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LESSONS IN ENGLISH-No. V.

by JOHN R. BEARD, D.D.

By parang a meant the telling of the parts (pars, Latin, a part) of aps of warm a composition consists. Parsing, besides assigning fur parle of speech states the condition in which the words are, and the ions i ch they stand. In its complete form, parsing can be on ti the student as acquainted with the entire gramburse may parse as he goes, and as far as he goes. Viewed in the parking a sort of practical review made by the must of wit sas done at each step of his progress. Such a practor. I pursues so the end, leads to a system of complete parsBut such a practice will greatly conduce to a thorough Samir is the Engas or any other tongue. Through such a per I mal enter to conduct my readers. Le L See anderstood that every exercise given for pars-substituted for original composition. It is, then, dangerous t my shouted to race everything that has previously been intrust boys with mere historical subjects. As, however, I w laugh. I not, we have been occupied with the definition and for young men and young women, I shall supply historical subess The Summitation of the parts of speech considered as members of a and, in order that the source of information may be accessible ta digit Is the first lesson on parsing, then, you are ex-my scholars, I shall take these subjects, at least at the first, fior you a moves & practical application, in the sentences supplied for the Bible. And narrative being the easiest form of compositon the program it she adormation already conveyed. Similar must shall begin with supplying you with subjects for short narr sepse jemanding every successive lesson, always embracing Here, then, is your first The set as the present. I will give an instance. Let the USA So gerens be

The great difficulty with young writers is to find materials. I consequence, historical subjects are most suited to them. But historical subjects, mere copying is easy, and hence it is apt to b

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Arts mind dislikes flattery.

ATA BENT it thus:

PREDICATE.

Mand

dislikes flattery.

In sexy word in succession, and give as full an account this ride, abbreviated from an, which has the , und before words beginning with a vowel,

HISTORICAL THEME. God made the world. Now this is the method you are to observe. Read carefully, Vergewe fret in relation to the parts of speech, I enter the book of Genesis of the creation of the universe. When y as often as necessary, the account given in the commencement have impressed the record on your mind, close the Bible, mi taking slate and pencil, write down as much as possible in your or words, and in simple sentences, the substance of the acc Look over what you have written and correct it. Having correcte it according to the best of your own judgment, compare v the original. Compare it first in relation to the facts; if in respe to the facts your report is not correct, make it correct. Compart next in regard to the spelling, and correct your spelling or spelling of the Bible. Again compare it as to the words Ya have one word, the Bible has another. If your word is positrer inaccurate strike it out, and put in its place the scriptural v But a deviation in word on your part is desirable rather than for it shows that you have comprehended the meaning of

144

mdstone youtoote with a consonant;

I, gaufying the word mind; it comes new onginally meant valour, the conduct www, with its adjective virtuous in on the vert, dialskes; * vers or declares some-passage, and that you possess instead of a mere slavish imitatin Wing, and rapines in fluttery, a semitates the predicate of the power of reproduction which may in time enable you to w pron no one of the inject, eirtuous mind; truly original compositions. If, therefore, your word is at She spent to the verb dislikes. The somewhat less appropriate than the word in the sacred page, stand; but at the same time ask yourself, and endeavour to tain why your word is less suitable. Should you, as you a hardly fail to do, at least as your mind grows and your taste impr meet in the Scriptures with forms of expression which seem to specially happy or specially forcible, transcribe them into 1 note-book, kept in the pocket, ever at hand to receive memor or things deserving to be remembered, things requiring explanati things illustrative of important truth, &c.; and having transes them, look at them from time to time until you have made permanently your own.

There is what may be called domestic history, out of which may draw a constant supply of useful and interesting matera By domestic history I mean the occurrences and events of own home, even in their humblest details. Here you may b themes enough. Take as a

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THEME.
One vice is more expensive than many virtues.
Ask these questions :---

I. Do I know the meaning of each word and the import of the whole!
II. Is the statement true?

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III. If true; on what grounds, or for what reasons? IV. If not true; can I state it so as to make it true! if not, can I a that it is untrue!

V. If true; can I write down any fact or anecdote exemplifying tr something that I have read heard known 1

VI. If true; can 1, by blending together reasoning and fad, produce a essay illustrative of its truth?

DOMESTIC THEME.
My own history during a day.

Write down on your slate every minute particular, such
time you rose, the meals you took, where you took them, the t
at which you left the house, where you went to, what you d
whom you met, with whom you conversed, what was said, &
until the day's duties and pleasures are closed and you
to your bed. Do not commit the folly of thinking such a su
unworthy of your notice. You are learning to inform yoursel
and can begin well only by beginning with that with which you
are familiar. If you are poetically inclined you may narrate
A morning walk.

But begin with prose; let rhyme alone for a while; it is v easy to tag together similar sounds. It is good sense and good feeling expressed in correct English that I wam to lead you and for so important a purpose practice in prose is indispensabl But whatever your theme is, be very rigid with yourself; pass

like our own letters of similar name, sound, and position in the alphabet, with the exception of a shoulder at the top which is not essential with us, though often used by way of a flourish. The letter K is like one of our R's badly shaped, and having a small hook at the top of the middle stroke. The letter Lis exactly like our own. The letter M consists of the first elementary leg doubled, and the third attached to the second by a small hook at the top. The letter N is of the same form, excepting that the first leg is not doubled. The letter o is the first part of the letter a, with a small loop at top.

BAKING.

38

The letter P is very like the P used by us in writing the word PER, in per cent., per pound, &c., only the top is round, and the final loop is more marked. The letter a is like the letter e, with the bottom sharpened, and the hair-stroke from it turned "Baking, like all cooking, is a fruit of civilisation. The savage the contrary way. It is sometimes made like the letter o with knows of no preparation for his food; he eats everything raw, a hook attached to it at the bottom. The letter R is very like like the brutes; and accordingly he eats it like them, with brutal our own, only its first part consists of the first elementary greediness. A proper diet is possible only when the food is pre- leg. The letter s consists of the first elementary leg, terpared by art. Baking, therefore, and every other sort of cooking is a far more important business than at first sight it appears to be.minating in a small hook or curve at top. The letter r conBy baking we procure the most wholesome of all nutriment-that sists of the letter I brought straight to a point at bottom, and bread which, as a common necessary of life, we daily ask of God near that point crossed by the elementary leg of the small in the most comprehensive of all prayers." alphabet from left to right. The letter u consists of a double pot-hook, to which is attached the third elementary leg by a small loop at top. The letters v and w are only the letters of the small alphabet enlarged, with the angular turns rounded like the first two in the letter M. The letter x is exactly like our own. The letters y and z are like the small letters y and z enlarged, with their angular turns rounded. The combinations of some of the capital letters with each other are so obvious as not to require particular illustration. We may, therefore, conclude these remarks with a translation of the German couplet which closes the lesson on chirography in No. 12, and which is particularly appropriate to the nature of the subject in hand:

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error; correct all mistakes; be as particular as if you were writing for the press. And having, according to the best of your ability, made your exercise correct, copy it out into an essay-book-a book kept exclusively to receive your attempts at composition; copy it into the book as neatly and as well in every respect as you can. The attention to neatness, which I recommend, is closely connected with the attainment of accuracy. You will find benefit as well as pleasure in looking back on your earlier efforts, and comparing together your power of execution as it was at different periods. It may be desirable to show you in an example how an humble theme may be well treated in composition. I take for the purpose one of Pestalozzi's "Paternal Instructions." It is on the domestic business of

It may be useful to beginners to see the same thought expressed in simple propositions, that is, propositions, or sentences, not having more than one subject and one object.

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. IV.

IN the German chirography, or handwriting, as regards the capital letters there are three elementary legs, so to speak, from which all the letters may be formed. The first is the initial leg of the capital letter M, which is not like any of our manuscript capitals, but rather like that of a small m enlarged into a capital with loops at bottom, as employed often by ourselves when writing Mr., or Mrs., or Messrs. It consists of an oval loop commencing with a hair-stroke on the left, becoming thick and curved as it turns round from left to right, and becoming again a hair-stroke in the same direction as before, but lower, in order to form the complete loop. The second is the body of the letter 1, which is the same in German, as in English chirography; and the third is like the ordinary pot-hooks of our text-hand, tapered at the commencement of their formation.

BAKING. The same in simple sentences.

Baking is a fruit of civilisation. Indeed all cooking is a fruit of civilisation. The savage knows of no preparation for his food. The savage eats every thing raw. The brutes eat everything raw. The brutes also eat with greediness. With similar greediness does the savage take his food. Art may be employed in preparing food. In a proper diet food is prepared by art. Baking, therefore, is an important business. Indeed cooking in general is an important business. Cooking is thought to be important. important in reality is baking. By baking we procure the most wholesome of all nutriment. By baking we obtain bread. Bread is a common necessary of life. We daily ask bread of God. We ask bread of God in the most comprehensive of all prayers.

more

"All theory, dear friend, is gray;
Life's golden tree is green alway."

SECTION X.

The adjective has thus far been employed only predicatively, in which use it is unvaried in form. Ex.:

Stahl ist hart, steel is hard; Blei ist weich, lead is soft. The terms attributive and predicative have, in Grammar, a strictly conventional sense, and should be distinctly understood. If we say, the deep river is here (der tiefe Fluß ist hier), the adjective deep is attributive; for the quality depth is there referred to, as a known and recognised attribute of the river. If we say, the river is deep here (ter Fluß ist hier tief), the adjective is predicative, for we then merely affirm or predicate of the river that it has the quality depth.

The capital letter A is formed of the first elementary leg inverted, and the third added to it with a small loop joining the two together. It is, in fact, the small ▲ enlarged with round instead of angular turns at top and bottom. The capital letter B is formed. of the second elementary leg, with a loop at top and bottom. the whole being made like our capital writing letter L, with a small D. loop terminating the last hair-stroke exactly like our small writ-. ing B. The letter c is exactly like our letter L in writing, with a small hook placed at the top loop. The letter D is more like the form of the Greek cursive letter than anything we know. It scarcely deserves the name of a letter, being a mere flourish of the pen. The letter E is like our manuscript c with its lower half written below the line, and crossed by a curve, indicating the separation of the loop and the scroll. The letter F is the second elementary leg with a small hook at the top, and crossed in the middle with a fine hair-stroke like a small t. The letter G is formed of the first elementary leg inverted, with the second attached to it by a small loop at the top, and lengthened below the line like our own G. It is in fact like the small letter G enlarged, with the angular turn of its elementary leg rounded. The Oletter H is like our capital & inverted with a small loop between the top and bottom parts of it. The letters I and are

When used attributively, the adjective is varied by the addition of suffixes.

I. When not affected by a preceding word, the adjective is inflected according to

THE OLD DECLENSION.

Masculine.

Gut-er Stahl, good steel;
Gut-es Stahls, of good steel;
Gut-em Stahle, to good steel;
Gut-en Stahl, good steel;

The genitive of the old form is now seldom used; that of the new form being preferred. Thus, guten Stahls; guten ise ne, ., instead of gutes Stahls; gutes Eisens, sc.

Neuter.

gut-es Eisen, good iron;
gut-es Eisens, of good iron
gut-em Eisen, to good iron;
gut-es Eisen, good iron.

II. WHEN PRECEDED BY ANY OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS,
Masculine.
Masculine.
Der,
jeder,
Dieser,
jener,
Aller,
mancher,
Einiger,
solcher,
Etlicher,
the adjective adds, in the nominative masculine and in the nomi-
native and accusative neuter, the letter e, and, in all the other
cases, en; and is inflected according to

welcher,

Neuter.
bas (the);
dieses (this);
alles (all);

einiges (some);
etliches (some);

Neuter. jebes (every);

jenes (that);

manches (many a);

folches (such); welches (which),

THE MIXED DECLENSION.

Neu, new;

THE NEW DECLENSION.

THE NEW DECLENSION,

the adjective has, in the nominative masculine and in the nomiMasculine. Neuter.

native and accusative neuter, the terminations of the old deN. Der gut-c, the good; tas gut-e, the good ;

clension, and, in all the other cases, those of the new, and is

said to be of 8. Des guten, of the good; tes guten, of the good; D. Dem guten, to, for the good; tem guten, to, for the good;

Masculine.

Nerder.
A. Den guten, the good; daß gut-e, the good.

N. Mein gut-er, my good; mein gut-ee, my good;
EXERCISE 10.

6. Meines guten, of my good; meines guten, of my good ; Alles, all; Jung, young;

Sdin, beautiful, fine; D. Meinem guten, to, for my good ; meinem guten, to, for my good ; Gng'länder, in. Eng. Klein, small, little ; Schwach, weak, feeble; A. Meinen guten, my good; mein gut-e8, my good; lishman; Moser, n. knife; Sdwarz, black;

I. In the preceding list of words, ein, mein, Deiu, z., it Gracf, m. dress-coat; Na'telfissen, n. pin- Start, strong;

will be seen, that their form for the masculine and neuter is the Goltschmied, m. gold- cushion;

llhrimadser, m. wateh

same; and hence that they do not (like the previous class, det, swith;

maker ;

dieser, ?c., and like adjectives of the old declension) indicate Gruß, great, large; Obcim, m. uncle; Weber, m. weaver ;

the gender of the nouns which they precede: The adjective, Gut, good, well; Scharf, sharp;

therefore, by taking the characteristic terminations (er for the III. ENDINGS OF ADJECTIVES IN THE NOMINATIVE, AFTER masculine and es for the neuter) assumes the office of pointing

out the gender of its noun. Ex.: Attributive. Predicative.

Masculine : Ein groß-er Stein, a great stone.

Neuter : Ein groß-c8 Schiff, a great ship.
Aller hart-e Stahl ist nu Blich. All hard steel is useful.
Alles n ut lich-e Eijen ist bart. All useful iron is hard.

EXERCISE 11.
Der nú gliche Stahl ist hart. The useful steel is hard.

Aber, but;
Lamin, n. lamb;

Steil, steep;
Das y art-e Gisen ist 1 üşlidi. The hard iron is useful.

Dad, n, roof; Nicht, not;

Stets, always; Dieser schön-e Vogel ist we i b. This beautiful bird is white.

Faul, lazy, idle; Shaf, n. sheep; Thier, n. animal, beast; Dieses w e i 5-e Papier ist i dy on. This white paper is beautiful.

Gett, fat;

Schuß, m. protection, Tief, deep;
Giniger roth-e Wein
Some (a little) red wine.
Hol'lånter, m. Dutch- defence;

Treu, true, faithful
Giniges rothPapier.
Some (a little) red paper.

man;

Schwein, n. swine; Zufrie'ren, contented, Jeter zufrieden-e Mann ist Every contented man is happy. Jør, your ; Sein, his;

satisfied ; 91 û cf lich.

Keller, m. cellar; Sepha, n. sofa; Weiß, white. Zetet glüdlich-e Kind ist zu: Every happy child is contented. frieden.

II. ENDINGS OF ADJECTIVES, IN THE NOMINATIVE AFTER Jener schij Maum ist groß Yonder (that) beautiful tree is

THE MIXED DECLENSION. large.

Attributive. Predicative. Jened groß - e Pferd ist ích ö n. Yonder (that) large horse is

beautiful.

Ein w ar m-er Rock ist gut. A warm coat is good. Minder a ut-e Mann ist arm. Many a good man is poor.

Gin warm - 68 Kleid ist gut. A warm garment is good. Manches schön-e Märchen ist eitel. Many a beautiful girl is vain.

Mein gut-er Hund ist alt. My good dog is old.

Mein alt.ed Pferd ist gut. Solder feine Stahl ist fostbar. Such fine steel is costly.

My old horse is good. Soldes fostbar-e Tuct) ist fe in. Such costly cloth is fine.

Dein ích v 1 - er Vegel ist weiß. Thy beautiful bird is white.

Dein weiß - 48 Papier ist schon Welder alt-e Mann ist glücklich? Which old man is happy?

Thy white paper is beautiful. Welches tein-e Kind ist 8 11

His hard steel is good. Which little child is contented: Sein hart-er Stahl ist gut. frieden?

Sein gut- e8 Gisen ist Bart. His good iron is hard,

Ihr gut-er Bruter ist flein. Her good brother is small. 1. Ist diejer junge Mann der Suhu tes Cavitains ? 2. Nein, er ist der Ihr kleines Kind ist gut. Her little child is good. Soon des alten Webers. 3. Wer hat das Nateltisien dieses fleinen Mäd. linser groß - er Baum ist í dy o n. Our large tree is beautiful. chene? 4. Dieses Fleine Kind des guten Freundes hat e8. 5. Wer hat tas linser s ch ö n - 48 Haus ift groji. Our beautiful house is large, schöne Pferd tes guten Dheims? 6. Der junge Voldschmied hat es. 7.

Fuer alt-er Soffer ist so warz. Your old trunk is black.

Your black ribbon is old. Wer hat ten großen schwarzen Hund des Jägers ? 8. Der junge Bruter Cuer id w ar 3-e3 Vant ist art.

Ihr grün-et Varten ist groß. des Kaufmanns hat ihn. 9. Hat das Fleine Kind das scharfe Messer des Shr groß-c8 Feld ist grín.

Their green garden is large.

Their large field is green. guten Bruters? 10. Nein, es hat ten neuen Kamm des guten Mädcens. Kein gut-er Stahl ijl gelb. No good steel is yellow. 11. Hat der junge Freund des alten Uhrmachers tas schöne Pferd des alten Kein gut-es Silber ist gelb. Nogood silver is yellow. (Corn. Knechtes ? 12. Nein, er hat 198 Přerd tes reichen Englänters. 13.

pare Sect. 10. III.) Haben Sie den Frack res guten Schneiters ? 14. Nein, ich ḥabe diesen 1. Ist Ihr guter Freund, der Capitain, noch ein junger Manu? 2. Ja, neuen Frad von dem guten Schriter. 15. Haben Sie das Tuch tiefes er ist noch jung, aber sein guter Freund, ter Holländer, isi alt. 3. Halen armen Weber8 ? 16. Nein, ich habe Tuch von dem Weber. 17. Sit Sie einen fdönen großen Hund? 4. Nein, ich ḥabe ein schönes großen alter alte Wein start ? 18. Nein, und niht aller nelle Wein ist schwach. Pierd. 5. Hat Ihr fleines Kind mein neues Messer ? 6. Nein, aber Ihr 19 Der neue Frad ist von sdm.rzem Elite.

guter Sohn hat Ihren neuen Stoc. 7. Hat der Fleischer ein fettes Sdaf? Questions. 1. What is said of the adjective as a predicareve ? | S. Ja, und sein guter Sohn hat ein schönes weißes Lamm. 9. Sp Jor 2. As an attributive? 3. What is the ending of the masculine Freund, ter junge Hollander, reich oter arm? 10. Er ist nicht reid, aber nominative of the old declension ? 4. What of the new ? 5. er ist zufrieden. 11. Gin zufriedener Mann ist audy reidy. 12. Ein reither What is the neuter nom. and acc. of the old declension ? Mann ist nicht stets ein zufriedener Mann. 13. Ihr großes Haus hat ein 6. What of the new ? 7. Is the old form generally used in the genitive? 8. What is used instead of it?

fteiles Dacty unt cinen tiefen Keller. 14. Ven wem taben Sie Ihr ncues

Tothu? 15. Id habe es von einem guten Freunde. 16. Das Sowein SECTION XI.

ist ein faules fetter Thier. 17. Ein treuer Freund ist ein starker Schutz. 2 WHEN PRECEDED BY ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS,

QUESTIONS. 1. Which cases in the mixed declension differ, Masculine, Neuter, Masculi ie. Neuter.

in termination, from those of the new? 2. Which cases of the Gin, cin (a or an); unser, unser (our);

old and the mixed declension are alike? 3. In which cases do mein (my); ihr, ihr (your);

the endings of the mixed declension differ from those of the Tein (thy); Cuct,

fuer (your);

old? 4. Which are alike in all three declensions? 5. What Sein, Tein (his, its); ihr,

ihr (their);

office is assumed by adjectives of the old and mixed declensions? Syr,

ihr (her); fein, frin (no or cot any), 6. What may we regard as an equivalent in the nerv?

Vicin, Dein,

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY-No. IV.

and mystery ; its northern part only is seen, the rest is unap

proachable on account of the torrents of flame poured on it by In our last lesson, we referred to the influence of the writings the sun. After the discovery of the Canary Isles and Cape of Ptolemy on the geographical knowledge of later times. Bojador, geographers represented in one of these islands the According to him, the limits of the world were Thule on the figures of colossal statues brandishing formidable clubs to north, and the Prassum Promontorium on the south; the warn navigators that they must not go beyond this point. former being most probably some part of Norway, and the A fantastic dream, filled with chimeras and ridiculous sights, Intrer some unknown point south-west of Madagascar. Its hovered over the world during the middle ages. The cosmolimits on the west, were the Fortunate Isles, now the Canaries ; logical theories then rife, were inferior to the happy notions and on the east, Thinæ in Sinæ or China. He rejected the which prevailed in pagan antiquity. Light however had begun theory of all preceding geographers, who represented the to dawn. At the commencement of the eighth century, pious world as surrounded by an impassable ocean on all sides; and monks had retired into Ireland and the Ferro Isles. In A.D. he replaced it by an indefinite expanse of terra incognita (un- 795, Christian missionaries had visited Iceland, which was known land). He rejected the true reports of circumnavi. considered as the ancient Thule of Pytheas. In A.D. 855, the gation of Atrica, and extended its limits southward beyond all Norwegians landed on this island ; proceeding farther west, reasonable bounds.

they reached Greenland, and enlarged the boundary of geograWith Europe, Ptolemy was tolerably well acquainted; and phical knowledge. Certain writers have advanced the opinion he described Germany and Sarmatia with some degree of ac- that the problem of a communication between the Atlantic curacy. He knew the Ems, the Weser, the Elbe, the Order, ocean and the great ocean, now called the Pacific, was really and the Vistula. He calls Jutland the Cimbric Chersonese, current among the maritime people of that period. It is neverand the Baltic, the Sarmatic Ocean, but he failed in his account theless an historical fact that America had been discovered by of this inland sea. He was better acquainted with the south the Scandinavians at this remote period. Yet the discovery of of European Russia, with the Tanais, the Borysthenes, and the Greenland detracts nothing from the glory of Columbus. The Euxine. In his description of the Mediterranean, there are northern regions of America are still a terra incognita ; and many errors, but his account is more accurate with them all, though a Franklin once freed America, a Franklin has not than that of any previous geographer. In regard to Asia, his yet discovered its boundaries. The hardy adventurers of Norknowledge was obscure and unsatisfactory, though some fea- way were the first who penetrated into the middle of the tures can be still identified with fact. Here he described the mountains of ice which bristle round the confines of the polar “Golden Chersonese," and the Magnus Sinus, or Great Bay of countries. We are equally struck with wonder and admiraIndia; these appear to have the Indo-Chinese countries of tion at their daring courage, in reading the history of the eighth, Ava, Pegu, and Malacca, with their adjacent gulfs or bays; ninth, and tenth centuries, when we find that all the known and Thinæ, which he places at this remote corner, is supposed seas were during this period covered with the vessels of the to be Siam, rather than any place in China.

Scandinavians. The conquests of these pirates in Europe are The Serica of Ptolemy in the north of Asia is supposed, well known. Their voyages in the icy regions are almost unwith good reason, to be China, which was reached by great | known to the general reader. trading caravans which proceeded from Byzantium (or Con- The expeditions we have now referred to were turned to stantinople), across Asia Minor, crossing the Euphrates at some advantage by the geographers of the period, but all the Hierapolis, and passing through Media, by way of Ecbatana to light they were calculated to give was not rendered available. Hecatompylos, the capital of Parthia. Their next route was the learned writers of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth cenHyrcania, Aria, Margiana, and Bactria ; whence, they ascended turies still united the Frozen Ocean, the Baltic, the White Sea, the table-land of the interior of Asia, passed over the Montes and the Caspian. They believed that all the northern regions Comedorum, or Beloor Mountains, and reached the celebrated formed only one island. Then the Amazons, those famous Lithinos Pyrgos or “Stone Tower,” a station whose site is still warriors, whose country antiquity had placed to the north of a doubtful question among geographers. From this station to the Caucasus, were now removed to the countries newly disthe frontier of Serica was a seven months' hard and perilous covered in the north of Europe. Scandinavia became their journey. The description which Ptolemy gives of Serica birthplace and their residence. The fiction of the Amazons," corresponds more exactly to China than any other country: says M. Humboldt, “ has travelled over all the zones; it beand his account of the manners and customs of the inhabit- longs to a complete circle, which proceeds from the reveries ants, identifies it still more. Moreover, the staple commodity and ideas in which the poetic or religious imagination of all of this overland trade was silk, for which China has been cele- races of men, and of all periods, instinctively performs its brated from time immemorial. Ptolemy appears to have had evolutions." a considerable knowledge of Hindostan or India, both within and without the Ganges; a knowledge said to be superior to that of the moderns till within the limits of the present century.

PROBLEMS AND QUERIES.
With regard to Africa, this statement may just be reversed.
But taking his work as a whole, and considering the age in

1. Given the heights of three towers placed at the angular points which it appeared, it must be considered a singular monument of an equilateral triangle, a, b, c, in the order of their magnitude ; of industry, and a valuable book of reference in all matters with the base or side of that triangle, d; to find the point within relating to the ancient geography of the world.

the triangle, where a ladder must be placed to reach the top of From the time of Ptolemy down to the tenth century of the each tower; that is, the distances of this point from the angular

In Christian era, no geographical work appeared, either to supply points of the triangle ; and also the length of the ladder. the place of his, or to add to the knowledge which it conveyed. Keith's Arithmetic, the heights given, 28, 30, and 34 feet; and the The invasion of the Roman empire by the northern hordes, the side of the equilateral triangle, 50 feet. general anarehy which followed, and the seclusion into which 2. Required a number such that when added to, or subtracted literature was driven, produced a retrogression of all the arts from its square, the sum or remainder shall be a square number. and sciences, and especially of geography. A proper judgment

3. Three gentlemen contribute £164 5 towards the building of may be formed of the ignorance which prevailed in this science a church at the distance of 2 miles from the residence of the first, immediately anterior to the time of the Crusades, by inspecting 24 miles from that of the second, and 3) from that of the third. a map of the world published at that period. The sea, as in They agree that their shares shall be reciprocally proportional to the age of Homer, is made to surround the world, which is their respective distances from the church. How much should divided into three parts, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Asia is as they individually contribute ? large as the other two parts ; Africa is joined to Asia on the 4. To find a square which shall be equal to the difference of south, and the Indian ocean is made an inland sea. On the two giren squares. €18t, there is a small place indicating the position of the gar- 5. Through a given point within or without a given circle, to draw den of Eden, by the words Hic est paradisus. Europe and a chord that shall be equal to a given straight line. Asia are separated from Africa by a very long canal, which 6. Through a given point to draw a line such that the segment some believed to be the Nile, others the Hellespont, and others of it, intercepted between two given parallels, may be equal to a again the Indian sea. Africa is considered the country of fable given straight line.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

gives out rapour, and that vapour has a certain pressure ; but at 2120

only is the pressure of steam equal to the pressure of the atmosphere. JAMES POLLITT is informed that the “ Manual of the French Lan- À PUPIL TEACHER has only to substitute the word Zedekiah for guage," price 29., is the title of the work respecting which he inquires, Hezekiah in Lesson IV. on Ancient History. It is nothing more than A copy of the “ Lessons in French,” as we have had occasion to say in an error of the press. reply to various correspondents, will be sent through the post direct BOTANY.-A SCHOOL ASSISTANT: The statement about which our from our office to any address, on the receipt of seven penny postage correspondent inquires is quite correct. A thyrsus is a panicle whose stamps.

middle branches are longer than those of the base and apex. The W. W. (Coventry): We really are not aware of any books we can peduncle is the stem or stalk that supports the fructification of a plant, recommend on the subjects he meations ; but they will be treated of in and different lengths of the peduncles give to the lilac its ovate form.due time in the POPULAR EDUCATOR. A meniscus lens is convex on the SCIRE FACIAS: The effect about which our correspondent inquires is one side and concave on the other. The latest information on Photography probably to be ascribed to the attack of a gall-fly; but the blossom was and Daguerreotype, will be found in the official Illustrated Catalogue of too much decayed to allow of a more precise answer. the Great Exhibition, at Nos. 291, 292, 296, 297, 299, 303, 404, FRENCH.-JEUNE FRANÇAIS is right; but we fear that Lessons on Class X.-TYRO (Newcastle), will be gratified with lessons in the other Pronunciation would take up too much of our room, and could not be ancient languages as soon as convenient. -0. (Monebar): Greek,&c., all in made quite to accomplish the desired end ; for, after all, the living voice good time.-GRACE E- -G, will find an answer to her principal question is very necessary for those 'who wish to speak French. - WHITTET at page 176, col. 2, line 14; and to her secondary questions at page 22, (Edinburgb) is right in his correction; it will be noted.—UN JEUNE col. 2, lines 12 and 17 from the bottom.

ECOLIER (Preston) gives us great pleasure when he informs us he is We request our friend, R. P. (Islington-green), not to despair; we are getting before us in our lessons: we hope to be up to him soon.-J. C. preparing a cheap edition of Euclid for those who are anxious and Hill: Right.-0. D. H. WELLS (Somerset): His offer is both admirwilling to learn. He has given us no trouble. Let him try, try again. able and generous ; we shall take it into serious consideration.-C. -J. S. (Port Glasgow) is right; 26 numbers will form a volume.-Our Davis (Whitechapel): Something will soon be done to meet his wishes excellent friend, E, H. M. Cam, is informed that there is a tine paper as to French and Latin. edition at 1 d. each number, which wants the title of which she complains. ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION.-R. MASON (Lancashire), is --Z. R. (Birminghamn): Will find mentioned among our Literary intormed that Dr. Beard's Leasons will include English Composition, see Notices, a "Handbook on Emigration,” price 9d.-H. CARTNEY (Dublin), No. 10, page 150.--C. E'W.: The sounds of es and e are the same in is informed that in No. 6, p. 96, col. 1, line 6 from the bottom, there is the words thee and me; but the sound of e in the definite article the is a reference which we hope will satisfy him on the subject of chronology. very different, and approaches one of the sounds of a.-A. E. should -We recommend our friend PILATE to observe the same reference on learn English grammar first.-G. Hogg (Newcastle), is right: the chronology. When Greek comes up rules will be given for its pronunci- positive is not strictly a degree of comparison, but it is the starting point; ation.--X. Y. Z.; F. B. (Horsham); R. C.: Painting, architecture, and if we had it not, we could not compare. A man must be good in some colour will come in due course.—T. C. LATHBRIDGE (Fitzroy-square): degree before we can say that another is better. Chemistry will appear in its turn.

ERRATUM IN SOME COPIES.
J. B. R. (Glasgow): We do intend to give distinct treatises on Natural
Philosophy, Mechanics, Engineering, Drawing, &c.; but we do not see

page 139, line 42, col. 2, for tenth read eleventh.
the necessity of “groans;" if there be any one thing that requires expla-
nation, we hold it our duty to give it, independent of either groans or
cheers.-I. P. (Manchester), an "Enquirer” is informed that when we
have ascertained what other system of “Shorthand" is best, we shall

LITERARY NOTICES. give it. Mr. Pitman's is copyright.

HISTORY OF THE PAINTERS OF ALL NA'rions.-- The first part of John BOURTON (Paddington): His solution of the cases of the 47th this magnificent work, in imperial quarto, containing a portrait of are ingenious.-R. M, ROBSON (Sunderland): We thank him for his sug. Murillo, and eight specimens of his choicest works, including the “ Con. gestion ; it will be considered.-E. FINIGAN (Manchester): His solu ception of the Virgin," lately in the collection of Marshal Soult, and tion of query 2, page 111, is correct.-WILLIAM PARKER (Newnham): recently purchased by the French Government for the Gallery of the His suggestions are good and practical. Our address is " Editor of the Louvre, for the sum of £23,440, is now ready. The successive parts the Popular Educator," 9, La Belle Sauvage-yard, Ludgate-hill, London. will appear on the first of every month, at 28. each, and will be supplied It is not necessary that every student should study all that is in every through every bookseller in town or country. number at one and the same time. Does our correspondent not see that

CASSELL'S SHILLING EDITION OF EUCLID.—THE ELEMENTS OF the variety is absolutely necessary to ensure a greater number of readers? GEOMETRY, containing the First Six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth In this way, every one may take up what he likes best; and let the rest

Books of Euclid, from the text of Robert Simson, M.D., Emeritus stand over till another opportunity. The subjects will keep. We Professor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow; with Corrections, shall thank him for the list of words, which he cannot make out in the Annotations, and Exercises, by Robert Wallace, A.M., of the same French vocabulary.-Jonn MACKAY (Whitehaven): When Leituules university, and Collegiate Tutor of the University of London, will be are mentioned in the newspapers, if they are not marked N. or S. they ready early in July, price 1s. in stiff covers, or 1s. 6d. neat cloth. are useless. When Longitudes are mentioned without being marked E. or W. they are equally useless. Latitudes, when properly marked, are

SCRIPTURE LIBRARY FOR THE YOUNG, in Shilling Volumes. --The estimated North or South of the equator.

first two volumes of this instructive series of works, “ The LIFE of

Longitudes, when properly JOSEPH,” illustrated with sixteen choice engravings and maps, and marked, are estimated East or West of the first meridian, which among us, is the meridian of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, and not of

“ The TABERNACLE, its PRIESTS, and SERVICES," with twelve engrayLondon, The Latitule of the Royal Observatory is 51° 28' 39" N., and ings, are now ready. The “Life of Moses" is in the press. its Longitude 0° 0' 0." The Latiude of St. Paul's Church, London, is

THE ILLUSTRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART, - The 51° 30' 49' N., and its Longitude 0° 5' 47' W.

First Volume of this splendidly embellished work, handsomely bound A SCHOOLMASTER, who wishes to obtain a certificate of merit for his ac. price 68. 6d., or extra cloth gilt edges, 7s.6d., is now ready, and conquaintance with geometry, should read the lessons in the POPULAR tains apwards of Two Hundred principal Engravings and an equal EDUCATOR, and the edition of Euclid just announced. - John Wright number of minor Engravings, Diagrams, &c. (Glasgow), is right; we were obtuse not to see the error; it will be recti. HISTORY OF HUNGARY, WITH UPWARDS OF EIGHTY ILLUSTRATIONS. fied.-T. B. ULMER, Philos, proposes an excellent mode of drawing a - The First Volume of the New Series of the WORKING MAN'S perpendicular; make a triangle whose base is 3 equal parts from any FRIEND, neatly bound in cloth, price 38. 6d., contains the completest scale, and two sides 4 and 5 equal parts, respectively, from the same History of Hungary ever published ; also, a History of China and the scale; then the angle opposite the side containing 5 equal parts will be Chinese, with Forty-six Illustrations of the Manners, Customs, Public a right angle by the 48th Prop. of Book I., Euclid's Elements. Any Buildings, Domestic Scenes, &c., of this most remarkable people : toegui-multiples of these numbers will do as well, and many other num gether with numerous instructive Tales and Narratives ; Biographies, bers, as, 12, 5 and 18, &c.-H. DUGDALE (Slaidburn), has sent us a with Portraits ; Scientific and Miscellaneous Articles, &c. very ingenious solution of query 5, page 111, being an ocular demon- CASSELL'S EMIGRANT'S HANDBOOK, a Guide to the Various Fields stration of the problem: we shall take an early opportunity of noticing of Emigration in all Parts of the Globe, Second Edition, with considerit in our pages.-W. S. BATT (Sheerness): His solutions of problems able Additions, and a Map of Australia, with the Gold Regions clearly 1, 2, 3, page 111, are correct. His different values of s should be all marked, is now ready, price 9d. the same, and will be so, if worked fully out. We thank him

THE PATHWAY, a Monthly Religious Magazine, is published on the for his accompanying letter. - A CLACKMANNANSHIRE " HERD"

1st of every month, price twopence-32 pages enclosed in a neat bas sent us correct solutions of problems 2 and 3, same page.

wrapper. Vols. I. and 11., neatly bound in cloth and lettered, price E. C. HUGIES (Islington): Thanks for his solutiong. As to his

2s. 3d, each, are now ready. query on steam, water generates steam at 212° ; below that it only generates vapour ; and above that it generates high-pressure steam, which Printed and Published by Jour CASSELL, 335, Strand, and Ludgaie-hili, becomes dangerous in proportion as the degree rises above 2120 Ice

London.-- July 3, 1852.

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