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Cardinal
Ordinal. Distributive, Adverbial,

uterque which signifies both, and is formed thus : nom. uterque, 13 tredecim tertius deci. terni deni terdecies XIII.

m. utrăque, f, utrumque, n. ; gen, utriusque ; dat, utrique; mus

so, nom. unusquisque, m. unaquaeque, f. unumquodque, n.; 14 quatuordecim quartus deci- quaterni deni quaterdecies XIV.

gen. uniuscujusque; dat, unicuique. Alius in the neuter, has mus 15 quindecim

aliud ; in the genitive singular, alius (contracted from aliius, quintus deci. quini deni quindecies

XV.

and dative alii). In alteruter, one of two, commonly uter alone mus 16 sedecim sextus deci. beni deni sedecies

is declined thus: XVI.

Nom. alteruter, m. alterutra, f. alterutrum, n. inuis

Gen, 17 septenděcim septimusdeci- septeni deniseptiesdecies XVII.

alterutrius alterutri

alterutríus mus

Declension of duo, duae, duo, two. 18 duo:leviginti duodevicesi, duodeviceni duodovicies XVIII.

M.
7.

N.
mus

Nom, & Voc. duo

duae

duo 19 undeviginti undevicesimus undeviceni undevicies XIX.

Gen.
duórum duáram

duorum 20 viginti vicesimus viceni

vicies
XX.
Dat, & Abl. duobus

duabus

duobus AOC.

duas 21

duo or duos

duo
unus et vi-

unus et vice- viceni singuli vicies semel XXI.
ginti
simus

Tres, m, tres, f. tria, n, three. 22 duo et viginti alter et vice- viceni bini vicies bis XXII.

P.

N simus

Nom. & Yoo. tres

tres

tria 28 duodetriginta duodetricesi- duodetriceni duodetricies XXVIII.

Gen.
trium
trium

trium mus

Dat. & Abl, tribus

tribus

tribus 29 undetriginta undetricesi- undetriceni undetricies XXIX.

Асс. .
tres
tres

tria mus

Milia is declined like tria, thus milia, milium, milibus, mi30 triginta tricesimus triceni tricies

XXX. 40 quadraginta quadragesi. quadrageni quadragies XL.

lia. Milia requires after it a genitive ; for instead of saying,

as we do, ten thousand men, the Latins said ten thousands of mus 50 quinquaginta quinquagesi- quinquageni quinquagies L.

men, decem milia hostium; but mille considered as a whole, mus

a thousand, is indeclinable: thus, dux cum mille militibus, a 60 sexaginta sexagesimus sexageni sexagies LX. general with a thousand soldiers. The ordinals are declined like 70 septuaginta septuagesi- septuageni septuagies LXX. nouns of the first and the second declension. The distributives are mus

also declined after the same manner. Mark that singuli is in 80 ocioginta octogesimus octogeni octogies LXXX, the plural. The plural is necessitated by the meaning, inas90 nonaginta nonagesimus nonageni nonagies XC.

much as the adjective is a distributive, for distribution implies 99 undecentum undecentesi- undecenteni undecenties XCIX,

.

more than one; thus the Latins said, inter singulos homines, mus

among the men severally. 109 centum centesimus centeni centies C.

If now you carry your eye down the numbers, you will find 101 centum et centesimus et centeni singu, centies semel CI.

that for every separate number from one to nine, there is a unus primus li

separate word. With ten (decem) a new series begins which 102 centum et duo centesimus et centeni bini centies bis CII. alter

goes on to nineteen, when again at twenty (viginti) a new 200 ducenti, ae, a ducentesimus duceni ducenties CC.

word begins a new series. In centum and in mille, you also 300 trecenti trecentesimus triceni trecenties CCC.

find new words and the commencements of new series. From 100 quadringenti quadringen- quadringeni quadringen- CD.

eleven (undecim) to seventeen (septendecim) inclusive, each tesimus

ties

consecutive word is compounded of decem and a number taken 500 quingenti quingentesi. quingeni quingenties D.

from the first series. When they come to eighteen, instead of

saying after their former manner, and as we say in English, 000 sexcenti sexcentesi. sexceni sexcenties DC. eight, ten, the Romans said, tuo from twenty, duo de viginti.

Having passed twenty, they made use of it to form the num. 700 septingenti septingente. eeptingeni septingenties DCC.

bers between twenty and thirty, thus, unus et viginti, one and wimus

twenty; they also said, viginti unus, viginti duo, viginti tres, 800 octingenti octingentesi- octingeni octingenties DCCC.

viginti quatuor, and so forth. In all cases, 8 and 9 are ex900 nongenti nongentesi. nongeni nongenties CM.

pressed hy subtracting 2 and 1 from the next ensuing new

term; thus 28 is duo de triginta, tuo from thirty ; 39 is unde1,000 mille millesimus

quadraginta, one from forty; so in the ordinals duodequadrage

singula milia millies M. 2,000 duo milia bis millesimus bina milia bis millies

simus, undesexagesimus, &c. MM.

VOCABULARY. 100,000 centum milia centies mille- centena milia centies millies

Hora, ae, f. an hour; summa, ae, f. a sum total ; annus, i, m. a year simus

CCCL550 (E. R. anual); calculus, i, m. a little stone (E. R. calculation, which 1,000,000 decies centum decies centies decies milia decies millies

was originally performed with little stones); Carolus, i, m. Charles ; milia millesimus

CCCCL3355

codicilli, orum, m. a writing-table, or wnx-tablet for writing on, a slate 2,000,000 vicies centum vicies centies vicies milia vicies millies

or note book (E. R. codicil); cerăsum, i. n. a cherry; malum, i. n. an milia millesimus

apple; pirum, i, n.a pear; prunum, i, n. a plum; mensis, is, m. a month; On this table, I submit to you the following remarks, unus, hebuðmas, ădis, f. a week; nux, nucis, f. a nut; in promptu esse, duo, and tres are declined, as follows:

to be really ; respondeo 2, I answer (with dative); responsio, onis, f. Nom.

an ansicer (E. R. response); addo 3, I give to, add; atiendo 3, I pay Gen. unius unius unius

attention ; pono 3, I put or set; sepono 3, I put apart, lay down; jam, Dat. uni

uni

adv. already, novo; memòriter, adv. by memory, "by heart"'; paulisAce.

per, adv. a little; recte, adv. rightly ; deinde, then, thereupon, next, in Abi. una

the second place; denique, adv. finally; porro, adv. Further, morcorer; Where specially observe that the genitive ends in ius, and the tum, adv. then; in, with ace, upon. dative in i. I put together in a form easy of remembrance the

EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH. words declined like the preceding example :

A dialogue between a father and his son Charles.
Pronouns that make ius in the genitive and i in the dative.

Pater : Attende, mi fili! Scribe in codicillos luos hoc cxemplum; unus, ullus, nullus

si habes decem mala, tria pruna, unum pirum, sex orasa ; et hi: solus, totus, alius

adduntur duo mala, quatuor pruna, septem pira, octo cerasa; uter, alter, neuter

deinde quinque mala, noveni pruna, sedecim pira, undecim cerasa; Observe that the sus and the i of the masculine gender remain decim cerasa ; porro'riginti mala, undeviginti pruna, duodeviginti

tum duodecim mala, quindecim pruna, tredecim pira, quatuor. in the feminine and the neuter. Uter forms its genders thus : lpira, septendecim cerasa ; denique quaruor et viginti mala, unum uter, m. utra, f. utrum n. Alter, thus : alter, m. altera, f. et viginti pruna, duo et viginti pira, tria et viginti cerasa ? quot elterum, n. But neuter, thus : neuter, m. neutra, f. neutrum, sunt mala ? quot pruna ? quot pira ? quot cerasa ?

So in their compounds; by adding que, uter becomes Carolus : Expecta paulisper, mi pater! jam responsio est in

mus

mus

mus

mus

unus

una

unum

uni
unam

unum
uno

unum
uno

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promptu ; sunt tria et septuaginta mala; unum et septuaginta pruda ; septem et septuaginta pira; novem et septuaginta cerasa.

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-No. VI. P. Recte, mi Carole! jam sepone codicillos, et memoriter mihi

SURVEYING. responde: quot menses habet uous annus ? C. Duodecim. P. Quot hebdomadas habet unus mensis? C. Quatuor. P. Quot

dies The operation of surveying land is performed by the use of various habet unus annus ? C. Trecentos sexaginta quinque. P. Quot instruments, of which we proceed to give some account. The inhoras habet unus dies? C. Quatuor et viginti. P. Quot dies strument most commonly used for measuring straight lines on the habent tres anni? C. Mille nonaginta quinque. P. Quot horas ground is the Surveying-chain, or as it habet unus annus ? Octo milia septingentas sexaginta. P. Si

Fig. 1. tres nuces quater ponis, quanta summa existit? C. Duodecim. is sometimes called "Gunter's chain, P. Si quinque calculos ter millies sexcenties quinquagies septies from the name of the inventor. This ponis?' c. Duodeviginti milia ducenti octoginta quinque.

chain, which is made of iron, consists

of a hundred links, each link mea. ENGLISH-LATIN. The Father : Charles, what is the Latin for eight? for eighteen suring about 8 inches ; or exactly 7-92 for twenty-eight? for thirty-nine ? for five hundred ? for two hun: j inches, & quantity which wants about a dred and fifty? Write this example on your slate. If thou hast twelfth part of an inch more, in order to 20 apples, 6 plums, 2 pears, 12 cherries ; and add to them 4 apples, make 8 inches. The chain is, therefore, 66 feet, or 22 yards, 8 pluins, 14 pears,'16"cherries; also 10 apples, 18 plums, 32 pears, long; for 7.92X 100=792 inches, and 792 inches=66 feét=22 22 cherries; again, 24 apples, 30 plums, 26 pears, 28 cherries ; yards. This chain is remarkably convenient for the use of landfurther, 40 apples, 38 plams, 36 pears, 34 cherries : finally, 48 surveyors, inasmuch as a square chain is 484 square yards; apples, 42 plums, 44 pears, and 46 cherries : how many apples for 22 X 22—184. Now this number of square yards is are there? how many plums? how many pears ? how many exactly the tenth part of an cherries? Charles : Wait a little, father! The answer is now of land. For, in the late acts of parliament relating to

are, we mean an Imperial acre ready. There are 146 apples, 142 plums, 154 pears, and 158 weights and measures, it was enacted that the Imperial acre cherries. Father : Right, my Charles.

shall contain 4,810 square yards. Accordingly 10 square chains VOCABULARY. Incola, ae, m. an inhabitant; victoria, f. victory; virium, n. rics; mentioned in the act of parliament, yet its great value and utility

are equal to one Imperial acre, and although the chain itself is not pretium, n. a price, worth, (E. R. precious); assentator, oriz, m a flatterer; moderator, óris, m. a govcrnor ; «ques, eqitis, m. a Ivorse.

as an instrument for measuring land is undeniable; and so long as nan;

pedes, peditis, m. a footman, an infantry soldier ; pars, partis, the acre shall continue to be what it is, it can never be superseded f. a port (E. R. partial); societas, atis, f.conne:cion, society; exercitus, by any instrument more valuable or more convenient. One form Q1, m. an army; natus, 6s, m. birth, major natu, greater by birth, in which the instrument is constructed, is represented in fig. 1, where that is, older ; so, minor natu, younger ; fides, ei, f. fidelity, trust; fidem the handles at each end of the chain are seen, and the iron pins habeo, I repose confidence; cognitus, a, um, knoron; infidus, a, um, used for stretching the chain out to its full length, when measuring unfaithful; natus, a, um, born; pose Christum natum, since Christ born; the distance between any two points. Whatever process may be that is, since the birth of Christ ; quotus, a, um, how much! what? ago employed, however, in measuring land, the figures which are 3. I drive, 1 do; annum ago, I am in the year ; irrunipo, 3. I break traced on the ground relate either to triangles or trapezoids, as ex. in; nunc, noro, denoting a point of time, whereas jam denotes the plained in our last lesson, and from the measurements so taken present in relation to the past ; vix, adv. scarcely; de, prep. of, concerning; sufficient data (things given) are obtained to enable the surveyor to ex, prep. out of, from; post, prep. after; et - ct, anul neque conj. neither, nor ; neque - neque, neither - nor; ilius is used complete his calculation. with alius in a peculiar manner, nearly equal to our one another,

Of the pins, or arrows as they are called, shown in fig. 1, ten "he one, the other, differently, in different ways, &c.; a3

usually accompany a chain, a new one being employed at the end of alius alium occidit

cvery chain-length; the whole number used denoting the number the one slays the other.

of chains in any length, and the number of links orer, being alii alio currunt

marked as decimal parts of a chain. Thus 7 chains, and 53 links they run in different directions.

in length, are denoted by 7:53. Pickets, or staves with flags, are ambo, both, declined like duo.

set up as marks or objects of direction, measuring and taking EXERCISES.-Latin-ENGLISH.

sights. An offset staff is also used for measuring short distances Quota hora est? decima; est ne sexta bora i quinta est hora; called

offsets, it is usually 10 links in length, and is divided and

marked at each link. annus quo nunc virimus, esi millesimus octingesimus quinquagesimus et alter post Christum natum ; pater meus azit (is in his) an.

Along with the chain, is commonly used the surveying cross, num quartum et sexagesimum ; soror tua agit annum sexagesi- / for the purpose of determining straight lines at right angles to each mum tertium ; inater mea agit annum octavum et quinquagesimum; other. It generally consists of two pair of sights set at right pater tuus agit quinquagesimum octavum annum; frater major angles, and mounted on a staff of a convenient height for use. datu agit annum tertium et tricesimum; frater minor nátu The sights may be arranged on two cross-pieces of metal, or enagit aunum alterum et vicesimum; soror major nalu agit closed in a hollow prism or cylinder of brass, carrying four sights annum duodetricesimum; soror minor natu agit annum viccsi- or openings in its sides, at right angles to each other, the planes of mum; in urbe sunt mille milites; duo milia hostium urbem obsi- which pass through the axis

. The method of using it is to get dent; úaliud alii placet; aliud alii displicet; milites utriusque visibly in a line with one pair of sights, the marks set up at the exercitùs sunt fortissimi; utrumque est vitium et omnibus credere, et nulli; perfidus homo vix ulli fidem habet; unius fidi extremities of the base line, or that from which the perpendicular hominis amicitia habet plus pretii quam multorum infidorum is to be measured, and through the other pair of sights to obserre societas; soli sapienti vera vis virtutis est cognita; incolac totius the mark or object to which the perpendicular is to be measured. urbis de victoriâ exercitûs laeti sunt; nullius hominis vita ex omni One form of this instrument is represented at fig. 2. To get the parte (in crery respect) beata est; habeo duo amicos, anibo valde Fig. 2. three marks just mentioned, visible through the diligo ; amicus meus habet duo filios et duas filias.

sights, may require several trials by setting the cross ENGLISH-LATIN.

up at different points in the base line, before the es. The enemy breaks into our country with 10,000 soldiers ; a

act point from which the perpendicular is to be mea. thousand soldiers defend the city; the city is defended by 2,500

sured can be determined. When it bas been ascer. soldiers ; 28,000 cavalry and 13,500 infantry defend the eruntry;

tained, then the distance from it to the mark at tbe my father is in bis 75th year; my mother in her 63rd year; my

extremity of the perpendicular can be measured at elder brother is in his 37th year; my younger brother in his 30th

once by the chain. year; my elder sister in her 34th year, and my younger sister in her 18th year.

The graphometer is an instrument employed in sur Wbat o'clock is it? (what is the hour ?) it is eleven

veying, for the purpose of measuring angles on the o'clock; how old art thou ? (in Latin, what year dost thou lead ? ago) I am 52 ; we repose confidence in neither of the two, neither

ground,-namely, those which are formed between the the faithless nor the flatterer; the life of no one is happier than

sides of triangular fields, or those which form irregular (the lise) of the sage; the father takes a walk (ambulo) with his

polygons. This instrument is only a large protrac. two sons and two daughters; two faithful friends are i ne soul in

tor or semicircle divided into degrees, and mounted two bodies; some things please some (persons), some others; this

on a staff for convenience to the observer. It is furdispleases some one, chat another ; God is the governor of the

nished with two pair of sights, of which one or both whole of life (in Latin, the whole life),

are movepble round the centre of the semicircle. By

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Fig. 5.

Fig 3.

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corners or

placing this instrument at the vertex of the angle to be measured ; this telescope, and one edge of the index, called the graduated or that is, at the place in the ground where the two sides of the field, fiducial edge, are in the same plane. On the edge of the frame are or space to be measured, meet; and directing one pair of sights also marked, degrees and minutes. along the one side to a mark placed at its extremity, and the other To use this instrument, which is represented in fig. 5, you take pair of sights along the other side to a mark placed at its extremity, a sheet of paper sufficient to cover it, and wet it to make it ex. ibe angle between them is measured on the semicircle ; for it is pand; then spread it flat on the ascertained at once by the number of degrees on the arc between table, pressing down the frame on the two limbs or moveable arms on which the sights are placed. the edges to stretch it, and keep it The form of this instrument without the staff is represented in fig. 3. fixed in its position ; so that when In using this instrument care must be

the paper becomes dry, it will by taken that the marks set up at the extremi

contracting again, stretch itself ties of the two sides are visible through the

smooth and flat, from any cramps sights at the same instant; otherwise the

and unevenness; as on this paper angle will not be correctly ascertained.

is to be drawn the plan or form of The sights in this instrument may be advan

the ground to be measured. You tageously replaced by telescopes mounted

then begin at any suitable spot on on the centre, where very great accuracy is

this ground, and having properly required. Also, in the use both of the

adjusted and fixed the table, by graphometer and the surveying-cross it is necessary that the staff fastening the legs of the stand in which supports them be placed vertically, and the instruments them the earth, mark a point on a conveselves horizontally; these positions are ascertained by the use of nient part of the paper to represent that spot on the ground. You the plumb-lipe and level.

then fix in that point, one leg of the compasses, or a fine steel pin, An instrument preferable to the graphometer is constructed of and apply to it the fiducial edge of the index, moving it round until the entire circle completely graduated, and receiving different through the sights you observe some suitable object, as the corner names according to the manner in which it is mounted and arranged. of a field, &c.; from the station point, you then draw a line with If it be furnished with two telescopes placed across its centre, the point of the compasses along the fiducial edge of the index-a one fixed and the other moveable, or with one fixed to a process which is called selling or taking the object. Next, sel circle wbich is moveable over a fixed circle on the same another object or corner, and draw its line; do the same by centre, it is called a repeating circle. With this instrument, another, and so on, till as many objects are taken as may be deemed properly adjusted, angles can be measured, and the measurement necessary. Then measure with the chain from the station in a repeated two, three, four, and even ten times. By this means straight line towards the objects, taking offsets to errors of observation and graduation, and in reading off the angles, crooks in the fences or hedges, and laying down their measurecan be so compensated as to obtain the greatest possible approxi- ments on their respective lines in the table. Then, at any other mation to accuracy. For as ten times an angle is thus obtained convenient spot to which a measurement has been taken, fix the with as great an approximation to truth as the angle itself, the table in the same manner as before, and set the same objects again tenth part of this angle is likely to have an error of only the tenth as they appear from this new station, Continue this operation part of that which would arisefrom the observation of the single angle. until all the necessary work is finished, measuring only such lines The invention of the repeating circle is due to the French mathemati- as are known to be indispensable for the calculation, and deterciao Borda, who employed it in the Trigonometrical survey insti- mining as many as possible by the intersection of the lines of directuted for the measurement of an arc of the meridian between Barce- tion, drawn from the different stations in order to complete the lona and Dunkirk, in 1792. The principle of the repetition of angles plan. This being done, the area of the field may be determined by in the construction of the reflecting circle had been previously pro- the rules given in our last lesson, and the plan of the whole exhiposed by the astronomer Tobias Mayer, of Gottingen. A sketch bited, as nearly as possible, just as it appears on the ground. In Fig.4.

of this instrument is represented fig. 6 is represented a sketch of an index furnished with its sights,
in fig. 4; it is capable of being and its fiducial edge; and in fig. 7 one of an index mounted with
used with great facility, and is sure a telescope. The latter index affords a more exact and a more ex.
to correct errors of graduation by tended line of sight than the former.
the repetition of the measurement

Fig. 6.
of angles ; but it possesses some
disadvantages which render it of

Fig. 7.
less value in the ordinary practice
of surveying, than some other io.
struments. Angles taken by this
instrument require to be reduced
to the plane of the horizon, and
involve a calculation for this pur-

pose which may be avoided by the use of the Theodolile. It possesses also certain other defects, not- We shall conclude this lesson by giving an account of the cire withstanding its simplicity and portability which have rendered its cumferentor, or common theodolite, used by surveyors for use unadvisable in practice.

the purpose of taking horizontal angles. It is founded on Reserving the description of the Theodolite for another lesson, the property which the magnetic needle possesses, when suson account of its importance, we proceed to explain the nature of a pended freely, of taking always the same direction in the same useful and simple instrument for surveying, called the Plane-Table. place, at least within a given small period. This instrument conThis instrument was invented towards the end of the 16th century, sists of a brass circle and index in one piece, commonly about seven by Praetorius, a German mathematician, and is used for drawing inches in diameter, with an index about fourteen inches long, and at once a plan of the ground to be measured, upon paper. It is one inch and a half broad. On the circle is a card or compass usually made of a square or rectangular form, and is supported on divided into 360 degrees ; of wbich the meridian line (that is, from a three-legged stand, which is made to move every way by means north to south) answers to the middle of the breadth of the index. of a ball and socket, or other moveable joint. The table has a There is soldered on the circumference a brass ring, on which moveable frame which is used to hold the paper fast on which the screws another ring with a flat glass in it, so as to form a sort of plan is to be drawn ; and the sides of the frame facing the paper box for the needle, which is suspended on a pin in the centre of are divided into equal parts every way, for the convenience of the circle. There are also two sights to screw on, and slide up drawing parallel or perpendicular lines. It is furnished with a and down the index ; as also a ball and socket screwed on the magnetic needle and compass, to point oat the directions of the under side of the circle, to receive the head of the three-legged lines drawn on the plan, and to be a check on the sights ; and an staff on which it is placed when in operation. This is the simpiest index with sights, or a telescope to determine their directions, and form of the circumferentor; but improved instruments of this to draw them on the paper at the same time. These sights, or kind are made in London, which answer in some measure the

1

Fig. 8

SUBJECT.

PREDICATE.

purpose of a theodolite. In The grammatical formula is thus made complete. The verb
fig. 8, there is a representation reads is, as we have seen, equivalent in grammar (or logic) to the
of the method of finding the form is good; where the former is the copula, and the latter the
angles traced on a plane, with attribute ; so that an attribute with its copula is equivalent to the
the needle of the compass. verb and its object, in forming the predicate of a proposition..
The parallelism which the The proposition which, as it stands, has all the essential parts of
needle preserves in its differ- a proposition, may receive additions in order to express modifica-
ent positions determines the tions of the meaning. Introduce and, then it runs,
angles of the polygons or

Alfred reads writing and manuscript.
rectilineal figures to be mea-
sured ; and it is then suffi- This particle and is termed a conjunction. Conjunctions (Latin,

cient to measure the sides cum, with, and jungo, I join) join together words and sentences. of the figures with the chain. In a future lesson, we shall And, in this case, unites manuscript with writing. Before writing, show the practical application of this process.

insert a; then the proposition stands thus :

Alfred reads a writing.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH--No, IV.

A is called an article (properly in Latin a little joint). A is called

the indefinite article, inasmuch as it leaves it indefinite what ob. By John R. BEARD, D.D.

ject is meant, merely intimating that it is not many objects but As in English nouns, there are at the most only two cases, so are only one object that is intended. A, indeed, is only a variety of we without an objective or accusative case. Yet sentences in Eng. our word one, ane. Being so, its original form was en. The n is lish, as in Latin, have their object. That object must be recognised. now dropt before a consonant for the sake of cuphony (Greek eu, Let it be called the object of the proposition, for so it is; in any well, and phoné, a sound ;-meaning agreeable sound). given instance let it be termed the object of the verb, for it is the Contrasted with the indefinite article a, is another form which object of tbe verb.

bears the name of the definite article; that is, the. The is a reduced Here you must carefully distinguish between a case and a relation. form of these. Consequently the refers to an object previously A case denotes a change in a noun corresponding to the change in mentioned or known; as, its relation. This you will see in these two propositions :

Alfred reads TIE writing.
(1) Deus fecit mundum

he reads, that is, some writing known to the speaker.
God maile the world.
(2) Duadus factus est a Deo

We have already found a form of speech which qualifies nouns,–
The world was made by God.

namely, the adjective. We may therefore insert a suitable adjecNow without knowing Latin you may clearly understand what tive in this lengthening form; thus :case means, and learn that in English we have no objective case. The Deus of number 1, becomes Deo in number 2 ; but in both,

Alfred reads the obscure writing and manuscript. the English word God remains the same, though in the former, is in what commonly called the nominative, and in the latter We have hitherto modified the predicate. Still more may it be in what is commonly called the ablative case. Look also at modified. The verb reads may undergo a modification of import. mundus and mundum, you see that the nominative mundus Introduce the word soon :is, in the objective or accusative case, changed into mundum. Here you clearly have two cases, but the English word world repre

Alfred sents both. Consequently if world is in the nominative it is not

Soon reads the obscure writing and manuscript. also in the objective case, for there is no alteration of form what. Two other parts of speech may be introduced by inserting the words ever. Yet in the latter case there is a change of relation ; for to me; as, while in number 1, world is the object ; in number 2, it is the auhirct of the proposition. The English then does not conform to the Latin custom of expressing diversity of relations in nouns by

Alfred soon reads TO ME the obscure writing and manuscript, diversity of form, or does so only in a limited degree. In fact the Me is a pronoun, as we found he to be. Me, you see, holds the tendency of the English language has long been to drop the ter- place of a noun. Me is the objective case corresponding to the minations and inflexions which it borrowed from its Anglo-Saxon nominative case I. Our pronouns, as you here see, have some parent. The tendency has for ages continued to become more and diversities of case, for in them you find varying forms correspondmore strong. It is a tendency which deserves encouragement, for ing to varieties of meaning. The other word just added, -in proportion as it is effectual, it gives freedom and power to the namely, to, is called a preposition. The word preposition signifies, language, and makes the acquisition of it easy, and the diffusion of according to its Latin element, that which is put before ; a preit rapid.

position, then, is a word put before a noun ; and it is put before a I have intimated that propositions have each an object as well as noun, il, order to modify its signification, or mark the relation in a subject. Such is generally the case, and such is the case more which the noun stands to another word, or to other words; e. g.widely than may at first appear. In our standard phrase, Alfred

he gave the book to rials, no object is expressed. And the statement may be made

he took the book from without any clear reference to an object. Verbs in which there is

he read the book with no reference, or no clear and obvious reference to an object, are

he bought the book of called intransitive verbs,—that is, verbs the action of which does where to, from, with, and of are prepositions. not (instransitive--in, not ; trans, across ; eo, I go) pass over to an object. Alfred sleeps, Alfred runs, Alfred rides, supply other

In the ordinary list of the parts of speech stands the participle. instances of intransitive verbs ; because in each case the action This word, of Latin origin, denotes the partaker (from pars, a part, remains with the subject. But these and most other intransitive and capio, I take). The participle is so denominated because it verbs may become transitive by having an object placed after them; shining is a participle from the verb to shine. It may also be ein

partakes of the qualities of the verb and the adjective. Thus e. 5:

Object.

Object.

ployed as an adjective. Thus,
INTRANSITIVE.
Alfred sleeps.
Alfred runs.

PARTICIPLE. The sun shining disperses the clouds.
TRANSITIVE. Alfred sleeps a deep sleep. Alfred runs a long way.

ADJECTIVE. The shining sun dazaies the eyes. INTRANSITIVE Alfred rices.

Alfred sings. TRANSITIVE. Alfred rides a fine horse. Alfred sings a fine song. speech has been contested not without reason. Perhaps less valid

The right of the participle to be accounted a separate part of If, however, propositions in general have an object, then we must is the claim of the interjection. An interjection (inter, between ; add an object to our grammatical formula ; thus :

and jacio, I cast) is a sound of surprise, or sorrow, thrown out SUBJECT.

under the impulse of strong and sudden emotion, as 0! Oh! Ah. Verb,

Object.

and is with little propriety placed among the forms of articulate Alfred reads

writing speech. Let us introduce a participle into our model.

SUBJECT.

PREDICATE,

SUBJECT.

PREDICATE.

me.

PREDICATE.

OBJECT,

the enemy

1 noun

8 adjective

9 conjunct.

5 adverb

6 verb

7 article

8 prepos. 9 pronoun

OBJECT.

1 conjunct. 2 interject.

3 noun

4 participle

5 adverb

6 verb

7 adjective

8 prepos.
9 article

CUBJECT.
PREDICATE.

SUBJECT.

PREDICATE.
Nelson

fought OBJECT. brave Nelson

fought

brave Nelson Alfred studying soon reads lo me the obscure writing and manuscript.

fought brave Nelson

often fought the enemy brave Nelson

often fought the cruel enemy brave Nelson, defying danger,

often fought the cruel enemy brave Nelson, defying danger and death, often fought the cruel enemy

(country.

brave Nelson, defying danger and death, often fought the enemy of his The form is thus seen to comprise nine parts of speech. If the interjection, or exclamation, is to be reckoned a part of speech it may be prefixed in the shape of Yes! Here, then, we find a condenised view of all the parts of speech, and in the remarks by which the view has been prefaced and prepared, lies the kernel of the entire Other explanatory words or phrases might be added. Thus to the English Grammar. If you have gone with me understandingly subject might be appended the words sailing from England, as thus far, you will have no difficulty in following me to the end, for

brave Nelson, sailing from England, and defying danger, fought. having developed these general facts and principles, I have now Or, you might qualify fought by the adverb successfully. You only to take up each part of speech in succession, and in connexion might also make the sentence compound by inserting after fought with it, enter into such particulars as may appear desirable with a the words, and conquered ; thus :view to my object.

brave Nelson fought and conquered the enemy, &c. Before I close the chapter, however, I will add a few general

SUBJECT.

PREDICATE remarks respecting the actual classification, which bears the name of the nine (or ten) parts of speech. The aim of the classifi. cation is to arrange under separate heads all the words of the and lo! Stanley rising quickly caused 'great wrath'in the king. English (or any other) language. Now a good classification has two qualities; first, it is exhaustive ; secondly, it is distinctive. It is exhaustive,—that is, it comprises and places under some suitable head, all the facts. It is distinctive,-that is, it makes such clear and sharp distinctions as to place the several facts each under its own head, without confounding similar facts together, or putting under In the last example, one part of speech is omitted to exercise the one head, facts which may as properly stand under another head. mind of the student, who is also expected to effect the reduction of

The classification under review is neither exhaustive nor dis the proposition to the name of being and the name of action. tinctive. It is not exhaustive, for it leaves out the infinitive mood Let the reader carefully study and analyse the following which has as good a right to be called a part of speech as the sentences :participle. It is not distinctive, for the term adjective makes no 1. Propositions without an object. 2. Propositions with an object. distinction where a distinction exists, and the term participle makes

Birds sing.

The sun lights the earth. a distinction where no distinction is required. Indeed the classi.

Cows graze.

The trees produce fruit. fication is wholly unscientific, being based not on a principle, but

Rabbits burrow.

The rain waters the meadows. Dogs fight.

Storms purify the air. on vague and general views. Something less objectionable may be

Children play. offered in the following words.

The universe proclaims its author.

Mice nibble. Speech corresponds to the realities which it represents. Those realities are thoughts and things. Now, thoughts and things may

Qualifying words may be added at will, as be reduced to three classes :-1, Objects ; 2, qualities of objects;

3. Propositions with a subject and object qualified. 3, actions. Consequently the essential parts of speech are the

My young brother teased the little animals.

Avaricious tradesmen overcharge all their goods. noun, the adjective, and the verb. But objects and their qualities

This charitable lady visits sick people. are the same things differently viewed. We may therefore strike

A diligent scholar learns all his lessons. out qualities. Thus we have two classes left,-namely, the noun

I subjoin some fragments to be made into complete sentences : and the veró. Verbs, however, are the names of action, as nouns are the names of being. Hence language resolves itself into names.

1. Propositions lacking subjects. 2. Propositions lacking objects. leads a blind man.

disobedient childien deserve We may, then, declare that speech is made up of names. These

aids his sick mother.

this wealthy man succours Dames may be expanded and divided into 1, names of being, or

neglect their duty.

the proud despise nouns ; 2, names of action, or verbs ; and 3, names of qualities, or avoids bad company.

thick clouds cover adjectives. Under the last head, or names of qualities, may stand promises a rich harvest.

a bad child grieves other parts of speech, for the adverb names the quality of the loves his earthly family.

an honest debtor pays action of the verb, and the article names the extent in which the delight their instructors. a faithful dog guards noun is to be taken. The term particles has not inappropriately restores the light of day. been applied to adverbs and conjunctions, for, to a considerable

cost much money. degree they appear to be parts (particles,--that is, little parts) or

3. Propositions lacking verbs. fragments of once existing nouns and verbs. If, however, our

the oldest sister - the younger ones.

the father analysis of language into names of being and names of action, is

his incorrigible son. correct, then the sentence which, as given above, contains all the

noisy boys the neighbourhood.

the police — public order. nine parts of speech, may be reduced to two; as,

a grateful daughter - tender mother.
SUBJECT.
PREDICATE,

the divine Saviour - our human infirmities.
Alfred
reads.

the providence of God - our lot on carth.
It may here be necessary, by anticipation, to inform the totally
uneducated student that, when the verb is singular it has 8 at the
end, when plural it is without s. The verb must be in the singular
number when the noun or pronoun connected with it denotes only
one person or thing; and the verb must be in the plural number

when the noun or pronoun connected with it denotes more than one and thus we are brought back to the very form with which we com- person or thing; e. 5.menced the chapter. Clearly, as compared with these two parts, SINGULAR : a boy loves; the house stands ; the duck swims, the other words in the sentence are incidental, and of small

PLURAL: boys love ; houses stand; ducks swim. moinent.

The rule might be put in another form, as, when the noun has an It may be desirable to give another germ or two expanded into s (or is in the plural) the verb is without ; and when the verb has the full forms,

an 8 the noun is without.

רודווו

I

Name of being

Name of action

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