« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
FOUR OTHER FORMS.
present, being somewhat the same as our phrase I have dined; Latin tongue. There are two supines, one ending in um, as that is, I have just dined ; in contradistinction to the aorist amatum, in order to love ; the other ending in u, as amatu, to I dined; that is, yesterday, or some time in the past.
love, or to be lored; the former is called the first; the latter, The Latir. has three moods, the indicative, or the mood of the second. The former is used after verbs of motion ; the reality, the mood of simple statement; the subjunctive, or mood latter is used after certain adjectives; thus : of dependence; the imperative, or mood of command. Mood
SUPINES. is a Latin word (modus), signifying measure or manner. It is
Venio rogátum, I come in order to ask found in the French term mode, sometimes used in English.
2nd. Jucunda auditu, Pleasant to hear or to be heard The term mood, therefore, denotes the modes or manners in You may see here an illustration of the propriety of my queswhich a statement is made. All propositions may be reduced tioning whether the infinitive should be designated a mood. to two general classes ; they are either independent or depend- If it is a mood, is not the supine equally a mood? And if you ent. The independent are in the indicative mood ; that is, the admit the claims of the supine, can you deny the claims of the mood which simply indicates or points out. The dependent gerund? But if the gerund is a mood, equally is the participle are in the subjunctive
. The word subjunctive (Latin, sub, under a mood. Properly there can be no mode or manner of utteror to, and jungo, I join) signities that which is subjoined ; that ance where there is not a complete utterance; that is to say, which is connected in the way of dependence. The subjunc- moods imply propositions, without a proposition there is no tive mood, consequen:ly, is the mood which is dependent on mood. If so the infinitive can be called a mood only by some the indicative. The imperative mood, though differing in form latitude of expression. from the other two, may logically be considered as a subdi. These then are the forms of the verb which you have to vision under the subjunctive. How closely the subjunctive and understand, to recognise, to construe, to form, and to employ the imperative are allied, may be seen in the fact that the sub. in Latin. I will here recapitulate them :junctive is often used for the imperative; it is so used when a
Two Voices. kind of softened command is desired. In the older Latin gram
2. Passire. mars, you will find the potential mood, and even the optative Deponent belonging to the passive in form and to the active in meaning. mood; but these are mere tigments; they have no correspond
Six Tenses. ing reality in the language. Another form of the verb has a better claim to be termed a mood; I allude to what is called 1. Present · 2. Perfect; 3. Imperfect; 4. Pluperfect; 5. First Future.
6. Second Future, or Future Perfect. the infinitive, as legere, to read. This, however, might probably
THREE Moods. be more rightly described as the verb in its abstract form. If,
1. The Indicative. however, it is acknowledged to be a mood, then we must say
2. The Subjunctive. 3. The Imperative. that the Latins have four moods, the indicative, the subjunctive: 1. The infinitive. 2. The participle. 3. The gerund. 4. The supine. the imperative, and the infinitive. The infinitive, however, must stand in the class of dependent modes of utierance, since it In all, fifteen varieties of expression enter into the Latin verb. makes no sense unless when joined to a verb in another mood. You are not to suppose that every verb has all these forms. Thus, vult legere, he wishes to read. Here legere has meaning Even when the Latin was a living language, some verbs, many by biing united with vult. Vult is said to be a finite word, as verbs, were defective, that is, lacked some of the ordinary legere is said to be an infinitive ; finite and infinitive are the op- forms. We, however, are bound to write the language as we posites of each other. The two words come from the same find it written in the remains of Roman literature, and so are Latin word finis, end or limit; the former, therefore, means the restricted to forms which actually occur in extant Latin writlimited, the Intter having the prefix, in, not, means the un- ings; and as poetry has its licences, so are we obliged, in order limited; that is, the definite and the indefinite mood.
to be correct, to confine ourselves to the usages of the best Another forin in which the verb appears is the participle. In prose writers. In general, Cicero is the model to be followed. Larin there are four participles; 1, the active ending in ns, as Verbs which have been above described as active, may also amans, loving ; 2, the passive ending in tus, as amatus, loved; be called transitive ; that is, active in voice, and transitive in 3, the future ending in rus, as amatúrus, about to love ; and 4, import; thus, laudo puerum, I praise the boy, is a transitive the corresponding passive participle which ends in dus, as verb, because the action of the verb passes over (trans, across, amandus, to be loved,--that is, he who ought to be loved. The usages over, and eo, I go) to the object, púerum. As some verbs are connected with these participles will be set forth hereafter. transitive, others are intransitive, or 104 transitive. Such is The Lauins have no active participle of past time, they cannot by dormio, I sleep, in which no action passes over to an object. Inmeans of a participle say having lored. But the past participles transitives are sometimes called neuters ; that is, neither active of their deponent verbs have an active signification, since the nor passive. When they have a passive form, they bear the verbs themselves have an active signification; thus, hortatus name of neuter passives ; as, ausus sum, I have ventured; gavisus means having exhorted.
sum, I have rejoiced. Sometimes a verb, in the passive form, Connected in form with the passive participle in dus, is what has a reflective force, and may be Englished by a neuter or inin Latin is called the gerund, as, amandum, which wears the transitive verb; as, moveor, I move myself, or simply, I move. appearance of being the neuter singular of the participle A few active forms have a passive signification; as, vapulo, I amandue. The gerund exists in the nominative as ainandum, am beatın ; veneo, I am sold. Somewhat similar is fio (factus in the genitive as amandi, and in the dative and ablative as sum, fieri), 1 become, I pass from one state into another; I am made. amando. It is not easy to set forth the distinctive meaning of The tenses may be divided into three classes; thus : the gerund in one English term. Its proper and full force
the action incomplete Present must be learnt in reading Latin prose. I place before you a
the action complete Perfect few instances of its use.
the action incomplete Imperfect PAST TIME
the action complete Pluperfect Seribendum est, one must write
the action incomplete First future
III, FUTURE TIME
the action complete Second future
You thus see that there are three forms of complete action, Inter scribendum, during writing
and three of incomplete: Scribendo exerceor, I um exercised in writing
1 scribo, I write or am writing
PRESENT IIence, you see that the gerunul denotes under certain circum- INCOMPLETE 2 scribebam, I did write or was writing IMPERFECT stances the whole act implied in the verb, as here the act of
3 scribam, I shall write or shall be writing FUTURE writing. Yet is it nearly connected in meaning as in form with
I scripsi, I hare written
PERFECT participles. Similar indeed is the case with our word writing ; COMPLETE 2 scripseram, I had written
PLUPERFECT and generally our active participles in ing, besides having a
3 scripsero, I shall have nogitten
SECOND (or participial force, assume now a verbal, and now a substantive
PERFECT) FUTURE force; a verbal, as, in writing the letter, say, fc.,—that is, while you The natural sequence of our ideas requires a corresponding se. write, or when you write; a substantive force, as, the writing is quence of tenses. We do not in thought suddenly pass from the bad.
present to the past in the same sentence, or in the same memAs in form the yerund, so also the supine is peculiar to the ber of a sentence. Consequently we must avoid doing so in the
employment of the tenses. The tenses may be divided into Observe, however, that the present infinitive may come after a pairs, namely, similar and dissimilar; e.g.:—
finite verb in the imperfect tense, as solebat scribere, he was wont to write. The rule I have now given relates to what is called the consecutio temporum, or sequence of tenses. Compare the third Latin-English exercise, after the conjugation of the verb esse.
Present Present Present Perfect present Imperfect Imperfect Imperfect Pluperfect Now similar tenses should follow each other, and not dissimilar ones. That is, if you use one present use another; if you use a present do not let an imperfect immediately follow.
(ĕram, I was
Singulgr. eras, thou wast erat, he was
sum, I am es, thou art est, he is
(fui, I have been Singular. fuisti, thou hast been fuit, he has been
(aŭmus, we are estis, you are sunt, they are
erámus, we were erátis, ye were erant, they were
(fuěram, I had been Singular. fueras, thou hadst been ffuerat, he had been
fuimus, we have been fuistis, ye have been fuerunt, they have been
Cero, I shall be Singular. eris, thou shalt be erit, he shall be
(fuerámus, we had been fuerátis, ye had been fuerant, they had been
(erimus, we shall be eritis, ye shall be erunt, they shall be
(fúero, I shall have been
Singular. fúeris, thou shalt have been fúerit, he shall have been
Imperfect Imperfect Perfect present
fúerimus, we shall have been fúeritis, ye shall have been fúerint, they shall have been
CONJUGATION OF ESSE-TO BE.
sim, I may be sis, thou mayest be sit, he may be símus, we may be itis, ye may be sint, they may be
essem, I might be
essémus, we might be
fúerim, I may have been
fúerimus, we may have been
fúissem, I might have been
fuissémus, we might have been
LESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY.-No. V.
THE DOGS OF TURKEY AND OF THE COASTS OF THE POLAR SEA-THE SPOTTED DOG-THE GREYHOUND. THE dogs of Constantinople belong to everybody and nobody; the streets are their homes; their appearance is between that of a wolf and a jackal. Though exposed to a rigorous winter and the casualties of a large city; and though actually littered and reared in the streets, the species is surprisingly continued, As the Turks throw the leavings of their kitchens out of doors, the streets would be very soon impassable, were it not for the woavenger-like propensities of the dogs and the storks, assisted
It will be convenient here to present the verb Esse, to be, in full. This verb is sometimes called an auxiliary verb, as by its aid (auxilium) parts of other verbs are formed. It is also called the substantive verb, as in its essence it denotes being or substance.
es or esto, be thou
este or estóte, be ye
esse, to be
fuisse, to have been
futúrum (am, um)
ens, being (not
used in good Latin, but found in the compound praesens)
futúrus, a, um, about to be
occasionally by vultures. As they subsist entirely on charity and what they pick up, instinct leads to a remarkable course; for the dogs divide the city and the suburbs into districts, and to these they pertinaciously adhere. Were a dog found in a strange quarter, he would infallibly be torn in pieces by the resident dogs; and so well are they aware of this, that even a bone of roast meat-tempting as it is--will not induce a dog to follow a person beyond his district. Mr. Slade, a traveller, says, "We caressed for experiment one of these animals; we daily fed him till he became fat and sleek, and carried his tail high, and was no longer to be recognised as his former self. With his physical and his moral qualities improved, he
lost his currishness, and when his patrons approached, ex- cate significantly where his master must dig. Nor are the dogs pressed his gratitude by licking their hands, yet he would without their use in summer : they tow the boats up tħe never follow them beyond an imaginary limit either way, rivers, and instantly obey their master's voice, either in halting, where he would stop, wag his tail, look wistfully after them till or in changing the bank of the river. On hearing his cali, they were out of sight, and then return to his post. Only once they plunge into the water, draw the towing-line after them, I saw him overstep his
and swim after the limit; he was very
boat to the opposite hungry, and we were
shore; and on reach. alluring him, with
ing it, replace themtempting food; but he
selves in order, and had not exceeded
wait the command to twenty yards, when he
go on. These dogs recollected himself and
strongly resemble the ran hastily back.”
wolf. They have long, The companion of
pointed, projecting man in all climates,
noses, sharp and upfrom the islands of the
right ears, and a long, South Sea, where the
bushy tail ; some have dog feeds on bananas,
smooth, and others to the Polar Sea,
have curly hair; their where his food is fish,
colour is varioushe plays a part in the
black, brown, reddishhigh north latitudes,
brown, white, and to which he is unac
They vary customed in more fa
also in size. voured regions. On all the coasts of the
THE SPOTTED DOG. Polar Sea, from the
There are two breeds Obi to Behring's
of spotted dogs-the Straits, in Greenland,
Dalmatian and the Kamtschatka, and in
Danish; the latter the Kurile Islands, the
being much smaller dogs are made to draw
than the former. The the sledges loaded with
Dalmatian is used in persons and goods, and THE DALMATIAN COACH-DOG.
his native country for that for considerable
the chase, but in Engjourneys. Those born in winter enter on their training- | land he has never been so employed. He is said to have which is a particular art—in the following autumn, but are little sagacity or power of nose; but is fond of horses, and not used in long journeys until the third year. Much skill is may often be observed gambolling about those that draw the required in driving and guiding them.
carriages of the rich. This race is elegant in form; the body The best-trained dogs are used as leaders, and as the quick | is generally white, and marked with numerous small round and steady going of
black, or reddishthe team, as well as
brown spots. the safety of the traveller, depend on the docility and sagacity
There exist repreof the leader, they are
sentations of the greytaught always to obey
hound race more than the master's voice, and
three thousand years to keep their course
old. The whole head when they come on the
is narrow and sharp, scent of game. This
the ears light and last is, as may be sup
semi-pendulous, the posed, a point of great
neck long, the chest difficulty. Sometimes,
deep, the limbs slender the whole team, usually
and greatly length. of twelve dogs, will
ened, the back very start off under this im
considerably arched; pulse, and no endea
the whole structure vours on the part of
evincing the greatest the driver can stop
elegance, and giving them. At such times,
to the animal more the cleverness of the
swiftness than any well-trained leader is
other carnivorous singularly apparent ;
beast. Destined to be as he endeavours to
hunters on open turn other dogs from
plains, their eyes are their pursuit; and if.
prominent and clear, other devices fail, he
but the power of scent will suddenly wheel
not being wanted as in round, and by barking,
many other creatures, as if he had come on a
the respiratory organs new scent, try to induce his companions to follow him. In
are unusually free. English greyhounds have been known travelling in dark nights, or when the vast plain is veiled with to run eight miles in twelve minutes time, not including a impenetrable mist, and even in storms and snow tempests, the variety of turns and doublings, necessarily checking the good leader, if he has ever been in this plain, and has stopped velocity and increasing the exertion, while the hare that at a hut with his master, will be sure to reach the place has been pursued, has then dropped dead. In other instances, wherever it is, and if buried in the snow, will stop and indi- two greyhounds and the hare have been found lying dead
THE GRECIAN GREYHOU
together. The principal differences between the Grecian and Hormé, possessed of the greatest speed, and intelligence and the English greyhound are that the former is not so large, the fidelity, and excellent in every point." muzzle is not so pointed, and the limbs are not so finely The story of Gelert is 'deeply affecting. Llewellyn was at formed.
the chase of hart and hare, but it was little enjoyed, and scant Greyhounds appear to have changed the nature of their hair, I and small was the booty from the absence of according to the cli
“ The flower of all his mate they originally inhabited. The Rus
Returning home, Ge. sian and Tartar have
lert bounded to meet long and shaggy hair;
his lord, but his lips the hair is rough in
and fangs ran blood, Syria, Germany, and
and for Llewellyn Hungary; it is silky
a fearful in the Deccan, Persia,
sight : Natolia, and Greece;
“ O'erturn'd his infant's and smooth in southern
bed, he found India, Arabia, Egypt,
The blood-stained cothe Greek islands, and
vert rent; southern and western
And all around the walls Europe. In Roumelia,
and ground the Turks have a breed
With recent blood bewith smooth hair, but
sprent. with long-haired ears,
He call'd his child-no like those of a spaniel.
voice replied; But in the west, the
He search'd-with ter smooth coat is the re
Blood! blood i he found sult of importation;
on every side, for the native races
But nowhere found the were rugged, until the
child ! French kings, down to
• Hell-bound I by thee my Louis XV., began to
child's devour'd! introduce the more
Thefrantic fathercried : graceful breeds from
And to the hilt, his vengeConstantinople, Crete,
ful sword and even from Alex
He plunged in Gelert's
THE GREYHOUND. andria.
side 1 Very considerable differences have appeared even in the
Aroused by Gelert's dying yell, United Kingdom. According to Mr. Blaine, “Scotland, a
Some slumberer waken'd nigh : northern locality, has long been celebrated for its greyhounds,
What words the parent's joy can tell, which are known to be large and wiry-coated. They are pro
To hear his infant's cry! bably types of the early Celtic greyhounds, which, yielding to
Conceal'd beneath a mangled heap, the influences of a colder climate than they came from, became
His hurried search had missid, coated with a thick and wiry hair. In Ireland, as being milder
All glowing from his rosy sleep, in its climate, the frame expanded in bulk, and the coat,
His cherub boy he kiss'd! although not altogether, was yet less crisped and wiry. In
Nor scratch had he, nor harm, nor dreadboth localities, there being at that time boars, wolves, and even
But, the same couch beneath, bears, powerful dogs were required. In England these wild
Lay.a great wolf, all torn and deadbeasts were more early exterminated, and consequently the
Tremendous still in death! same kind of dog was not retained, but, on the contrary, was
Ah! what was then Llewellyn's pain ! by culture made finer in coat, and of greater beauty in form.
For now the truth was clear: Before we pass on the question should be noticed,
The gallant hound the wolf had slain,
To save Llewellyn's heir." " Seest thou the gasehound, how with glánce severe,
From the close herd he marks the destined deer ?”
LESSONS IN GERMAN. — No. V
SECTION XII. dog unerringly selected him from all the herd. No dog of this Adjectives denoting the material of which a thing is made, quality is, at present, known in Europe.
are formed by suffixing to nouns the letters n, en, or ern.
Ex.: The greyhound has been charged with wanting attachment, 90 commonly discoverable in other dogs, but circumstances Leber, ledern (leather, leathern); Gold, golden (gold, golden); Blei, have, probably, been wanting to awaken and sustain it. This bleiern (lead, leaden), &c. If the root vowel be a, o, or u, it is
Ex.: Glas accords with the statement of the younger Xenophon:-“I frequently changed to its corresponding Umlaut. have myself bred up a swift, hard-working, courageous, glasern (glass ; made of glass); Holz, hölzern (wood, wooden). sound-footed dog. He is most gentle and kindly affectioned; I (See Sect. 2. 12, ae, &c.) and never before had I any such a dog for myself, or my
EXERCISE 12. friend, or my fellow-sportsman. When he is not actually en
Becher, m.cup, beaker; Kocy, m. cook ; Reif, ripe ; gaged in coursing, he is never away from me.' On his return
Bleiern, leaden ; Kupfern, copper;
Silbern, silver ; he runs before me, often looking back to see whether I had Bleistift
, m. pencil; Marmorn, marble ; Tin'tenfaß, n. İnkstand; turned out of the road, and as soon as he again catches sight
Tisch, m. table ; of me, showing symptoms of joy, and once more trotting
Tischler, m. joiner; away before me. If a short time only has passed
since he has Faß, n. barrel, cask ; Mörser, m. mortar ;
Fleißig, diligent; Dbft, n. fruit; Vetter, m, cousin; seen me or my friend, he jumps up repeatedly by way of salu
Hölzern, wooden ; Obft'messer, n. fruit. Weder-noch, neithertation, and barks with joy as a greeting to us. He has also many different sorts of speech, and such as I never heard from Kessel
, m. kettle, boiler; knife'; any other dog. Now, really, I do not think I ought to be Ihr filberner Löffel ist schön, und Your silver spoon is beautiful, ashamed to chronicle the name of this dog, or to let posterity mein eisernes Messer ist schwer. and my iron knife is heavy. know that Xenophon, the Athenian, had a greyhound, called Dieser steinerne Tisch ist schwer. This stone table is heavy.
Das leben bes Kindes ist ein gold. The life of the child is a golden arise. Ex.: Id sebe Sie, I see you; ich sehe sie, I see her. When ner Traum.
sie is used in the nominative, the form of the verb determines Ist nicht ein eijerned Swiff tauerhaft? Is not an iron ship durable ? the person. Ex.: Sie reden inn, •you see him; Sie sieht
ihn, she sees him. Whether, however, sie (when in the accusa. 1. Saben Sie mein reifes Obft? 2 Nein, ich habe Ihr filbernes Obst- tive) stands for you or her, can only be determined by the conmesser, und Ihr alter Freund, der Lehrer, hat tað reife Obst. 3. Haben text. The orthography of the possessive pronouns Ihr (your) Sie meinen filbernen Bleistift? 4. Mein, der gute Lehrer hat ihn. 5. and ihr (her) is, also, identical, and, in speaking, is liable to Hat ter alte Roch meinen hölzernen Tisch)? 6. Nein, der Tischler hat ihn, equal ambiguity. Thus, Ihr Buch ist groß, may signify, your aber ter Rech hat einen marmornen Tisch. 7. Hat er auch ein hölzernes book is large, or her book is large; and I habe ihr Buc, may Fak? 8. Ja, und tiefer fleißige Schüler hat ein schönes bleiernes Tinten of sie in the accusative, and of ihr in all the cases, must of
I have your book, or I have her book. The significations faß. 9. Hat er auch einen filbernen Becher ? 10. Ja, und er hat mich course, when spoken, be determined by the connexion. (See einen fupfernen Kessel und einen eisernen Mörser. 11. Haben Sie das Declension, Sect. 18.) neue Meffer meines jungen Freundet? 12. Mein, ich habe ein neues Mesa
EXERCISE 13. ser von dem guten Kaufmanne. 13. Hat dieser fleißige Schüler tas gute America, n. America ; Gläsern, glass ; Schwester, f. sister ; Duch res alten Freuntes, eter den filbernen Bleistift seine& guten Vetters ? Bitluthel", f. library ; Golten, golden ; Seite, f. silk; 14. Er hat weder ein gutes Buch, noch einen filbernen Bleistift er hat | Brille, f. spectacles ; 3hr, her; (See I.) Sie, she; it; nur einen hölzernen Bleistift. 15. Wo ist der kupferne Kelsel des Kochs? Dame, f. lady; Kein, no, not any ; Tante, f. aunt; 16. Ler arme Mann hat nur einen eisernen Kessel.
Kette, f. chain; Uhr, f. watch, clock ;
Feter, f. pen; Lampe, f. lampi Uhr'tasche, f. watchfte
filbernen Fein, fine;
Leinwand, f. linen; pocket. 1. Has she my ripe fruit. 2. The old cook has my silver Frantreich, n. France; Mutter, f. mother ;
Kaufmann Fräulein, n. miss, D'pernglas, n. operapencil. 3. Has he also a new knife ? 4. The good merchant
young lady; glass; enen
Freuntin, f.friend ; $ 10 Sdheere, f. scissors; has an old marble table. 5. He has neither a golden fruitfilbernen Der Sommer eine
Zeit Der Bruder hat das Buch der The brother has the book of knife nor a silver cup. 6. Summer is a golden time. 7.
the sister. eisernen
Der Vater giebt der Tochter ein The father gives the daughter The diligent joiner has the iron kettle of the cook.
Der Aut meiner Mutter ift (don. The hat of my mother is beau. QUESTIONS. 1. How are adjectives, denoting the material of
tiful. which a thing is made, formed ? 2. Can you give an example Wo ist die Uhr Ihrer Fräulein Where is your cousin's watch ? of such an adjective ending in n? 3. In en? 4. In ern? 5.
Gousine ? When do changes in the radical vowel occur?
Sie ist in der Hand ihrer Mutter. It is in her mother's hand. SECTION XIII.
1. 3ft die junge Schwester dieser jungen Dame in Deutschland ? 2. Nein, THE FEMININE GENDER,
fie ist in Frankreich, aber ihr Bruder ist in America. 3. Wo ist meine neue The articles in the feminine singular are declined thus : goldene Feder? 4. Ihre junge Freundin, Fräulein S., hat sie (Sect. 18. Mom, tie, the ; (biere)
III.) 5. Hat Jhre Mutter die schöne Seite Ihrer Tante? 6. Ja unb cine, a;
(meine) Men. der, of the ; (bieser) ciner, of a; (meiner). auch die schöne feine Leinwand. 7. Wo ist Ihre goldene Brille? 8 3 Dat. ter, to or for the ; (bieser) einer, to or for a; (meiner). habe feine geltene Vrille. 9. Haben Sie eine filberne, oder eine geltene bie, the. (diese) eine, a.
(meine). Mlýr? 10. Id habe eine silberne Uhr. 11. 3ft fie eine gute Uhr? 12. The pupil having now had in due course all the forms of the Ia, aber sie ist nicht sehr schön. 13. Wo ist Ihre Ubr? 14. Sie ist in article in the singular, may note, that like bierer (which differs meiner Ubrtasche. 15. Hat Ihre Sowester eine goldene Uhr? 16. Ja, from the definite article only in having es instead of a s, in the und sie hat auch eine schöne goldene Kette. 17. Wo ist meine neue Scheere ? nom, and acc. neuter, Sect. 7), are declined all the words in list 11., Sect. 10 ; and that like ein, are inflected all those in the 18. Ich habe sie
, aber sie ist nicht sehr starf. 19. Wo ist Ihre Schwester? list, ein, mein, sein, &c., Sect. 11.
20. Sie ist bei der (Sect. 17. III.) Mutter in der Bibliothef. 21. Do Feminine nouns are in the singular indeclinable; as, nom. ist meine gläserne Lampe? 22. 3d habe sie. 23. Wer hat mein neues Die Seide (the silk), gen. der Seite, dat. der Seite, acc. die Seite. Opernglas? 24. So habe eß und Ihre neue Brille.
The adjective in the feminine singular has two forms. When it stands alone, or unaffected by a preceding word ($ 29), the
1. The mother of this lady is in France. 2. Has the beaunominative and accusative end in e, the genitive and dative in er. tiful daughter of the good aunt a golden watch? 3. My
goldene It is then said to be of
diligent brother has neither a golden watch nor a good operaNom. But-e, good; roth-e, red;
neue den. Out-er, of good;
roth-er, of red;
glass. 4. My good sister has no fine linen, but she has a new Dat. (Mut-er, to or for good; rotb-er, to or for red ;
mit der Acc. Gut-e, good;
glass lamp. 5. My cousin with the golden spectacles is with
meinem When preceded by either of the articles, or by any one of the adjective pronouns (see lists Sect. 10 and 11), the adjective
my beautiful brother in the library. terminates in the nominative and accusative as in the Old QUESTIONS. 1. What is the characteristic termination of declension, but in the genitive and dative in the letters en. adjective pronouns in the feminine nominative? 2. According Thus :
to what two forms of declension are feminine adjectives inNom. rie gut-e, the good ;
flected ? meine alt-e, my old.
3. Which cases of the two declensions are alike? 4. Gen. der gut-en, of the good; meiner alt-en, of my old.
What is said of feminine nouns in the singular > 5. How is Dat. der gut-en, to or for the good; meiner alt-en, to my old.
Sie (you) always written? 6. When is fi e (she or her) written Aloc. bie gut-e, the good;
meine alt-e, my old ;
with a capital letter? 7. How can Sie be distinguished from
fie in the poninative, when spoken ? 8. How when in the accu. L The personal pronoun sie (you) is always written with a sative? 9. How is Ihr (your) in writing to be distinguished capital initial, while sie (she or her) is only thus written at the from ibr (her)? 10. How is sie in the accusative and ihr in all beginning of a sentence. Hence in writing, no ambiguity can its cases to be distinguished when spoken ?
THE OLD DECLENSION.