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tion ; yet these are evidently employed by the writer to remove the

harshness of the double aspirate of h, for one of them is removed by GEOGRAPHY.—Many inquiries having been made about maps, we the use of an.— The question of DISCIPULUS (Wandsworth) is one in inform our correspondents and the public, that a series of maps are pre- Inverse Proportion ; for if you have to pay £600 in 105 days, and having paring, at a very great expense, -say from twenty to thirty pounds each, paid down £250 pow, you are to pay £350 in a certain time, this must be in order to illustrate our lessons on this subject ; and we hope that our greater than 105 days; therefore, say as £350: £600 :: 105 days : 180 subscribers, taking this into consideration, will do their best endeavours days, answer.—LLEWELLYNN LLOYD (Norwich): 5451776000 cubic to enlarge the circulation of the POPULAR EDUCATOR.

yards make a cubic mile; in a cubic yard there are 168 imperial gallons, EDUCATION CLASSES.-Our proposal on this subject has been well and nearly a quarter of a gallon more; or, more accurately, this fracreceived. Still, owing to the bustle created by the prospect of a general tion is about four-fifteenths of a gallon. election, we fear that our wealthy and liberal friends in the great cause DEXTER (York): 26 numbers will form a volume, with which a title. of Popular Education, have their attention too much distracted to make page and index will be given.-E. G. (Loughborough). We would a public move at present.

advise him not to take 100 much in hand at once. Certainly it is J. M. I -The term "rock" is, in Geology, applied to all the mineral very tempting to find a new and interesting subject brought on the masses which compose the crust of the earth, whether they be clay or carpet; but let him remember that it will keep till he has mastered sand, soft or hard,-e g., any soft clay is a rock. A book lying on the the old. CYNFELYN (Bala): The diameters of the orbits of Jupitable has all its leaves horizontal and parallel ; but if it be partly ter's satellites or moons are in round numbers as follows :-- the first 261,000 opened, and put to rest on the table with its back upwards, the leaves miles, the second 118,000 miles, the third 666,000 miles, and the fourth will dip, some to the right and the o:hers to the left. The two down-1175,000 miles.-ZAMPA (Manchester): We do not believe that the ward strokes in the letter A dip in different directions. Fossil wood and earth has increased one atom since it was created; but we believe that vegetables are not reckoned“ beings" in the science of Palæontology. it has undergone many wonderful changes in form ; and that such

FRENCH.-J. W. (York), and R. MELLORS (Nottingham): The changes are still going on. Still not a single particle of matter is lost; French grammarians say, We have only one article in French, which it has only assumed another form, under the action of the powers, and s, le for the inasculine singular, la for the feminine singular, and les for according to the laws of the material world. This consideration renders the plural of both genders; as, Le mérite, LA rertu, Les talents ont droit the sublime tenet of the resurrection possible, even to the uninstructed à nos hommages ;" that is, inerit, virtue, talents, hare a right to our respect, mind.-A Golfdrum Weaver (Dunfermline): Lessons will be given in They also say, “Gender is the property which substantives possess of modern as well as ancient history, representing the distinction of the sexes. There are consequently two GEOMETRY.–AN Anxious INQUIRER (Newcastle-on-Tyne), is in. genders, the masculine for the names of male beings, as man, lion; and formed that “Cassell's Edition of Euclid,” now in the press will supply ihe feminine for the names of female beings, as woman, lioness. Substan- all the information he requires on the subject of this study. He is riglit tives representing inanimate beings ought to have no gender; yet custom as to the misprint of + for X in page 121, col. 2, line 23 from the has assigned to them, but arbitrarily, both genders. Thus, soleil, chuteau, bottom. His answers to the queries are not exactly to the point; we pays, have been made of the masculine gender, and lune, maison, ville, shall take an opportunity of explaining the subject more fully. of the feminine gender."

UN JEUNE COMMis has been received. In answer to come correTrois EcoLIERS ATTENTIFS (I.iverpool): The imperfect past tense spondents, the FREACH LESSONS may be had by post on receipt of 7 j'avais is employed to signify I was having, or I used to have ; it leaves the penny stamps. beginning, middle, and end of the action undetermined. The definite past tense j'eus, is employed to signify I had, or did have; it denotes an

LITERARY NOTICES. action completed and entirely past.—Epith M-IE, (Oxfordshire): Du, des, de la, are used before substantives in a partitive sense, that is, to denote

HISTORY OF THE PAINTERS OF ALL Nations. The first part of a part or a portion of the persons or things spoken of: thus, il a du this magnificent work, in imperial quarto, containing a portrait of papier,—that is, quelque papier ; vous avez de la fortune, that is, quelque Murillo, and seven specimens of his choicest works, including the “Confortune ; nous possedons des amis,—that is, quelque amis. The article is ception of the Virgin," lately in the collection of Marshal Soult, and omitted and de alone is used when the substantive taken in a partitive recently purchased by the French Government for the Gallery of the sense is preceded by an adjective; thus, donnez moi de bon pain; je bois Louvre, for the sum of £23,410, is now ready. The successive parts d'excellente bière ; il possede de belles maisons. But in the second part of will appear on the first of every month, at 28. each, and will be supplied the French lessons more specific rules will be given —J. W.S. (Glasgow): through every bookseller in town or country. The French exercises are so constructed that with a very little perse - GEOMETRY, containing the First Six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth

CASSELL'S SAILLING EDITION OF EUCLID.—THE ELEMENTS OF verance, it will be seen that the English exercises form a sort of key to the French, and the French to the English.-P. M. K. (Greenock): There Books of Euclid, from the text of Robert Simson, M.D., Emeritus are three kinds of negation in French: ne, ne pas, and ne point; thus, Professor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow; with corections, je n'ose, je n'ose pas, and je n'ose point ; all signify I dare not ; but ne is Annotations, and Exercises, by Robert Wallace, A.M., of the same the secblest negation, ne point the strongest, and ne pas the medium state university, and Collegiate Tutor of the University of London, will be The words pas and point ure omitted when there is in the sentence any ready early in July, price 1s. in stiff covers, or 18. 6d. neat cloth. expression or word having a negative meaning; as, guère, jamais, nul, first two volumes of this instructive series of works, " The Life of

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“ The TABERNACLE, its PRIESTS, and SERVICES," with twelve engravthe morning, and another in the evening. Let them be as different as ings, are now ready. The “ LIFE OF MOSES” is in the press. possible, and take the hardest in the morning.-An IGNORANT YOUTII

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HISTORY OF HUNGARY, WITH UPWARDS OF Eighty ILLUSTRATIONS. instead of AMICUS VERITATIS wishes us to give lessons on the theory Friend, neatly bound in cloths, price 3s. Cd., contains the completext

- The First Volume of the New Series of the WORKING Maui's and practice of Jogarithms. Now this we intend to do when the proper 1Jistory of Hungary ever

published ; also, a History of China and the time arrives. But the mistakes in his letter convince us that we are taking the right method by earnestly insisting on the study of language Buildings, Domestic Scenes, &c., of this most remarkable people; to

Chinese, with Forty-six Illustrations of the Manners, Customs, Public first, as the proper medium for communicating thought and ideas accu-gether with numerous instructive Tales and Narratives ; Biograpluics, rately to the mind. As to the reasou why two-thirds of the perpen: with Portraits; Scientific and Miscellaneous Articles, &c. dicular height of the triangle is the centre or point directly over which the fourth tree must stand, we say that if a circle be described about

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THE PATHWAY, a Monthly Religious Magazine, is published on tlie for himself, Botany, Natural History, and German--a good interchange. Ornithology shall find its place and time. A CONSTANT READER shall wrapper. Vols. I. and II., neatly bound in cloth and lettered, price have drawing -W. L. (Somerset-place) should get an admission ticket 25. 3d. each, are now ready. to the British Museum, where he might read all day, and be sure to

* PORTFOLIOS for enclosing 26 numbers of THE POPULAR EDUCAlind Horne Tooke's " Diversions of l'urley." The study of two lan-Ton, price 18. 6d., may be procured at our office. These Portfolios are guages such as the Italian and Spanish might facilitate each other, but so constructed as to form, upon the completion of each volume, a neat we think a language and a science are better companions.—The plan of Case for binding the same, which will be done at a trifling expense boy 1'. B. K. (Macclesticid) would defeat the purpose of making good scholars;

any bookbinder. singwering questions would then become mere school routine.-LUCIAS Printed and Published by JOIN CASSELL, 335, Strand, aud Ludgate-kül, is purdians rather lıypercritical; the a and the an croaped our observa

London.- June 26, 1852,



The sun of Egypt was now fast setting. Ptolemy Epiphanes, tion he ascribed to his brother, and he took the field against him. the son of Philopater, ascended the throne B.C. 204, imitated his Philometor came off victorious, but treated Physcon with the father in dissipation and debauchery, and at the age of 30, fell a utmost leniency, reinstated him in his dominions, and added to victim to vice or poison. During his minority the regency was his territorial possession. transferred to the Roman senate, which saved Egypt from being Philometor having thus asserted his right to the island of involved in the Macedonian or Syrian war. Ptolemy Philo Cyprus, invested one Archias with the office of governor. He metor, son of the preceding, came to the throne B.C. 181. During proved a traitor. He agreed with Demetrius, king of Syria, his minority, a war commenced with Antiochus, the king of to give up the island to him for five hundred talents. His treason Syria. Philometor was taken prisoner; and the Alexandrians was discovered, and to escape the punishment due to his crime despairing of his release, raised his brother Physcon to the throne, he put an end to his life. Philometor now sought to avenge under the title of Evergetes II. Scarcely bad he seized the reins himself on Demetrius, and set up in the person of Alexander of government, when he was deposed by Antiochus, who restored | Balas, a pretender to the crown of Syria. But though Philo

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the whole kingdom, except Pelusium, to Philometor. The two metor faithfully maintained the pretensions of the usurper, and brothers agreed to reign jointly, and to make common cause oven gave him his own daughter in marriage, Balas dared soon against the common enemy. But no sooner did they feel them- | afterwards to enter into a conspiracy against his benefactor. selves secure against foreign power than they quarrelled. Their This roused the wrath of Philometor so much that he marched differences came to such a height that Philometor was a second against Balas. In an engagement which followed, he came off time driven from the throne. He appealed to the Roman senate, victorious; the wounds, however, which he received caused his who divided the Egyptian dominions between the two brothers. death after a reign of thirty-six years. Though the treaty was confirmed with oaths and accompanying By the death of his brother, and his marriage with Cleopatra, sacrifices, it was not kept inviolate. Physcon was dissatisfied, his brother's widow, Physcon came to the throne of Egypt. and tried every possible expedient to wrest the island of Cyprus on the day of his marriage with Cleopatra, he caused her infant from his brother. His unjust procedure awakened the opposition This was followed by cruelties towards his subjects. He put to of his own subjects, who laid in wait for his life. This opposi- death all who showed the least pity for the death of the young VOL. I.


prince; and treated the Jews, who took the side of Cleopatra, their revolt. Berenice, the daughter of Auletes, occupied the as slaves. He punished small crimes as capital offences, and throne of Egypt, by the consent of the people. The accession and endeavoured to crush the spirit of his people. He divorced his subsequent marriage of this daughter, increased the fears of queen, to marry her daughter, his niece; but the violence and Auletes. Through great influence, he contrived to get several wickedness of his conduct made him so obnoxious to his subjects, of the more distinguished members of the embassy put to death; that he was compelled to abandon the throne. He fled to the to procure an acquittal for those who did the deed, and to enlist island of Cyprus, taking with him the unhappy victim of his the sympathies and the arms of the Romans on his behalf. After passion, and his son Memphitis, her mother's child.

a series of low intrigues with the senate, Auletes regained his On his fight, the Alexandrians gave the crown to the divorced throne. He reigned only about three years, and died, leaving but rightful queen. It sat not with ease upon her brow. In two sons and two daughters to the guardianship and tuition of Cyprus, Physcon still held the idea of regaining the throne of the Roman people. Egypt.' He sent for a son he had left in Alexandria, and fearing His daughter Cleopatra, having won the heart of Julius Cæsar his accession to the throne, cansed him to be put to death. His by her charms, contrived, through him, to set aside the claims of next step was to cause the lifeless, mangled corpse of his son her brothers and sister, and was proclaimed queen of Egypt. For Memphitis, to be sent as a present to the mother on her birthday; a time she exercised the most powerful influence over the Roman The horror and detestation awakened by these unparalleled warrior. After his death, she tried her consummate arts on cruelties, raised the spirit of vengeance among his people. An Marc Antony, and overcame him as she had done Cæsar, by the army was raised, and war was proclaimed. °Physcon hired a force of her charms. In the battle of Actium, which decided the wmerous body of mercenaries, and sent them, under able com- contest for power between her new lover and the heir of Cæsar, mand, against the Egyptians.' A bloody contest ensued on the Antony was defeated. Soon afterwards he put an end to his frontiers of Egypt, when victory declared in favour of this in existence. In the ruin which he thus brought upon himself, human tyrant. Cleopatra, the divorced but reigning queen, Cleopatra is considered to have been deeply involved. In the appealed to Demetrius, king of Syria, for succour and support; year following his defeat and death, she was taken prisoner by but, after an unsuccessful struggle, Cleopatra was forced to flee Augustus Cæsar. In order to avoid the disgrace of being yoked to Ptolemais, and take up her abode with her own daughter, the to his triumphal car, she poisoned herself, and died the victim of queen of Syria. Physcon was restored to the throne of Egypt, her own pride and passion, even before her charms had begun to and held the sceptre till the day of his death, which took place at fade. This event took place about 30 years before the Christian Alexandria, in the 47th year of his age, and 29th of his reign. era; and from that day, Egypt, the land which had formed the He left behind him two sons by bis niece Cleopatra, Ptolemy cradle of the arts and sciences, and the birthplace of letters and Lathyrus, and Ptolemy Alexander.

philosophy, dwindled into a Roman province. For a considerable Lathyrus ascended the throne about B.c. 116. Cleopatra en period afterwards Egypt maintained its pre-eminence, as the seat deavoured to secure the crown for her younger son Alexander, of wealth; and, in a commercial point of view, Alexandria conbut without success. The Alexandrians favoured Lathyrus, but tinued to be the most busy and influential city of the world. But he was afterwards compelled to give up the government of Egypt with the death of Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemies, closes

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for that of Cyprus. Cleopatra then sought to associate her son the ancient history of a people whose life has impressed the Alexander with herself in the sovereignty of the kingdom. But world with the profoundest wonder and the deepest spirit of inhe caused her to be murdered, and lost his throne. Mis subjects quiry. The hieroglyphics of that people may yet be deciphered, revolted and restored Lathyrus. On his restoration, Lathyrus their language read, their mysteries unveiled, and their whole turned his arms against Thebes. . After a siege of three years, historical life better understood and appreciated. he reduced that city and stripped it of its glory. He passed the rest of his reign in comparative peace and tranquillity, and

RUINS OF ANCIENT EGYPT. died, B.C. 81, leaving one daughter, and two illegitimate sons, Ptolemy of Cyprus, and Ptolemy Aúletes.

In our first lesson, reference was made to Thebes with its After the death of Lathyrus, the son of his brother Alexander sublime greatness of dimensions, and its finished magnificence of ascended the throne. He proved himself scarcely less a monster decorations, which made it the admiration of the world. We than his father. Having murdered his queen, and provoked the think of the handred-gated city, occupying a site of one hundred revolt of his subjects, he fled to Pompey the Great, who was then and forty furlongs in circumference, and sending forth its twice carrying on the war against Mithridates, king of Pontus, and ten thousand armed chariots. We think of its temples, and shut himself up in the city of Tyre. On his death-bed, he be- statues, and columns, and obelisks. We enter the temple of queathed his kingdom to the Roman senate. Meanwhile, the Luxor, through a magnificent gateway, which is two hundred Egyptians made ÅULETES king. In virtue of Alexander's will, feet in width, and fifty-seven above the present level of the soil; the Romans contested with him the right of possession. The and as we enter we find the vestibule of this noble edifice_filled dispute ended in favour of Auletes, who surpassed all his pre- with sculptures representing the triumphs of some of the Egypdecessors in the weakness of his character, and in the effeminacy tian kings, while the walls of the building exhibit in beautiful of his manners. Conscious of this, he sought an alliance with relief, battles, hunting-scenes, and other kindred subjects. But Rome. As this could only be purchased at an immense cost, all this must give place to the grandeur in which the temple of Auletes imposed new and heavy taxes on his people, in order tó Carnac rises before us. Its chief or western front is towards the raise the necessary sum. Against this imposition they rebelled, Nile, from whose banks it stands at the distance of two thousand and the king had to make his escape. Leaving Alexandria, he five hundred feet, with a splendid avenue leading down to the set sail for Rome, and landed on the island of Rhodes. Here it river. We walk slowly along between the majestic and calmly. is said that he had an interview with Cato, who advised him to reposing sphinxes up to the still more magnificent vestibule of the return to his kingdom. Auletes not being in a position to take building. Passing through this colossal entrance, which is about this counsel, left Rhodes for Rome. On his arrival, he found that three hundred feet long, and one hundred and ninety-eight feet Cæsar was in Gaul. He occupied his time in going from house high, we come into a large court full of lofty and imposing to house, and soliciting the votes of the senators. While he was pillars, find ourselves in the presence of colossal statues, pass on thus engaged, an embassy from Alexandria, consisting of a thou and gn through a second entrance, and after ascending a flight of sand citizens, came to acquaint the senate with the grounds of seve-and-twenty steps, enter that gorgeous bail, whose area

porsesent condition

measures 57,629 square feet, and at the foot of wlose one hundred To whom, on his deathbed, did he make over the kingdom and all and forty-four columns, the imagination sinks abashed.

his own rights ?-How, and through what agency, did Auletes At the Persian conquest, Thebes was in great part destroyed secure an alliance with the Roman senate ?--How long, after his by fire. Little was done under the Ptolemies to restore or em- restoration, did he enjoy the sovereignty of Egypt ? --Were the bellish it;,her people lost all courage and soul; having rebelled claims of Auletes' sons justly set aside by his daughter Cleopatra in the reign of Lathyrus, the city, after a three years' siege, was Can you relate the conduct of Cleopatra, and what was her enditaken and pillaged, and gradually declined, till under the Romans At what point does the ancient history of Egypt close ?-What are it lost the last semblanco of wealth or power. And what is her the chief ruins of that celebrated nation - What happened to

“The whole of this great extent is more or Thebes at the time of the Persian conquest ?- Was anything done strewed with ruins, broken columns, and avenues of sphinxes, by the Ptolemies to restore it; and what is its present condition colossal figures, obelisks, pyramidal gateways, porticoes, blocks What city was the rival of Thebes, and in what did it seek to of polished granite, and stones of extraordinary magnitude:- rival that first capital ?- Describe its size and its ruins. What while above them, in all the nakedness of desolation, the colossal converted Memphis into the centre of Egyptian idolatry ?-Are skeletons of giants' temples are standing in the unwatered sands, there any remains to attest the former magnificence of Helio. in solitude and silence. They are neither gray, nor blackened:

- polis, or City of the Sun ?-With what portion of Sacred History there is no lichen, no moss, no rank grass, or mantling ivy to robe is Heliopolis associated ?-Does the fall of Egypt enter into any them, and conceal their deformities. Like the bones of man, of the predictions of the inspired volume ? -Under what figures they seem to whiten under the sun of the desert. The sand of does Ezekiel foretel the overthrow of the kings of Nineveh, Africa has been their most fearful enemy:--blown upon them Babylon, and Egypt? for more than three thousand years, it has buried the largest monuments, and, in some instances, almost entire temples.”.

[The ancient history of Egypt being concluded, we deem it The rival of Thebes was Memphis, both as a regal residence advisable, in the present state of our progress, to postpone the and the

seat of commerce. This magnificent city, whose founda- Lessons in Ancient History, until we shall have finished some of the tion and erection have been ascribed to Menes, extended half a

more important lessons now going on, especially those that are day's journey in every direction, and, with its splendid temple, is in the greatest demand among our subscribers and the public in declared by no mean authority to offer to the spectator, even now

general. These lessons will of course be resumed at the earliest in its ruins,“ a union of things which confound him, and which possible period, in order to render our work a complete encyclothe most eloquent man in vain would attempt to describe. As pædia of instruction. We say this in the most decided manner, in to the figures of idols found among these ruins, whether we con- order that no one may feel the slightest disappointment at their sider their numbers or their prodigious size, the thing is beyond

discontinuance. Wo find, indeed, from our numerous corredescription. But the accuracy of their forms, the justness of spondents, that the present lessons in the languages and in the their proportions, and their resemblance to nature, are most elementary sciences, are deemed by them of so much importance, worthy of admiration." One which was measured by this tra- that we cannot do our subscribers a greater service than to conveller was, without its pedestal, “ more than thirty cubits; its time them regularly and fully as we have hitherto done. As to breadth from right to left was about ten cubits; and from front to relief from the harder studies in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, we back it was thick in proportion. This statue was formed of a single can most properly recommend the study of Geology, which is in piece of red granite, and was covered with a red varnish, to fact a species of ancient history, older than that of the Antediwhich its antiquity seomed to give only a new freshness." Men- luvians themselves, not to mention Egypt or Assyria, and one phis was the centro of Egyptian idolatry. There the bull APIs which is sure to interest the majority of our readers, and prove was bred, nurtured, enshrined, and worshipped.

an excellent succedaneum (that which succeeds) for the present, of Heliopolis, or the City of the Sun, but little remains to to the lessons whose place they have now taken] awaken the impression of its former magnificence. It is situated north-east of Cairo, and is famous for the celebrated fountain of the sun, to which, if we may trust tradition, the Holy Family came on their flight from Herod. Near this is the pillar of On, LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-No. III. or obelisk of Heliopolis, which is sixty-seven feet high and six feet square at the base, and which is formed of one entire block

By Thomas W. JENKYN, D.D., F.G.S. of reddish granite. This obelisk is one of the most ancient existing monuments of Egyptian art, and from the execution and ar- You will now refresh your recollections of what has been rangement of its hieroglyphics, which are the same on all sides, said, in the second lesson, about the cooling cinder, the cait may be inferred that Heliopolis had at an early period reached a high degree of social refinement and artistic skill. It is the vity inside of it, and the melted globule floating at the bottom

of it. same with the On or Aven of Scripture: and since we read that Joseph married a daughter of the priest or prince of On, it thus

This melted globule is supposed to have in it, or about it, the becomes associated with one of the most touching and 'lite-like means of perpetuating, and even of increasing its burning heat. histories that the world has ever produced. Some have conjec- You can imagine that the materials of which ihe cinder is comtured that it was here the deeply-moving interview took place posed, and which lie nearest the bottom, or the sides, or the between Joseph and his brethren. Be that as it may, nothing roof of the cavity, are more fusible, or more easily melted, than remains but the solitary obelisk, which we have just described, other component parts of it. The consequence of this easier and a few broken fragments of the temple in which the bull fusibility, will be that the dimensions of the cavity will widen

nevis was worshipped, to attest its previous existence. As in and deepen, and that the quantity of the melted matter will the case of Memphis," the dream of idolatry has passed away; the become greatly increased. With the enlargement of the grand, all-in wrapping mists of ungodliness have melted into air cavity, and with the accumulation of the melted mass, the before the Sun of Truth, and the Christian traveller mingles pity intensity of the heat will also be greatly increased. with his wonder as he looks upon these splendid baubles of the old world-these playthings which Time and Truth have united

It would depend on the intensity of the heat, and the thickin breaking.”

ness of the crust, whether the roof above would be worn down The subject of Egypt's overthrow and ruin enters largely into by melting, would become swelled out on the surface, or the predictions of the inspired volume. With great elegance and whether the entire crust would be cracked through by fissures. force does Ezekiel describe the fall of that ancient kingdom and All melted matter has a tendency to expand and to rise; and, of all the allied powers. Under the image of a fair cedar of accordingly, it acquires an elevating force, which will cause Lebanon, once tall, flourishing, and majestic, but now cut down the mass that may lie on its surface to swell out in the form of and withered, with its broken branches strewed, he represents a curve. In this process of elevation the heat will produce, in the fall of the king of Nineveh ; applies the same to the monarch the superincumbent matter, many cracks and fissures. These of Babylon, as a true picture of his impending fate; while the cracks are never likely to be in right lines, or in perpendicular head of Egypt, like a beast of prey, is caught, slain, and his car: lines parallel to each other ; but they will be rather in direccass left to be devoured by the beasts of the forest or the fowls tions which, if continued, would join in points or angles. of heaven,

Imagine that the crust of the earth were cut through, so that QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.

you could see the face of it, just as you can see the lines in a By what means did Physcon lift himself into the seat of supreme which were made by the intense heat in the first instance,

section of a divided lemon. You could then mark the cracks power --Describe the character of this prince.-After bis tiight to Cyprus, how did he recover the crown from his divorced queen ?~ before the fused matter had acted on the fissures themselves. Relate the chief events which marked the reign of Lathyrus.- Who The fissures would appear like those represented in fig. 2; succeeded Lathyrus on the throne, and what was his charaoter - and the body of the crust would appear, between the different



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fissures, something like wedges whose sharp points had been the expansive power of heat seeks a vent. It will either avail cut off.

itself of one of the fissures already made, though now partly The burning heat which

Fig. 2.

closed, or it will form a has produced these fis

fresh one. By means of sures will now apply its


this vent, formed through elevating force to the

the entire crust, the exdifferent wedge-shaped

panding force will throw masses. The wedges B, D,

up the melted matter to F, present larger surfaces

the surface, where, upon the fire than the

cooling, it will form a wedges A, C, E, do. The

hill or mountain, By consequence is, that the

the same elevating power, elevating force of the heat H


it will also fill up any of below will have greater

the crevices or fissures power upon B, D, F, and will

which the previous action therefore push them up. THE FIRST CRACKING OF THE EARTH'S CRUBT.

of heat may have left in As these are pushed up, it may be that the wedges A, C, E, the crust. Fig. 4, will assist your conception of this eruptive which have their smaller end downwards, will also sink a little, process. until they become jammed between the others; and that they Here, in one case the vent a c is open from the matter in fusion, would become so, before they would descend low enough for the at , through the entire crust a, a, up to the surface at A, and heat to act on them to keep them up.

the melted rock is thrown up into a mountain at B. In the The consequence of such a process will be, that the wedge- two other cases, at p and e, the fused matter is injected into shaped masses, whose broader sides are downwards, will be fissures, and form what miners and geologists call "dikes." elevated above the other wedges A, C, E. The heaved-up sur- As the melted matter was heaved up to the arched roof of face will then appear uneven and rugged; that is, the crust of the cavity, and as the roof above was cooler than the fused the earth will put on the appearance of mountains, table-lands, mass below, the fluid when it came into contact with the roof, and valleys, as represented in fig. 3.

would, while partly altering it, become, in the process of On the supposition that, by some means, the elevating power cooling, crystallised, or, perhaps, vitrified into a hardened rock, of heat be either withdrawn, or pomewhat suspended, your and would thus gradually form a new roof over the matter in eye, on looking at fig. 2,

Fig. 3.

fusion. It is probable will tell you at once that

that at this day there the masses thus heaved


may be masses of fused

F up and cracked, will never

matter in the process of again fall into their first

cooling, at the depth of position in reference to

several miles, in some im. the fissures. The roof of

mense cavities around the the cavity will now be

vents of volcanoes, and formed into a compact

that they are forming beds arch capable of supporting

below beds which increase itself, if the abutments of

downwards as they cool the

H н


and crystallise. These enough. As soon as the

deep formations will rearch would be thus formed, THE ELEVATION AND SUBSIDENCE OF DIFFERENT MASSES IN THE CRUST

main invisible and unthe heat at i would begin


known till either some to melt the wedges C

mighty changes in the and E, which would supply the melted lake with additional earth’s crust, or elevating power from below shall snap the bulk of matter, while all the interior mass would be still crust, and throw up the rocks into the open air as repremaintained in a state of fusion or fluidity.

sented in fig. 5. When you make further progress in the knowledge of geo- While you examine carefully fig. 4, keep in mind that our logical phenomena, you will learn that our imaginary arch has imagined mass of cinder, or the crust of the earth, is many not, in many instances, been able to support itself. It is possible scores of miles in thickness, from the surface down to the roof that the body of the arch was so near the lake of fused matter of the cavity. The bottom and the sides of the cavity are as even to lie on its surface, to float on it, and to be kept up by constantly in a state of being melted and torn away, to increase it; or it is possible that certain parts of the arch as c or E, or the glowing fluid. The intense action of the fire on the bottom even D or F, may sink down to the very bottom of H, , may be melting deep rocks, which may consist of materials and there form new support for it. The consequence of this very different from those of the first roof, and also from breaking down of certain masses will be that, instead of one large lake, we shall now

those which, by cooling or crystallising below, have formed an

additional roof. have a number of lakes

Fig. 4.

Let A A, fig.5, represent formed, which will be

the first hardened crust connected with each other by narrow chan

of the earth, B B the nenels running between

ther-formed (hypogene)

rock which first, in a the masses that have fallen down. The facts

fused state, was heaved represented in fig. 3 are

against the roof, and important, as they will

a then by bursting the materially assist you

crust, forced the fissure

c, and formed the mounwhen you come to ex

tain d above and the amine what geologists


crystallised bed below,

After the cooling of the trata, or to account for

rock B, B the expansion he displacement of beds on the opposite sides of a fault of the heat below requires again an outlet to get rid of its The beds, or strata, a, a, and x, x, which are seen to be parallel materials accumulated by the constant fusion of the bottom to each other in fig. 2, are found at unequal depths in fig. 3. and the sides, and perhaps of the new roof. And now another

Let us once more suppose that the heat under the crust of vent x is formed, and other fissures are made in the crust; the earth becomes more intense ; that, consequently, the the melted matter is thrown up from f, P to form a new mounquantity of melted matter becomes greatly increased, and that tain at e, differing in lithological character from that at

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