4. ir. to write. Pommier, m. apple-tree.
Poirier, m. pear-tree. It is enough for you to notice, now, that it does not follow or rise
Communiqu-er, 1. to “colouring"
Example, m. example. Respect-er, 1. to respect. out of far, and that it does not produce the same
communicate. effect with for. Observe that Tu has the lower octare mark on it.
In singing the words, be careful to notice the italics and SMALL 1. Allez vous lui écrire ? 2. Je vais lui écrire et lui com. CAPITALS which indicate expression. [The little mark, like two muniquer cette nouvelle. 3. Allez vous lui parler de moi. 4. interlacing crosses, is called a sharp. It raises the note, before Je vais lui parler de vous et de votre compagnon? 5. Leur which it stands, something less than half a tone. You will re-envoyez vous de beaux arbres ? 6. Je leur envoi des pommark that there is nothing, in the old notation, to distinguish miers, des poiriers, et des cerisiers ? 7. Ne m'envoyez vous Tu from Foi. Two different things are represented by the same
pas des cerisiers ? 8. Je ne vous en envoie pas, vous en avez signs. ]
déjà. 9. Avez vous raison de leur parler de cette affaire ? 10.
Je n'ai pas tort de leur parler de cette affaire. 11. Venez à LESSONS IN FRENCH.—No. XII.
nous demain matin. 12. Venez nous trouver, cette après-midi. By Professor Louis FasQUELLE, LL.D.
13. Allez vous les trouver tous les jours ? 14. Je vais les SECTION XXVI.
trouver tous les soirs. 15. Leur donnez vous de bons avis.
16. Je leur donne de bons avis et de bons exemples. 17. Nous PLACE OF THE PRONOUNS.
parlez vous de vos sæurs ! 18. Je vous parle d'elles. 19. Ne 1. The personal pronoun used as the direct ş? (2), nous parlez vous pas de nos frères ? 20. Je vous parle d'eux. § 42 (4)] object of a verb, * is in French placed before 21. Ne les aimez vous pas ? 22. Nous les aimons et nous les the verb, except in the second person singular or in the first respections. 23. Pensez vous à ce livre ou n'y pensez vous and second persons plural of the imperative used affirma- pas? 24. Nous y pensons et nous on parlons. 25. Nous n'y tively.
2. I am 2. The personal pronoun representing the indirect object going to write to him to-morrow morning. 3. Do you intend of the verb [$ 2 (3), $ 42 (6)) answering to the dative of the to write to him every Monday ? 4. I intend to write to him Latin, and to the indirect
object of the English with the pre, every Tuesday. 5. Have you a wish to speak to him to-day? position to expressed or understood, is also in French placed 6. I have a wish to speak to him, but he is not here. 7. before the verb :
Where is he? 8. He is at his house. 9. Do you speak to
them? 10. Yes, Sir, I speak to them about (de) this affair.
11. Do they give you good advice? 12. They give me good Il vous parle, il leur parle. He speaks to you, he speaks to them.
advice and good examples. 13. Do you go to your sister every 3. The personal pronoun is generally placed after the follow-day? 14. I go to her every morning at a quarter before nine. ing verbs : aller, to go; accourir, to run to ; courir, to run; 15. Does she like to see (voir) you? 16. She likes to see me venir, to come ; penser à, songer à, to think of :
and she receives me well. 17. Do you think of this affair ? Il vient à moi.
18. I think of it the whole day. 19. Do you speak of it with Il pense à vous, à eux. He thinks of you, of them.
(avec) your brother? 20. We speak of it often. 4. In the imperative used affirmatively, the pronouns follow send your companion to my house? 22. I send him every the verb :
day. 23. Are you at home every day? 24. I am there every Aimez les, parlez leur.
Love them, speak to them, morning at ten o'clock, 25. Do you like to go to church?
Do you speak of your houses ? 28. I speak of them (cn).
29. Does your brother speak of his friends ? 30. Yes, Sir, he
RESPECTIVE PLACE OF THE PRONOUNS. $ 101.
of the verb (accusative), and the other as the indirect Je les aime, je les respecte, je les I see them, respect and honour them. object (dative), the indirect object, if not in the third perhonore.
son singular or plural, must precede the direct object ($ 101
(1)). • The young student will easily distinguish the personal pronoun used
Je vous le donne.
I give it to you. as the direct object of a verb, by the fact that there is in English no pre
Il me le donne.
He gives it to me.
Il nous le donne.
He gives it to you.
he loves you.
He comes to me,
21. Do you
Je reste avec vous et avec eux.
2. When the pronoun used as an indirect object (dative, pas tort de lui en envoyer? 24. Je ne puis avoir tort de payer Rule 2. Sect. 25), is in the third person singular or plural, it mes dettes. 25. Ils vous en donnent, et ils yous en prêtent must be placed after the direct object [$ 101 (2)].
quand vous en avez besoin,
We give it to him,
EXERCISE 54, 3. The above rules of precedence apply also to the impera- 1. Will you send us that letter 2. I will send it to you, tive used negatively :
if you will read it. 3. I will read it if (si) I can. 4. Can Ne nous le donnez pas (R. I). Do not give it to us. you lend me your pen! 5. I can lend it to you, if you will Ne le lui donnez pas (R. 2).
Do not give it to him. take care of it (Sect. 21 (3)]. 6. May I speak to your 4. With the imperative used affirmatively, the direct object father? .7. You may speak to him, he is' here. 8. Are you precedes in all cases the indirect object [$ 101 (6)].
afraid of forgetting it (Sect. 20 (4)]. 9. I am not afraid of Donnez le nous,
Give it to us.
forgetting it. 10. Will you send them to him? 11. I intend Montrez le leur.
Show it to them.
to send them to him, if I have time. 12. Do you speak to 5. En and y always follow the pronouns :
him of your journey? 13. I speak to him of my journey.
14, I speak to them of it. 15. Can you communicate it to Je lui en donne. I give him some.
him: 16, I have a wish to communicate it to him. 17. Do Il nous y envoie. He sends us thuther.
you see your acquaintances every Monday? 18, I see them 6. Present OF THE INDICATIVE OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS. every Monday and every Thursday, 19. Where do you intend Vorr, to sec. VOULOIR, to will, to Pouvoir, to be able. to see them 20. I intend to see them at your brother's and be willing.
at your sister's. 21. Can you send him there every day? 22. Je vois, I see, do see, or Je veux, I will or am Je puis, I can, I may, 1 I can send him there every Monday, if he wishes (s'il le veut). am zeeing. willing.
23. Can you give them to me! 24. I can give them to you. Tu vois. Tu veux,
25. Who will lend them books ? 26. No one will lend them Il voit. Il veut.
any, 27. Your bookseller is willing to sell them good books Nous voyong. Nous voulong. Nous pouvons.
and good paper:
28. Is he at home 29. He is at his Vous voyoz.
brother's. 30. Are you wrong to pay your debts? 31. I am
right to pay them. 32. Will you send it to us? 33. I am 7. The above verbs take no preposition before another verb. willing to send it to you, if you want it. 34. Are you willing
8. The preposition, pour, is used to render the preposition to give them to us? 35. We are willing to give them to your to, when the latter means in order to.
acquaintances. Je yais chez vous pour parler à I go to your house to speak to your votre frère et pour vous voir,
brother and to see you. J'ai besoin d'argent pour acheter I want money to (in order to buy
LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. XII.
By John R. BEARD, D.D.
As in English so in Latin the numerals have various forms. Pouvez vous me les donner ? Can you give them to me ?
Thus we say, one, first, one each, once. One, and the corre. Je ne puis vous les donner, I cannot give them to you.
sponding two, three, &c., we call cardinal (from cardo, inis, m. Votre frère peut il le lui envoyer. Can your brother send it to him? a hinge), because they are the chief numbers, those on which Il ne veut pas le lui envoyer. He will not send it to him.
the others hinge. First, second, third, &c. we call ordinals Qui veut le leur prêter ? Who will lend it to them?
(from ordo, inis, m. an order or series), because they show the Personne ne veut le leur prêter. No one will lend it to them.
order or place in a series which a person or thing holds. One Envoyez les nous. Send them to us.
each, two each, three each, &c. may be called distributives, be. Ne nous les envoyez pas.
Do not send them to us,
cause they distribute the numbers severally to persons or Ne leur en envoyez pas. Do not send them any.
things, declaring how many each possesses. Once, twice, Envoyez le leur, pour les contenter. Send it to them (in order) to satisfy thrice, &c. are called adverbial numerals, because they imply
some verb and state how often the action of the verb takes Je puis vous l'y enyoyer. I can send it to you there.
place. You may see a full view of the Latin numerals in all
their forms in the ensuing table, with the English figures on EXERCISE 53.
the left hand, and the corresponding Latin characters Commis, m. clerk. Guère, but little. Poisson, m, fish. the right hand. Connaissance, f. ac- Marchande de modes, f. Pologne, f, Poland,
TABLE OF NUMERALS. quaintance.
Ordinal. Distributive. Adverbial. Croi-re, 4. ir. to believe. Montr-er, 1. to show. Semaine, f. week.
unus, a, um primus, a, um
singuli, ae, a
semel Dette, f, debt. Oubli-er, 1. to forget. Souvent, often.
one each D-evoir, 3. to oue. Pay-er, 1. to pay. Voyage, m. journey.
unus, one primus, first singuli, one each semel, once I. 1. Voulez vous donner ce livre à mon frère ! 2. Je puis le 2 duo, tuo secundus, second bini, two each bis, trice II. lui prêter, mais je ne puis le lui donner. 3, Voulez vous nous tres, three
tertius, third terni, three cach ter, thrice III. les envoyer: 4. La marchande de modes peut vous les en. 4 quatuor, four quartus, fourth quaterni, four quater, four times yoyer. 5. Les lui montrez vous? 6. Je les vois et je les lui
IV. montre. 7. Avez vous peur de nous les prêter ? 8. Je n'ai 5 quinque, five quinţus, fifth quini, five each quinquies, jive pas peur de vous les prêter. 9. Ne pouvez vous nous envoyer
6 du poisson? 10. Je ne puis vous en envoyer, je n'en ai guère.
seni, six each sexies, sir tines 11. Voulez vous leur en parler? 12. Je veux leur en parler,
VI. si je ne l'oublie pas. 13. Venez vous souvent les voir? 14.
7 septem, seven septimus, seventh septóni, sevon septies, seren
times VII. Je viens les voir tous les matins, et tout les soirs. 15. Ne
8 octo, eight octávus, eighth octóni, eight octies, eight times leur parlez vous point de votre voyage en Pologne? 16. Je
VIII. leur en parle, mais ils ne veulent pas me croire. 17. Est-ce
9 novem, nine
novéni, nine 18. Vous les voyez que je vois mes connaissances, le lundi.
novies, nine times each
IX. tous les jours de la semaine. 19. Vous envoient elles plus
The English of the numerals that follow can be easily sup. d'argent que le commis de notre marchand? 20. Elles m'en envoient plus que lui.
21: En envoyez vous au libraire ? plied by the learner. 22. Je lui en envoie quand je lui en dois. 23. N'avez vous Cardinal, Ordinal. Distributive, Adrerbial.
10 decem decimus deni
decies After the verbs pouvoir, to be able; oser, to dare; saroir, to know; the
11 undecim undecimus undeni
undecies XI. Degative pas may be omitted,
12 duodecim duodecimus duodeni duodecies XIL