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prince; and treated the Jews, who took the side of Cleopatra, their revolt. Berenice, the daughter of Auletes, occupied the as slaves. He punished small crimes as capital offences, and throne of Egypt, by the consent of the people. The accession and endeavoured to crush the spirit of his people. He divorced his subsequent marriage of this daughter, increased the fears of queen, to marry her daughter, his niece; but the violence and Auletes. Through great influence, he contrived to get several wickedness of his conduct made him so obnoxious to his subjects, of the more distinguished members of the embassy put to death; that he was compelled to abandon the throne. He fled to the to procure an acquittal for those who did the deed, and to enlist island of Cyprus, taking with him the unhappy victim of his the sympathies and the arms of the Romans on his behalf. After passion, and his son Memphitis, her mother's child.

a series of low intrigues with the senate, Auletes regained his On his fight, the Alexandrians gave the crown to the divorced throne. He reigned only about three years, and died, leaving but rightful queen. It sat not with ease upon her brow. In two sons and two daughters to the guardianship and tuition of Cyprus, Physcon still held the idea of regaining the throne of the Roman people. Egypt.' He sent for a son he had left in Alexandria, and fearing His daughter Cleopatra, having won the heart of Julius Cæsar his accession to the throne, cansed him to be put to death. His by her charms, contrived, through him, to set aside the claims of next step was to cause the lifeless, mangled corpse of his son her brothers and sister, and was proclaimed queen of Egypt. For Memphitis, to be sent as a present to the mother on her birthday; a time she exercised the most powerful influence over the Roman The horror and detestation awakened by these unparalleled warrior. After his death, she tried her consummate arts on cruelties, raised the spirit of vengeance among his people. An Marc Antony, and overcame him as she had done Cæsar, by the army was raised, and war was proclaimed. °Physcon hired a force of her charms. In the battle of Actium, which decided the wmerous body of mercenaries, and sent them, under able com- contest for power between her new lover and the heir of Cæsar, mand, against the Egyptians.' A bloody contest ensued on the Antony was defeated. Soon afterwards he put an end to his frontiers of Egypt, when victory declared in favour of this in existence. In the ruin which he thus brought upon himself, human tyrant. Cleopatra, the divorced but reigning queen, Cleopatra is considered to have been deeply involved. In the appealed to Demetrius, king of Syria, for succour and support; year following his defeat and death, she was taken prisoner by but, after an unsuccessful struggle, Cleopatra was forced to flee Augustus Cæsar. In order to avoid the disgrace of being yoked to Ptolemais, and take up her abode with her own daughter, the to his triumphal car, she poisoned herself, and died the victim of queen of Syria. Physcon was restored to the throne of Egypt, her own pride and passion, even before her charms had begun to and held the sceptre till the day of his death, which took place at fade. This event took place about 30 years before the Christian Alexandria, in the 47th year of his age, and 29th of his reign. era; and from that day, Egypt, the land which had formed the He left behind him two sons by bis niece Cleopatra, Ptolemy cradle of the arts and sciences, and the birthplace of letters and Lathyrus, and Ptolemy Alexander.

philosophy, dwindled into a Roman province. For a considerable Lathyrus ascended the throne about B.c. 116. Cleopatra en period afterwards Egypt maintained its pre-eminence, as the seat deavoured to secure the crown for her younger son Alexander, of wealth; and, in a commercial point of view, Alexandria conbut without success. The Alexandrians favoured Lathyrus, but tinued to be the most busy and influential city of the world. But he was afterwards compelled to give up the government of Egypt with the death of Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemies, closes

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for that of Cyprus. Cleopatra then sought to associate her son the ancient history of a people whose life has impressed the Alexander with herself in the sovereignty of the kingdom. But world with the profoundest wonder and the deepest spirit of inhe caused her to be murdered, and lost his throne. Mis subjects quiry. The hieroglyphics of that people may yet be deciphered, revolted and restored Lathyrus. On his restoration, Lathyrus their language read, their mysteries unveiled, and their whole turned his arms against Thebes. . After a siege of three years, historical life better understood and appreciated. he reduced that city and stripped it of its glory. He passed the rest of his reign in comparative peace and tranquillity, and

RUINS OF ANCIENT EGYPT. died, B.C. 81, leaving one daughter, and two illegitimate sons, Ptolemy of Cyprus, and Ptolemy Aúletes.

In our first lesson, reference was made to Thebes with its After the death of Lathyrus, the son of his brother Alexander sublime greatness of dimensions, and its finished magnificence of ascended the throne. He proved himself scarcely less a monster decorations, which made it the admiration of the world. We than his father. Having murdered his queen, and provoked the think of the handred-gated city, occupying a site of one hundred revolt of his subjects, he fled to Pompey the Great, who was then and forty furlongs in circumference, and sending forth its twice carrying on the war against Mithridates, king of Pontus, and ten thousand armed chariots. We think of its temples, and shut himself up in the city of Tyre. On his death-bed, he be- statues, and columns, and obelisks. We enter the temple of queathed his kingdom to the Roman senate. Meanwhile, the Luxor, through a magnificent gateway, which is two hundred Egyptians made ÅULETES king. In virtue of Alexander's will, feet in width, and fifty-seven above the present level of the soil; the Romans contested with him the right of possession. The and as we enter we find the vestibule of this noble edifice_filled dispute ended in favour of Auletes, who surpassed all his pre- with sculptures representing the triumphs of some of the Egypdecessors in the weakness of his character, and in the effeminacy tian kings, while the walls of the building exhibit in beautiful of his manners. Conscious of this, he sought an alliance with relief, battles, hunting-scenes, and other kindred subjects. But Rome. As this could only be purchased at an immense cost, all this must give place to the grandeur in which the temple of Auletes imposed new and heavy taxes on his people, in order tó Carnac rises before us. Its chief or western front is towards the raise the necessary sum. Against this imposition they rebelled, Nile, from whose banks it stands at the distance of two thousand and the king had to make his escape. Leaving Alexandria, he five hundred feet, with a splendid avenue leading down to the set sail for Rome, and landed on the island of Rhodes. Here it river. We walk slowly along between the majestic and calmly. is said that he had an interview with Cato, who advised him to reposing sphinxes up to the still more magnificent vestibule of the return to his kingdom. Auletes not being in a position to take building. Passing through this colossal entrance, which is about this counsel, left Rhodes for Rome. On his arrival, he found that three hundred feet long, and one hundred and ninety-eight feet Cæsar was in Gaul. He occupied his time in going from house high, we come into a large court full of lofty and imposing to house, and soliciting the votes of the senators. While he was pillars, find ourselves in the presence of colossal statues, pass on thus engaged, an embassy from Alexandria, consisting of a thou and gn through a second entrance, and after ascending a flight of sand citizens, came to acquaint the senate with the grounds of seve-and-twenty steps, enter that gorgeous bail, whose area measures 57,629 square feet, and at the foot of whose one hundred | To whom, on his deathbed, did he make over the kingdom and all and forty-four columns, the imagination sinks abashed.

his own rights ?-How, and through what agency, did Auletes At the Persian conquest, Thebes was in great part destroyed secure an alliance with the Roman senate ?- How long, after his by fire. Little was done under the Ptolemies to restore or em restoration, did he enjoy the sovereignty of Egypt ? --Were the bellish it;-her people lost all courage and soul; having rebolled claims of Auletes’sons justly set aside by his daughter Cleopatra in the reign of Lathyrus, the city, after a three years' siege, was Can you relate the conduct of Cleopatra, and what was her end taken and pillaged, and gradually declined, till under the Romans At what point does the ancient history of Egypt close ?-What are it lost the last semblance of wealth or power. And what is her the chief ruins of that celebrated nation :- What happened to less strewed with ruins, broken columns, and avenues of sphinxes, by the Ptolemies to restore it; and what is its present condition ?colossal figures, obelisks, pyramidal gateways, porticoes, blocks What city was the rival of Thebes, and in what did it seek to of polished granite, and stones of extraordinary magnitude :- rival that first capital ?- Describe its size and its ruins.- What while above them, in all the nakedness of desolation, the colossal converted Memphis into the centre of Egyptian idolatry ?-Are skeletons of giants' temples are standing in the unwatered sands, there any remains to attest the former magnificence of Helio. in solitude and silence. They are neither gray, nor blackened: polis, or City of the Sun - With what portion of Sacred History there is no lichen, no moss, no rank grass, or mantling ivy to robe is Heliopolis associated ?-Does the fall of Egypt enter into any them, and conceal their deformities. Like the bones of man, of the predictions of the inspired volume ?-Under what figures they seem to whiten under the sun of the desert. The sand of doos Ezekiel foretel the overthrow of the kings of Nineveh, Africa has been their most fearful enemy:-blown upon them Babylon, and Egypt? for more than three thousand years, it has buried the largest monuments, and, in some instances, almost entire temples.”

[The ancient history of Egypt being concluded, we deem it The rival of Thebes was Memphis, both as a regal residence advisable, in the present state of our progress, to postpone the and the seat of commerce. This magnificent city, whose founda- | Lessons in Ancient History, until we shall have finished some of the tion and erection have been ascribed to Menes, extended half a

more important lessons now going on, especially those that are day's journey in every direction, and, with its splendid temple, is in the greatest demand among our

subscribers and the public in declared by no mean authority to offer to the spectator, even now

general. These lessons will of course be resumed at the earliest in its ruins "a union of things which confound him, and which possible period, in order to render our work a complete encyclothe most eloquent man in vain would attempt to describe. As pædia of instruction. We say this in the most decided manner, in to the figures of idols found among these ruins, whether we con order that no one may feel the slightest disappointment at their sider their numbers or their prodigious size, the thing is beyond

discontinuance. We find, indeed, from our numerous corredescription. But the accuracy of their forms, the justness of spondents, that the present lessons in the languages and in the worthy of admiration." One which was measured by this tra: tinue them regularly and fully as we have hitherto done. As to their proportions, and their resemblance to nature, are most clementary sciences, are deemed by them of so much importance,

that we cannot do our subscribers a greater service than to conveller was, without its pedestal, “ more than thirty cubits; its breadth from right to left was about ten cubits; and from front to

relief from the harder studies in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, we back it was thick in proportion. This statue was formed of a single fact a species of ancient history, older than that of the Antedi

can most properly recommend the study of Geology, which is in which its antiquity seemed to give only a new freshness." Mem- luvians themselves, not to mention Egypt or Assyria, and one phis was the centre of Egyptian idolatry. There the bull APIs which is sure to interest the majority of our readers, and prove was bred, nurtured, enshrined, and worshipped.

an excellent succedaneum (that which succeeds) for the present, Of Heliopolis, or the City of the Sun, but little remains to

to the lessons whose place they have now taken.] awaken the impression of its former magnificence. It is situated north-east of Cairo, and is famous for the celebrated fountain of the sun, to which, if we may trust tradition, the Holy Family came on their flight from Herod. Near this is the pillar of On, LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.–No. III. or obelisk of Heliopolis, which is sixty-seven feet high and six feet square at the base, and which is formed of one entire block of reddish granite. This obelisk is one of the most ancient exist

By Thomas W. JENKYN, D.D., F.G.S. ing monuments of Egyptian art, and from the execution and ar- You will now refresh your recollections of what has been rangement of its hieroglyphics, which are the same on all sides, said, in the second lesson, about the cooling cinder, the cait may be inferred that Heliopolis had at an early period reached a high degree of social refinement and artistic skill. It is the vity inside of it, and the melted globule floating at the bottom

of it. saine with the On or Aven of Scripture: and since we read that Joseph married a daughter of the priest or prince of On, it thus

This melted globule is supposed to have in it, or about it, the becomes associated with one of the most touching and 'life-like means of perpetuating, and even of increasing its burning heat. histories that the world has ever produced. Some have conjec- You can imagine that the materials of which ihe cinder is com tured that it was here the deeply-moving interview took place posed, and which lie nearest the bottom, or the sides, or the between Joseph and his brethren. Be that as it may, nothing roof of the cavity, are more fusible, or more easily melted, than remains but the solitary obelisk, which we have just described, other component parts of it. The consequence of this easier and a few broken fragments of the temple in which the bull fusibility, will be that the dimensions of the cavity will widen Nuevis was worshipped, to attest its previous existence. As in and deepen, and that the quantity of the melted matter will the case of Memphis, “tlie dream of idolatry has passed away; the become greatly increased. With the enlargement of the grand, all-inwrapping mists of ungodliness have melted into air cavity, and with the accumulation of the melted mass,

the before the Sun of Truth, and the Christian traveller mingles pity intensity of the heat will also be greatly increased. with his wonder as he looks upon these splendid baubles of the old world-these playthings which Time and Truth have united

It would depend on the intensity of the heat, and the thickin breaking.”

ness of the crust, whether the roof above would be worn down The subject of Egypt's overthrow and ruin enters largely into by melting, would become swelled out on the surface, or the predictions of the inspired volume. With great elegance and whether the entire crust would be cracked through by fissures. force does Ezekiel describe the fall of that ancient kingdom and All melted matter has a tendency to expand and to rise ; and, of all the allied powers. Under the image of a fair cedar of accordingly, it acquires an elevating force, which will cause Lebanon, once tall, flourishing, and majestic, but now cut down the mass

that may lie on its surface to swell out in the form of and withered, with its broken branches strewed, he represents a curve, In this process of elevation the heat will produce, in the fall of the king of Nineveh ; applies the same to the monarch the superincumbent matter, many cracks and fissures. These of Babylon, as a true picture of his impending fate; while the cracks are never likely to be in right lines, or in perpendicular head of Egypt, like a beast of prey, is caught, slain, and his car: lines parallel to each other ; but they will be rather in direccass left to be devoured by the beasts of the forest or the fowls tions which, if continued, would join in points or angles. of heaven.

Imagine that the crust of the earth were cut through, so that QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.

you could see the face of it, just as you can see the lines in a

section of a divided lemon. You could then mark the cracks By what means did Phyecon lift himself into the seat of supreme which were made by the intense heat in the first instance, Cyprus, how did he recover the crown from his divorced queen ? - before the fused matter had acted on the fissures themselves. Relate the chief events which marked the reign of Lathyrus.- Who The fissures would appear like those represented in fig. 2; Bucceeded Lathyres on the throne, and what was his character -- and tke body of the crust would appear, between the different



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fissures, something like wedges whose sharp points had been the expansive power of heat seeks a vent. It will either avail cut off.

itself of one of the fissures already made, though now partly The burning heat which

Fig. 2.

closed, or it will form a has produced these fis

fresh one. By means of sures will now apply its


this vent, formed through elevating force to the

the entire crust, the exdifferent wedge-shaped

panding force will throw masses. The wedges B, D,

up the melted matter to F, present larger surfaces

the surface, where, upon the fire than the

cooling, it will form a wedges A, C, E, do. The

hill or mountain, By consequence is, that the

the same elevating power, elevating force of the heat H


it will also fill up any of below will have greater

the crevices or fissures power upon B, D, F, and will

which the previous action therefore push them up. THE FIRST CRACKING OF THE EARTH'S CRUBT.

of heat may have left in As these are pushed up, it may be that the wedges A, C, E, the crust. Fig. 4, will assist your conception of this eruptive which have their smaller end downwards, will also sink a little, process. until they become jammed between the others; and that they Here, in one case the vent a c is open from the matter in fusion, would become so, before they would descend low enough for the at , through the entire crust a, a, up to the surface at A, and heat to act on them to keep them up.

the melted rock is thrown up into a mountain at B. In the The consequence of such a process will be, that the wedge- two other cases, at p and e, the fused matter is injected into shaped masses, whose broader sides are downwards, will be fissures, and form what miners and geologists call "dikes." elevated above the other wedges A, C, E. The heaved-up sur- As the melted matter was heaved up to the arched roof of face will then appear uneven and rugged; that is, the crust of the cavity, and as the roof above was cooler than the fused the earth will put on the appearance of mountains, table-lands, mass below, the fluid when it came into contact with the roof, and valleys, as represented in fig. 3.

would, while partly altering it, become, in the process of On the supposition that, by some means, the elevating power cooling, crystallised, or, perhaps, vitrified into a hardened rock, of heat be either withdrawn, or pomewhat suspended, your and would thus gradually form a new roof over the matter in eye, on looking at fig. 2,

Fig. 3.

fusion. It is probable will tell you at once that

that at this day there the masses thus heaved


may be masses of fused

F up and cracked, will never

matter in the process of again fall into their first

cooling, at the depth of position in reference to

several miles, in some im. the fissures. The roof of

mense cavities around the the cavity will now be

vents of volcanoes, and formed into a compact

that they are forming beds arch capable of supporting

below beds which increase itself, if the abutments of

downwards as they cool the

H н


and crystallise. These enough. As soon as the

deep formations will rearch would be thus formed, THE ELEVATION AND SUBSIDENCE OF DIFFERENT MASSES IN THE CRUST

main invisible and unthe heat at i would begin


known till either some to melt the wedges C

mighty changes in the and E, which would supply the melted lake with additional earth’s crust, or elevating power from below shall snap the bulk of matter, while all the interior mass would be still crust, and throw up the rocks into the open air as repremaintained in a state of fusion or fluidity.

sented in fig. 5. When you make further progress in the knowledge of geo- While you examine carefully fig. 4, keep in mind that our logical phenomena, you will learn that our imaginary arch has imagined mass of cinder, or the crust of the earth, is many not, in many instances, been able to support itself. It is possible scores of miles in thickness, from the surface down to the roof that the body of the arch was so near the lake of fused matter of the cavity. The bottom and the sides of the cavity are as even to lie on its surface, to float on it, and to be kept up by constantly in a state of being melted and torn away, to increase it; or it is possible that certain parts of the arch as c or E, or the glowing fluid. The intense action of the fire on the bottom even D or F, may sink down to the very bottom of H, , may be melting deep rocks, which may consist of materials and there form new support for it. The consequence of this very different from those of the first roof, and also from breaking down of certain masses will be that, instead of one large lake, we shall now

those which, by cooling or crystallising below, have formed an

additional roof. have a number of lakes

Fig. 4.

Let A A, fig.5, represent formed, which will be

the first hardened crust connected with each other by narrow chan

of the earth, B B the nenels running between

ther-formed (hypogene)

rock which first, in a the masses that have fallen down. The facts

fused state, was heaved represented in fig. 3 are

against the roof, and important, as they will

a then by bursting the materially assist you

crust, forced the fissure

c, and formed the mounwhen you come to ex

tain d above and the amine what geologists


crystallised bed below,

After the cooling of the trata, or to account for

rock B, B the expansion he displacement of beds on the opposite sides of a fault of the heat below requires again an outlet to get rid of its The beds, or strata, a, a, and x, x, which are seen to be parallel materials accumulated by the constant fusion of the bottom to each other in fig. 2, are found at unequal depths in fig. 3. and the sides, and perhaps of the new roof. And now another

Let us once more suppose that the heat under the crust of vent x is formed, and other fissures are made in the crust; the earth becomes more intense ; that, consequently, the the melted matter is thrown up from f, P to form a new mounquantity of melted matter becomes greatly increased, and that tain at e, differing in lithological character from that at

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of any

D, and also to form another“ dike" under G. When the heat | fig. 5, by B and F. You see that the crust of the earth has becomes diminished in intensity, the rock p cools, hardens, been thickened by accessions from below. It is evident that and crystallises, and fornis a roof below B as B did below a. these rocks may be in the course of forming below, notwithThe burning sea of fused matter having thrown off its old standing that the upper crust of A may not have been in the surface, begins again to melt and wear away deeper rocks / least affected by them. The stupendous chemistry which has at its bottom, and other

Fig. 5.

the power of destroying rocks at its sides. It


class of rocks, again acquires intensity

has also the power of action and accession


of forming new ones. of mass, and with them,

The crust A may con. a fresh elevating force

tinue for ages undisthat seeks a vent. The

turbed and unaffected, crust is again cracked

while the rocks B and and rent at H, I, and

I', at great depths, are from depths greater

A passing from a solid than those

into a fluid state, and former eruption; and

then consolidating through the crystallised

themselves again, so as or calcined beds r and


to acquire a lithological B, which had been

character perfectly new. formed by other erup

This may have been tions along the concave

the case,


geological time, with matter is again thrown up to the surface at 1, where a new granite, gneiss, hornblende, &c. On this account, Sir mountain k is formed, differing in composition from both the Charles Lyell has called these kinds of rocks “hypogene," a preceding eruptive rocks. The same process and the same term derived from the Greek úno, under, and gironas, to be, to results may be repeated again and again by the same Plutonic be born, or to be produced. The name is intended to imply the lake ; or another Plutonic sea may be acting on a different ma- hypothesis that rocks such as granite, hornblende, schist, certain terial of the crust, and may form a rock, either on the surface, porphyries, and other crystalline formations, are “nether, or in a dike, different in structure from all the others.

formed” rocks. They are supposed to be constituted and The difference, in the lithological structure of these erup- composed beneath the earth's crust, and not formed by cooling tive rocks, does not always depend on the unequal depths after they had been erupted to the surface. The hypothesis from which they have been thrown up : it will also depend also supposes that these nether-formed rocks may be brought on the circumstance whether the eruption has taken place to view by the denuding action of water, which may cut deep on the surface in the open air, or at great depth under the into the overlying beds; and thus, by valleys of denudation, sea.

as well as by the uplifting and tilting action of eruptive rocks, Let me now call your attention to the rocks represented in I expose some of the lowest rocks in the crust of the globe.




vest); commemoro 1, I mention, speak of; congrego 1, I meet together

(E. R. congregation); depascor 1, I feed upon ; metus, ùs, m. fear; By John R. BEARD, D.D.

officium, i, n. duty (E. R. official). PREPOSITIONS.

EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH. The Latin prepositions may be divided into two classes, ac

Nulla est firma amicitia inter malos; propero ad mortem; Galli cording to the cases which they govern or require. Some

habitant trans Rhenum ; nulla babemus arma contra mortem ; vir

generosus mitis est erga victos; cometae ob raritatem et speciem require an accusative, others require an ablative case.

sunt mirabiles ; servi parent propter metum, boni propter officium; PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. navigatio juxta litus saepe est periculosa ; nemo est beatus ante Ad, to, a In'fra, beneath

mortem; quam ob causam (ob quam causami) rides ? infra luna An'te, before In'ter, among

omnia sunt caduca; multos per annos (per multos annos) inter Ap'ud, at, near, in the house of, in Jux'ta, beside

barbaros habitas; Plutónis regnum infra terram ponitur ; impethe writings of Ob, on account of

rium populorum est penes reges; pisces extra aquam exspirant; Cis or Cit'ra, on this side of Pe'nes, in the power of

res praeter opinionem cadit; camelus odium adversus equos gerit; Sir'ca, around, about (used of both Per, through, by means of

pictae vestes apud Homerum commemorantur; multa animalia time and place) Post, after

congregantur et contra alia dimicant; Hippótămus segetes circa Cir'cum, around (of place only) Præ'ter, passing by, near

Nilum depascitur.
Cir'citer, about (of time)
Pro'pe, near

Con'tra, over against (of place), Prop'ter, on account of

There is no faithful society among the bad ; man has no arms against (of hostility) Secun'dum, along

against death ; beyond death is life; we hasten to the Rhine; Er ga, in regard to Su'pra, above

the friends are before the house; my sons are at my house (apud Ex'tri, out of, without (in opposition Trans, across

me); are your children at your house? the king is mild towards lo within) Ultra, beyond

the conquered; after death good men are happy; what is (there) In, into Ver'sus, towards

below the earth ? God is above and through all things; men dwell la'tra, within

below the clouds ; my children are in my power; in (apud) Cicero Versus stands with ad or in, the accusative being between of thee (on thy account); the soldiers are within the walls.

are many beautiful sayings (dicta); I love the country on account the two, thus : in Italiam versus, toward Italy; ad oceanum versus, toward the ocean. The ad and in are omitted before

PREPOSITIONS WHICH GOVERN THE ABLATIVE CASE. naraes of cities, as, Romam versus, toward Rome.

A, before consonants by E, not before vowels
Ab, before vowels

Ex, before vowels and out of


Consonants Propero 1, I hasten ; finis, is, m. an end; mors, mortis, f. death; | Ab'sque, without

In, in arma, orum, pl. arms ; Galli, órum, the Gauls, the French; Rhenus, Clam, without the knowledge of Præ, before (of place, denoting i, m. the Rhine; generosus, a, um, generous ; victus, a, um, conquered; Coʻram, in the presence of

motion) cometa, ae, m. a comet; raritas, átis, 1. rarity; species, ei, f. appear. Cum, with

Pro, before (of place) ance, beauty; mirabilis, e, admirable ; navigatio, onis, f. navigation; | De, concerning

Si'ne, without

case) periculosus, a, um, dangerous (E. R. perilous) causa, ae, f. a cause,

Te’nus, as far as (stands after it's a reason (E. R. to cause, excuse) ; cadúcus, a, um, falling, perishable ; odium, i, n. hatred; seges, segětis, f. a field of corn; Pluto, óris, vobis'cum, with you ; nobis'cum, with ns.

Cum is united with pronouns, thus : te'cum, with thee ; Pluto, the ruler of the lower regions in classical mythology; piscis, is, m. a fish ; exspiro 1, I breathe out, expire, die camélus, i, m. a camel;

V,CABULARY. pictus, a, uin, painted (E. R. picture); vestib, is, f. a garment (E. R. Hebisco 3, I grow dull; senectus, útis, f. old age; aquila, ae, f.




an eagle: c ccyx, yuis, m. a cuckoo; pario 3, I bring forth: alienus, a, um, another's (E R alienate): nidus, i, m a nest; visus, ûs, m. the sight. ..ítus, ùs, m. the hearing; debilito 1, I weaken; dens, dentis, .. a tooth (E. R. dentist); nifico 1, I build a nest; sinus, ûs, m. a bosom: X re-, is, m. Xerxes, a Persian monarch; inventus, a, um, discovered; inventus est, was discovered; aufugio 3, I flee; Metellus, i, m. Metellus, a Roman commander; elephantus, i, m. an elephant; triumphus, i, m. a triumph; canto 1, I sing; latro, ónis, m. a robber; sidna, eris, n. the stars, the constellations; Phoenices, um, m. the Pheni cians; apes, apis, f. a bee; intans, antis, an infant; opes, opis, f. aid; morior 3, I die; mori, to die; viator, óris, m. a traveller; venum, i, n. poison; remedium, i, n. a remedy (E. R. remedial); ortus, ús, m. a rising: occasus, as, a sitting; aliquando, adv. sometimes; possum, I am able; potest, is able, has power; nihil potest, has no power; commeo 2, I move, proceed; unquam, ever.


Venenum aliquando est pro remedio; infans nihil potest sine aliena ope; aquilae nidificant in arboribus, coccyx parit in alienis nidis; senectute hebescunt sensus; quidam homines nati sunt cum dentibus; Xerxes cum paucissimus militibus ex Graecia aufugit; Metellus elephantos ducit in triumpho; cantat coram latrone via tor; sidera ab ortu solis ad occasum commeant; Britannia a Phoenicibus inventa est; apes sine rege esse non possunt; dulce est pro patria mori.

Am or ama, love

Amo, v. I love

Amor, n. love
Amator, n. a male lover
Amatrix, n. a female lover
Amanter, adv. lovingly
Amabilis, adj. loveable
Amabiliter, adv. loveably
Amabilitas, n. loveableness

VERBS, &c.

A. aoay, from
Ad, to

Am'bi, on both sides, round
An'te, before
Circum, around
Cum, with
Con'tra, against
De, down

Dis, apart, in different directions
E, out of, out and out, thoroughly

In, into

ob, against

Per, through, thoroughly

Post, after

Prie, before
Præter, along, by
Pro, forwards
Re, back
Retro, backwards
Se, apart
Sub, under


Is poison ever a remedy? Xerxes fights in Greece; in old age Subter, beneath the sight and the hearing are weakened; does the cuckoo build in another's nest? thy sister sings before many (persons); they hasten from the west to the east; coming out of Greece the army hastens into Italy; Metellus with many soldiers is in Britain; my son is born without teeth; is the army without elephants? the elephants are led in triumph by the general; is it sweet to die for (one's) country? what are mortals without the aid of God? do all birds build (their) nests in trees? the boy is in the house without the knowledge of his father; it is sweet to see infants happy in the bosom of their mother; is thy sister with thee? without his father the boy has no power; my daughter is with me; how many children are (there) with you? how many men are (there) in Britain? FORMATION OF WORDS.

Inamabilis, adj. not loveable
Adumo, I begin to love

Deamo, I love greatly
Redamo, I love again

In'ter, between

In'tro, within

Su'per, over
Trans, across

I have thus gone through the several parts of speech in the Latin language, in a general way, aiming chiefly to make you familiar with the nouns and adjectives. Before I pass on to a full treatment of the verb and to the laws of literary combination comprised under the name of syntax, I wish to show you how great is the verbal treasure of which you have laid the foundation; and at the same time to lead you to some acquaintance with the manner in which words are formed. Without here entering into a learned discussion as to which was the original part of speech, I shall take the verb as containing the primitive root, and aid you in deducing therefrom other forms. In the course of the previous lessons you had the verb amo, I love. Now in becoming aware of the meaning of amo, you learnt the import of all words derived from amo; Docenter, in the way of teaching thus taking am or ama as the root you are led to

Doceo, I teach

Doctus, taught, learned
Docte, learnedly
Doctor, a teacher
Doctrina, teaching
Documentum, a proof
Docilis, teachable
Docilitas, teachableness

Laudo, I praise
Laus, praise
Laudate, praisingly
Laudatio, a praising
Laudator, a male praiser
Laudatrix, a female praiser
Laudabilis, praiseworthy
Laudater, in a praiseworthy


Allaudo, I praise greatly
Allaudabilis, worthy of great protse
Collaudo, I praise in several respects
Collaudatio, a great praising
Collaudator, a great praiser
Collaudabilis, worthy of praise in se-
veral respects

laudabilis, not worthy of praise
Perlaudabilis, worthy of great praise


Remark that in, not, changes the n like in, into.

Indocilis, unteachable
Indocibilitas, unteachableness

Then with the help of prepositions, and in, signifying not, Addoceo, I teach thoroughly

you have

Condoceo, I teach together, exercise

Dedoceo, I unteach, that is, I cause
to forget or renounce

FORMS INTO WHICH THA 242 ab, abs, au

ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, a amb, am

Edoceo, I teach out and out,


Perdoceo, I teach thoroughly

circun, circu

co, cog, col, com, con, cor

di, dif, dir

ex, ef

i, il, im, ir


o, oc, of, og, op, os pe, pel

prod, pol, por

su, sue, suf, sug, sul, sum, sup, m

Orno, I adorn
Ornate, ornamentally
Ornatio, an adorning
Ornator, a male adorner
Ornatriz, a female adorner
Ornamentum, an ornament
Adorno, I adorn greatly

Adornate, very ornamentally
Erorno, I adorn completely
Erornatio, a complete adorning
Erornator, a male decorator
Inornatus, unadorned
Perorno, I adorn thoroughly

Moveo, I move
Motio, a moving

Motus, motion or movement
Motiuncula, a smail movement

Motor, a mover

Moto, I move frequently
Mobilis, moveable
Mobilitas, moveableness
Mobiliter, moveably
Momentum, moving-power

Immobilis, immovable
Immobilitas, immovability
Admoveo, I move to
Admotio, a moving to
Amoveo, I move away
Commoveo, I move together

Commotio, a commotion "by Demoveo, I move down

A careful inspection of the list will show you how one word ensues from another. Thus amabilitas comes immediately from amabiliter, which in its turn comes from amabilis; and amabilis, an adjective in bilis, is formed from the stem ama. The or ma is also traceable in other

being the foundation of in English; and of ma

must not, however, diverge from our subject. Before you pro- clue to the import of some 10,000 Latin words, and require ter in Greek, whence comes the Latin mater, a mother. We lessons you have had 1000 Latin words, you have obtained s Iceed to study the following lists, you will do well to commit only a little reflection to aid you to a full perception of them

to memory this

and of their signification.

Dimoveo, I separate by moving
Promoveo, I move forward

Now from these instances you may infer what a number of

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