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LESSONS IN ENGLISH. No. V.

THEME.

One vice is more erpensive than many virtues. bs durs R. BEARD, D.D.

Ask these questions :-Br prima u nizu tre telling of the parts 'pars, Latin, a part) of I. Do I knno the meaning of each woord and the import of the teskole! 20 oru wowote Orests. Parsing, besides assigning II. Is the statement true ? due par son as the condition in which the words are, and III. Is true; on what grounds, or for that reasons ! te me B File short sted. Is its complete form, parsing IV. If not true; can I state it so as to make a true! j' sot, can I die

r. se ne ure se det us scquainted with the entire gram that it is untrue ! e ber se se pare u be goos, and as far as he goes. Viewed

V. If true; can I write doron any fact or anecdote exemplifying us they 13 ne ign, man » : son of practical review made by the something that I have read I heard i known i I se suma ase sto step of his progress. Such a

VI. is true; can 1, by blending together reasoning and fad, produces

essay illustrative of its truth? di i punts se mod, leeds to a system of complete pars. is est sale sex will greatly conduce to a thorough

The great difficulty with young writers is to find materiak Samiisa True Bus a any other tongue. Through such a consequence, historical subjects are most suited to them. Bet a scan I del curs vw to conduct my readers.

historical subjects, mere copying is easy, and hence it is apt to EL 10 orend that every exercise given for pars- substituted for original composition. It is, then, dangeren e mg rent Bur. everything that has previously been intrust boys with mere historical subjects." As, however, I mm mgr. 3 newe, se bave been occupied with the definition and for young men and young women, I shall supply historical subjes Ise teatre de gaste of speerba considered as members of a and, in order that the source of information may be accessible au

Is éa Lisee beam on parning, then, you are ex- my scholars, I shall take these subjects, at least at the first, iar at was e yutsal application, in the sentences supplied for the Bible. And narrative being the easiest form of compositeu.

prangsaa, ni sua ndurmatums aiready conveyed. Similar must shall begin with supplying you with subjects for short hantera pour gesting tiery mucosive lesson, always embracing Here, then, is your first

HISTORICAL THEME for a great greut. I will give an instance. Let the

God made the world.

Now this is the method you are to observe. Read careful, e steun mod dulkes flattery.

as often as necessary, the account given in the commencens ! assa la van be in relation to the parts of speech, I enter the book of Genesis of the creation of the universe. When mo

have impressed the record on your mind, close the Bible

, si PREDICATE.

taking slate and pencil, write down as much as possible in your DE dialiko flattery.

words, and in simple sentences, the substance of the water I hea wa vyama and in meranion, and give as full an account Look over what you have written and correct it. Having correct

it according to the best of your own judgment, compare IF 6. Atsiaa enite, abbreviated from an, which has the the original. Compare it first in relation to the facts ; if in repu un word interre words beginning with a vowel, to the facts your report is not correct, make it correct. Competi

next in regard to the spelling, and correct your spelling 4 * w *** w starting with consonanti

in sposowe, quantitate the word mind; it comes spelling of the Bible. Again compare it as to the words in use the main antud eluto in venally meant valour, the conduct have one word, the Bible has another. If your word is positive

inaccurate strike it out, and put in its place the scriptora i wat wem brattaion, with its adjective virtuous But a deviation in word on your part is desirable rather than the

for it shows that you have comprebended the meaning of * martie suero o declares some passage, and that you possess instead of a mere slavish imitano Lind, sapnas on puuary, we crrerstates the predicate of the power of reproduction which may in time enable pas en tant no sairá um emner, artumu mind; truly original compositions. If, therefore, your word is a winny som to be vero dukes. The somewhat less appropriate than the word in the sacred page, ls

stand; but at the same time ask yourself, and endeavour to 2x tain why your word is less suitable. Should you, as you

hardly fail to do, at least as your mind grows and your taste imposta %

fama y otge of 74 is plain. meet in the Scriptures with forms of expression which seem të re ** mung tomat

, sp denotes specially happy or specially forcible, transcribe them into a

One vice is note-book, kept in the pocket, ever at hand to receive memorant sta novellen. The or things deserving to be remembered, things requiring explanen.

Arte, mas ad offenders things illustrative of important truth, &c.; and baring transczna na sum id lood with a them, look at them from time to time until you have made 35

heart will re-permanently your own. ha $$ any to the There is what may be called domestic history, out of which **

In patient 01 may draw a constant supply of useful and interesting materiai osad w may na hind ol evil. By domestic history I mean the occurrences and events d've Be waters are own home, even in their humblest details. Here you say 5 themes enough. Take as a

DOMESTIC THEME. toydinak buat ** manns, and so

My own history during a day. 5, dont on na pinanin instruc.

Write down on your slate every minute particular, such laca ai of section,

- greve own hand. Por time you rose, the meals you took, where you took then, the 40008., or mongoon' wmama of the sen- at which you left the house, where you went to, what you can

whom you met, with whom you conversed, what was said. &. - pomy stutrygdle upon it as maats med grow in ha av few,- until the day's duties and pleasures are closed and you see

never mind to your bed. Do not commit the folly of thinking such a solo polimer coming urine urmething, unworthy of your notice. You are learning to inform youse

I pune ved n lesson and can begin well only by beginning with that with shich * remare gérme wereld be night. are familiar. If you are poetically inclined you may narrate

A morning walk.
Ipad want to the ex.
quello in conforme duran what you

But begin with prose ; let rhyme alone for a while; it is

easy to tag together similar sounds. It is good sense and Ford sso eta bere is one for artim, If you feeling expressed in correct English that I was to lead yoen dos vegna in the theme or and for so important a purpose practice in prose is indispensabile

But wbatever your theme is, be very rigid with yourself; pass 3 grimpantent, UT

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error; correct all mistakes ; be as particular as if you were writing like our own letters of similar name, sound, and position in
for the press. And having, according to the best of your ability, the alphabet, with the exception of a shoulder at the top which
made your exercise correct, copy it out into an essay-book-a is not essential with us, though often used by way of a flourish.
book kept exclusively to receive your attempts at composition ; The letter x is like one of our r’s badly shaped, and having a
copy it into the book as neatly and as well in every respect as you small hook at the top of the middle stroke. The letter i is
can. The attention to neatness, which I recommend, is closely exactly like our own. The letter M consists of the first elemen-
connected with the attainment of accuracy. You will find benefit tary leg doubled, and the third attached to the second by a
as well as pleasure in looking back on your earlier efforts, and com- small hook at the top. The letter n is of the same form, ex.
paring together your power of execution as it was at different periods. cepting that the first leg is not doubled. The letter o is the

It may be desirable to show you in an example how an humble first part of the letter A, with a small loop at top.
theme may be well treated in composition. I take for the purpose The letter p is very like the P used by us in writing the word
one of Pestalozzi's Paternal Instructions." It is on the domestic Per, in per cent., per pound, &c., only the top is round, and the
business of

final loop is more marked. The letter Q is like the letter e, BAKING.

with the bottom sharpened, and the hair-stroke from it turned “ Baking, like all cooking, is a fruit of civilisation. The savage the contrary way. It is sometimes made like the letter o with knows of no preparation for his food; he eats everything raw, a hook attached to it at the bottom. The letter R is very like like the brutes; and accordingly he eats it like them, with brutal our own, only its first part consists of the first elementary greediness. A proper diet is possible only when the food is pre leg. The letter s consists of the first elementary leg, terpared by art. Baking, therefore, and every other sort of cooking minating in a small hook or curve at top. The letter i conis a far more important business than at first sight it appears to be: sists of the letter i brought straight to a point at bottom, and By baking we procure the most wholesome of all nutriment-that biead which, as a common necessary of life, we daily ask of God near that point crossed by the elementary leg of the small in the most comprehensive of all prayers.”

alphabet from left to right. The letter u consists of a double It may be useful to beginners to see the same thought expressed pot-hook, to which is attached the third elementary leg by a in simple propositions, that is, propositions, or sentences, not small loop at top. The letters v and w are only the letters of

the small alphabet enlarged, with the angular turns rounded having more than one subject and one object.

like the first two in the letter M. The letter x is exactly BAKING.---The same in simple sentences.

like our own. The letters Y and z are like the small letters Baking is a fruit of civilisation. Indeed all cooking is a fruit of Y and 2 enlarged, with their angular turns rounded. The civilisation. The savage knows of no preparation for his food. combinations of some of the capital letters with each other The savage eats every thing raw. The brutes eat everything raw.

are so obvious as not to require particular illustration. We si pe by The brutes also eat with greediness. With similar greediness does may, therefore, conclude these remarks with a translation of

the savage take his food. Art may be employed in preparing food. the German couplet which closes the lesson on chirography in the one in a proper diet food is prepared by artin Baking diseaef important No. 12

, and which is particularly appropriate to the nature of business. Cooking is thought to be important.

Still more important in reality is baking. By baking we procure the

:

pare it 3 We ask bread of God in the most comprehensive of all prayers. dolazes In the German chirography, or handwriting, as regards the Press of angular turns at top and bottom. The capital letter B is formed N. Gut-er Stahl, good steel ; e larged, with the angular turn of its elementary leg rounded. The the adjective adds, in the nominative masculine and in the nomi

“ All theory, dear friend, is gray;
most wholesome of all nutriment. By baking we obtain bread.

Life's golden tree is green alway."
Bread is a common necessary of life. We daily ask bread of God.

Section X.

The adjective has thus far been employed only predicatively, LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. IV. in which use it is unvaried in form. Ex.:

Stahl ist hart, steel is hard ; Blei ist weich, lead is soft. capital letters there are three elementary legs, so to speak, from which all the letters may be formed. The first is the strictly conventional sense, and should be distinctly understood.

The terms attributive and predicative have, in Grammar, a initial leg of the capital letter , which is not like any of our If we say, the deep river is here (ber tiefe Fluß ist bier), the admanuscript capitals, but rather like that of a small m enlarged jective deep is attributive ; for the quality depth is there referred into a capital with loops at bottom, as employed often by our-to, as a known and recognised attribute of the river. If we say, selves when writing Mr., or Mrs., or Messrs. It consists of an the river is deep here (ver Fluß ist hier tief), the adjective is predioval loop commencing with a hair-stroke on the left, becoming thick and curved as it turns round from left to right, and be cative, for we then merely affirm or predicate of the river that it

has the quality depth. coming again a hair-stroke in the same direction as before, but lower, in order to form the complete loop. The second is the

When used attributively, the adjective is varied by the addition

of suffixes. body of the letter 1, which is the same in German, as in English chirography; and the third is like the ordinary pot-hooks of our

I. When not affected by a preceding word, the adjective is

inflected according to text-hand, tapered at the commencement of their formation.

The capital letter A is formed of the first elementary leg inverted, and the third added to it with a small loop joining the two

Masculine.

Neuter. together. It is, in fact, the small a enlarged with round instead

gut-es Eisen, good iron; of the second elementary leg, with a loop at top and bottom G. Gut-es Stahls, of good steel ; gut-es Gisens, of good iron. the whole being made like our capitai writing letter 1, with a small D. Gut-em Stahle, to good steel; gut-em Gijen, to good iron; loop terminating the last hair-stroke exactly like our small writ- A. Gut-en Stahl, good steel ; gut-es Gijen, good iron. ing B. The letter c is exactly like our letter L in writing, with a The genitive of the old form is now seldom used ; that of the small hook placed at the top loop. The letter p is more like the new form being preferred. Thus, guten Stable; guten form of the Greek cursive letter 9 than anything we know. It Gisen 8, a., instead of gutes Stahle ; gutes Eisens, ac. scarcely deserves the name of a letter, being a mere flourish of the pen. The letter e is like our manuscript c with its lower II. WHEN PRECEDED BY ANY OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS, half

written below the line, and crossed by a curve, indicating Masculine. Neuter. Masculine. Neuter, the separation of the loop and the scroll. The letter is the

Der, das (the) ;

jeder, jetes (every); second elementary leg with a small hook at the top, and crossed

Dieser, dieses (this); jener, jenee (that); in the middle with a fine hair-stroke like a small t. The letter

Aller,
alles (all);

mander, manches (many a); e is formed of the first elementary leg inverted, with the second

Einiger, einiges (some); solcher, solches (such); attached to it by a small loop at the top, and lengthened below the line like our own G. It is in fact like the small letter G en

Etlicher, etliches (some); welcher, welches (which), letier H is like our capital a inverted with a small loop be- native and accusative neuter, the letter e, and, in all the other tween the top and bottom parts of it. The letters i and 3 are cases, en; and is inflected according to

lativa

od correct !

o its pk ?

art 2 TODA 31

theretores

Ersei, mis

ETUTEEN

THE OLD DECLENSION.

The New Declension. the adjective has, in the nominative masculine and in the nomiMasculine. Neuter. native and accusative neuter, the terminations of the old de9t. Øer gut-t, the good; tas gut-t, the good; clension, and, in all the other cases, those of the new, and is (9. Des guten, of the good; tes guten, of the good; said to be of p. oem guten, to, for the good; tem guten, to, for the good; The Mixen declension. ol. Ten guten, the good; tas gut-t, the good. Masculine. Newter.

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Questions.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY. —No. IV.

IN our last lesson, we referred to the influence of the writings of Ptolemy on the geographical knowledge of later times. According to him, the limits of the world were Thule on the north, and the Prassum Promontorium on the south ; the former being most probably some part of Norway, and the latter some unknown point south-west of Madagascar. Its limits on the west, were the Fortunate Isles, now the Canaries; and on the east, Thinge in Sinae or China. He rejected the theory of all preceding geographers, who represented the world as surrounded by an impassable ocean on all sides; and he replaced it by an indefinite expanse of terra incognita (unknown land). He rejected the true reports of circumnavigation of Africa, and extended its limits southward beyond all reasonable bounds. With Europe, Ptolemy was tolerably well acquainted; and he deseribed Germany and Sarmatia with some degree of accuracy. He knew the Ems, the Weser, the Elbe, the Order, and the Vistula. He calls Jutland the Cimbric Chersonese, and the Baltic, the Sarmatic Ocean, but he failed in his account of this inland sea. He was better acquainted with the south of European Russia, with the Tanais, the Borysthenes, and the Euxine. In his description of the Mediterranean, there are many errors, but his account is more accurate with them all, than that of any previous geographer. In regard to Asia, his knowledge was obscure and unsatisfactory, though some features can be still identified with fact. Here he described the “Golden Chersonese,” and the Magnus Sinus, or Great Bay of India; these appear to have the Indo-Chinese countries of Ava, Pegu, and Malacca, with their adjacent gulfs or bays; and Thinae, which he places at this remote corner, is supposed to be Siam, rather than any place in China. The Serica of Ptolemy in the north of Asia is supposed, with good reason, to be China, which was reached by great trading caravans which proceeded from Byzantium (or Constantinople), across Asia Minor, crossing the Euphrates at Hierapolis, and passing through Media, by way of Ecbatana to Hecatompylos, the capital of Parthia. Their next route was Hyrcania, Aria, Margiana, and Bactria; whence, they ascended the table-land of the interior of Asia, passed over the Montes Comedorum, or Beloor Mountains, and reached the celebrated Lithinos Pyrgos or “Stone Tower,” a station whose site is still a doubtful question among geographers. From this station to the frontier of Serica was a seven months' hard and perilous journey. The description which Ptolemy gives of Serica corresponds more exactly to China than any other country; and his account of the manners and customs of the inhabitants, identifies it still more. Moreover, the staple commodity of this overland trade was silk, for which China has been celebrated from time immemorial. Ptolemy appears to have had a considerable knowledge of Hindostan or India, both within and without the Ganges; a knowledge said to be superior to that of the modernstill within the limits of the present century. With regard to Africa, this statement may just be reversed. But taking his work as a whole, and considering the age in which it appeared, it must be considered a singular monument of industry, and a valuable book of reference in all matters relating to the ancient geography of the world. From the time of Ptolemy down to the tenth century of the Christian era, no geographical work appeared, either to supply the place of his, or to add to the knowledge which it ... The invasion of the Roman empire by the northern hordes, the general anarehy which followed, and the seclusion into which literature was driven, produced a retrogression of all the arts and sciences, and especially of geography. A proper judgment may beformed of the ignorance which prevailed in this science immediately anterior to the time of the Crusades, by inspecting a map of the world published at that period. The sea, as in the age of Homer, is made to surround the world, which is divided into three parts, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Asia is as large as the other two parts; Africa is joined to Asia on the south, and the Indian ocean is made an inland sea. On the east, there is a small place indicating the position of the garden of Eden, by the words Hic est paradisus. Europe and Asia are separated from Africa by a very long canal, which some believed to be the Nile, others the Hellespont, and others again the Indian sea. Africa is considered the country of fable

and mystery; its northern part only is seen, the rest is unapproachable on account of the torrents of flame poured on it by the sun. After the discovery of the Canary Isles. and Cape Bojador, geographers represented in one of these islands the figures of colossal statues brandishing formidable clubs to warn navigators that they must not go beyond this point.

A fantastic dream, filled with chimeras and ridiculous sights, hovered over the world during the middle ages. The cosmological theories then rife, were inferior to the happy notions which prevailed in pagan antiquity. Light however had begun to dawn. At the commencement of the eighth century, pious monks had retired into Ireland and the Ferro Isles. In A.D. 795, Christian missionaries had visited Iceland, which was considered as the ancient Thule of Pytheas. In A.D. 855, the Norwegians landed on this island; proceeding farther west, they reached Greenland, and enlarged the boundary of geographical knowledge. Certain writers have advanced the opinion that the problem of a communication between the Atlantic ocean and the great ocean, now called the Pacific, was really current among the maritime people of that period. It is nevertheless an historical fact that America had been discovered by the Scandinavians at this remote period. Yet the discovery of Greenland detracts nothing from the glory of Columbus. The northern regions of America are still a terra incognita, and though a Franklin once freed America, a Franklin has not yet discovered its boundaries. The hardy adventurers of Norway were the first, who penetrated into the middle of the mountains of ice which bristle round the confines of the polar countries. We are equally struck with wonder and admiration at their daring courage, in reading the history of the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries, when we find that all the known seas were during this period covered with the vessels of the Scandinavians. The conquests of these pirates in Europe are well known. Their voyages in the icy regions are almost unknown to the general reader.

The expeditions we have now referred to were turned to some advantage by the geographers of the period, but all the light they were calculated to give was not rendered available. The learned writers of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries still united the Frozen Ocean, the Baltic, the White Sea, and the Caspian. They believed that all the northern regions formed only one island. Then the Amazons, those famous warriors, whose country antiquity had placed to the north of the Caucasus, were now removed to the countries newly discovered in the north of Europe. Scandinavia became their birthplace and their residence. “The fiction of the Amazons,” says M. Humboldt, “has travelled over all the zones; it belongs to a complete circle, which proceeds from the reveries and ideas in which the poetic or religious imagination of all races of men, and of all periods, instinctively performs its evolutions.”

PROBLEMS AND QUERIES.

1. Given the heights of three towers placed at the angular points of an equilateral triangle, a, b, c, in the order of their magnitude; with the base or side of that triangle, d; to find the point within the triangle, where a ladder must be placed to reach the top of each tower; that is, the distances of this point from the angular points of the triangle; and also the length of the ladder. In Keith's Arithmetic, the heights given, 28, 30, and 34 feet; and the side of the equilateral triangle, 50 feet. 2. Required a number such that when added to, or subtracted from its square, the sum or remainder shall be a square number. 3. Three gentlemen contribute £1645 towards the building of a church at the distance of 2 miles from the residence of the first, 24 miles from that of the second, and 3% from that of the third. They agree that their shares shall be reciprocally proportional to their respective distances from the church. How much should they individually contribute 2 4. To find a square which shall be equal to the difference of two given squares. 5. Through a given point within or without a given circle, to draw a chord that shall be equal to a given straight line. 6. Through a given point to draw a line, such that the segment of it, intercepted between two given parallels, may be equal to a given straight line,

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

JAMEs Pollitor is informed that the “Manual of the French Language,” price 2s., is the title of the work respecting which he inquires, A copy of the “Lessons in French," as we have had occasion to say in reply to various correspondents, will be sent through the post direct from our office to any address, on the receipt of seven penny postage stamps. W. W. (Coventry): We really are not aware of any books we can recommend on the subjects he meations; but they will be treated of in due time in the Popular EDUCATOR. A meniscus lens is conver on the one side and concave on the other. The latestinformation on Photography and Daguerreotype, will be found in the official Illustrated Catalogue of the Great Exhibition, at Nos. 291, 292, 296, 297, 299, 303, 404, Class X.-TYRo (Newcastle), will be gratified with lessons in the other ancient languages assoon as convenient.-O. (Monebar): Greek, &c., all in good time.—GRACE E–G, will find an answer to her principal question at page 176, col. 2, line 14; and to her secondary questions at page 22, col. 2, lines 12 and 17 from the bottom. We request our friend, R. P. (Islington-green), not to despair; we are preparing a cheap edition of Euclid for those who are anxious and willing to learn. He has given us no trouble. Let him try, try again. —J. S. (Port Glasgow) is right; 26 numbers will form a volume.—Our excellent friend, E. H. M. CAM, is informed that there is a fine paper edition at 1%d, each number, which wants the title of which she complains. —Z. R. (Birmingham): Will find mentioned among our Literary Notices, a “Handbook on Emigration,” price 9d.-H. CARTNEY (Dublin), is informed that in No. 6, p. 96, col. 1, line 6 from the bottom, there is a reference which we hope will satisfy him on the subject of chronology. —We recommend our friend PILATE to observe the same reference on chronology. When Greek comes up rules will be given for its pronunciation.—X. Y. Z., F. B. (Horsham); R. C.: Painting, architecture, and colour will come in due course.—T. C. LATHBRIDGE (Fitzroy-square): Chemistry will appear in its turn. J. B. R. (Glasgow): We do intend to give distinct treatises on Natural Philosophy, Mechanics, Engineering, Drawing, &c.; but we do not see the necessity of “groans;" if there be any one thing that requires explanation, we hold it our duty to give it, independent of either groans or cheers.-I. P. (Manchester), an “Enquirer” is informed that when we have ascertained what other system of “Shorthand” is best, we shall give it. Mr. Pitman's is copyright. John Boukrox (Paddington): His solution of the cases of the 47th are ingenious.-R. M., Robson (Sunderland): We thank him for his suggestion; it will be considered.—E. FINIGAN (Manchester): His solution of query 2, page 111, is correct.—WILLIAM PARKER (Newnham): His suggestions are good and practical. Our address is “Editor of the the Popular Educator,”9, La Belle Sauvage-yard, Ludgate-hill, London. It is not necessary that every student should study all that is in every number at one and the same time. Does our correspondent not see that the variety is absolutely necessary to ensure a greater number of readers? In this way, every one may take up what he likes best; and let the rest stand over till another opportunity. The subjects will keep. We shall thank him for the list of words, which he cannot make out in the French vocabulary.—John M.AcKAY (Whitehaven): When Latitudes are mentioned in the newspapers, if they are not marked N. or S, they are useless. When Longitudes are mentioned without being marked E. or W. they are equally useless. Latitudes, when properly marked, are estimated North or South of the equator. Longitudes, when properly marked, are estimated East or West of the first meridian, which among us, is the meridian of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, and not of London. The Latitude of the Royal Observatory is 51°28' 39" N., and its Longitude 0° 0' 0.” The Latitude of St. Paul's Church, London, is 51°30' 49” N., and its Longitude 0° 5'47"W. A SchoolMASTER, who wishes to obtain a certificate of merit for his ac. quaintance with geometry, should read the lessons in the Popular Educator, and the edition of Euclid just announced.—John WRIGHT (Glasgow), is right; we were obtuse not to see the error; it will be rectified—T. B. ULMER, Philos, proposes an excellent mode of drawing a perpendicular; make a triangle whose base is 3 equal parts from any scale, and two sides 4 and 5 equal parts, respectively, from the same scale; then the angle opposite the side containing 5 equal parts will be a right angle by the 48th Prop. of Book I., Euclid's Elements. Any equi-multiples of these numbers will do as well, and many other numbers, as, 12, 5 and 13, &c.—H. DUGDALE (Slaidburn), has sent us a very ingenious solution of query b, page 111, being an ocular demonstration of the problem; we shall take an early opportunity of noticing it in our pages.—W. S. BATT (Sheerness) : His solutions of problems 1, 2, 3, page 111, are correct. His different values of s should be all the same, and will be so, if worked fully out. We thank him for his accompanying letter. — A CLAckMANNANshine “HERD." has sent us correct solutions of problems 2 and 8, same page.— E. C. Hugues (Islington): Thanks for his solutions. As to his query on steam, water generates steam at 212° below that it only gomerates vapour; and above that it generates high-pressure steam, which becomes dangerous in proportion as the degree rises above 212°. Ice

gives out rapour, and that vapour has a certain pressure; but at 212° only is the pressure of steam equal to the pressure of the atmosphere. A PUPIL TEACHER has only to substitute the word Zedekiah for Hezekiah in Lesson IV. on Ancient History. It is nothing more than an error of the press. BoraxY.—A School Assistant: The statement about which our correspondent inquires is quite correct. A thyrsus is a panicle whose middle branches are longer than those of the base and apex. The peduncle is the stem or stalk that supports the fructification of a plant, and different lengths of the peduncles give to the lilac its ovate form.— Sciar, FAClas: The effect about which our correspondent inquires is probably to be ascribed to the attack of a gall-fly; but the blossom was too much decayed to allow of a more precise answer. FREnch.-JEuNE FRANgais is right; but we fear that Lessons on Pronunciation would take up too much of our room, and could not be made quite to accomplish the desired end ; for, after all, the living voice is very necessary for those who wish to speak French. — WHITTET (Edinburgh) is right in his correction; it will be noted.—UN JEUNE EcoLIER (Preston) gives us great pleasure when he informs us he is getting before us in our lessons: we hope to be up to him soon.—J. C. HILL : Right.—O. D. H. WELLs (Somerset): His offer is both admirable and generous; we shall take it into serious consideration.—C. Davis (Whitechapel): Something will soon be done to meet his wishes as to French and Latin. English GRAMMAR AND Composition.—R. MAson (Lancashire), is informed that Dr. Beard's Lessons will include Engllsh Composition, see No. 10, page 150.-C. E. W. : The sounds of ee and e are the same in the words thee and me; but the sound of e in the definite article the is very different, and approaches one of the sounds of a.-A. E. should learn English grammar first.—G. Hogg (Newcastle), is right: the positive is not strictly a degree of comparison, but it is the starting point; if we had it not, we could not compare. A man must be good in some degree before we can say that another is better.

ERRATUM IN some CoPIEs. page 139, line 42, col. 2, for tenth read eleventh.

LITERARY NOTICES.

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