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ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

this last sentence, being used not for a musical scale, but for a lever

and valve. Let W. P., however, usc his flute for a pattern, but learn MONGREL (Carnarvon): Something will be done for the Principality. to be independent of it as soon as possible,-tuning his voice and ear -R. J. C.: Reading at meals is injurious to health. --JOHN SOMERS to the chord, as in the earlier exercises, and marking the “mental effect" (Huddersfield): Persevere and you will succeed ; try to write evenly, of notes. These things will give him accuracy of ear.-M. B. S. C. that is, parallel to the top and bottom of the page.-J. W. GARLICK (Edinburgh) must mark the difference between poh and c. c is a fixed (Halifax): We thank him for his useful suggestions.-E.C. (Brixton) : sound, given by string or tuning-fork, that vibrates two hundred and We are preparing something of the kind.-GRIERSON (Edinburgh) : fifty-six times a second. To make the monochord give the true c, our Maps are to be printed in the P. E. The numerous exceptions friends must consider not only the length of string, but also the thickness in gender, &c., must be learnt from Dr. Beard's "Latin Made Easy,” and the tension. They will have, in that case, to tune the monochord by and other yet fuller manuals. We can give nothing more than a a good c' tuning-fork, bought of a respectable musicseller. The alphageneral view.-ISAK will succeed, if he perseveres.-XENOPHION : betical letters C' BAG FEDC, are well known throughout the civilised Your exercise is good; good, also, are several that have been sent world as the acknowledged names for the fixed sounds, each one indi. to us ; 80 good as to show that many are acquiring a sound cating a certain pitch. We do not make, therefore, the unphilosophical knowledge of Latin from our pages. This is encouraging. Their and useless attempt to force the syllables Don, RAY, ME, &c., into the progress will be more easy, more sure, and more rapid, if we are able to places of these alphabetical names; but we use them in a different sense. publish an English translation of the Latin Exercises, and a Latin The principal thing in music, is the key-note of a tune. That key-note translation of the English Exercises. — The translation asked for by R. may be at one pitch in one tune, and at another pitch in another tune. runs as follows:-At Sparta there is no widow so noble as not to appear But there is an essential sameness in the relationship of notes which aton the stage under the attraction of gain.—PILATE should pronounce tends it, and in the mental effect of those notes, whatever be its pitch. vaccæ and heus like English words ; thus, vaksee and Hughs. Maps will be to familiarise the learner with that essential law of relationship and given.-R. F. T.(Margate): Something will soon be done to meet his mental effect, which constitutes the simplicity and beauty of music, we wishes, in Latin. – DELECTOR must read a little more carefully; his diffi- give a distinct name to the key-note-a name which follows it to any culties will then disappear.-G. PEPPEN (Belfast): We think so; but see pitch. That name is don. And distinct names, also, to its attendant answers to former correspondents.-WESTMORELAND: Probably less notes. Those names are RAY, ME, FAN, &c. Therefore, whatever be the than a couple of years; as to “ Emigration," let him look to our full length of your monochord strivg, and whatever be the sound in pitch "Literary Notices.”—J.H.F. (Horbury-bridge): Weintend to publish one. it gives, you may take that for the key-note (or, as Euclid called it, the -T. SMITH (Islington): To bookkeeping, yes.—ALPHA: N0.-R. Proslamomenos--the given" sound) and the other notes of its scale will WOOD (Chepstow): Yes.-W. N. B., an ANXIOUS INQUIRER: There is be given by the proportions of the string mentioned.-J. H. P. is right no artificial means of improving the memory applicable to all subjects. about the metronome. But it is usual to say " Metronome crotchet = As to the dictionary and the shorthand, we are on the look-out for the 72,” or “M, quarer = 72,” &c.—UN JEUNE COMMis must be patient with best.-An IGNORANT SUBSCRIBER (Edinr.) wants our advice. Let his breaking voice, and not use it too much. He must also read the him study English first, and then arithmetic.-J. J. NEWTON (Bridge-lessons with greater care, as well as the remarks above. German Conwater): Under consideration.-A STUDENT (Liverpool): Certainly. As certim.-As this instrument is founded on the tonic principle, is without to dans and en, we shall give rules soon : he should read the notices to temperament, and is moreover cheap, we may probably give, as our correother correspondients.-J. 1. (Bristol) · Yes.-G. STRANGE (Hackney): spondent desires, a few brief instructions for its use. His question has been answered in our notices, to another corre

A. FOAD (Whitstable) is recommended to Reid's work on “ Watch spondent.–J. VICKERS (Huime): The error has been noticed and cor

and Clock Making."--Poor PEASANT is advised to drop the subject of rected. — WILLIAM : We are about to publish a work on the subject.

perpetual motion.-A, D. (Edinburgh) should study Euclid. -A ARITHMETIC. -Joun (Berwick-upon-Tweed): We should like to see STRUGGLER (North Shields) should study the Lessons in English well. the work to which the printed piper, he sent us, refers.— The remarks – TIRO (Leicester) can get a shilling's worth of “ Etiquette,” published of JUVENIS on Inverse Proportion are just; when we come to this sub- by Longman. The diphthongs are separased for the sake of the learner, ject we hope to satisfy him.-J. L. (Waterhead Mill, Oldham): Yes.- --ALPHA (Richmond) should consult“ Cassell's Emigrants' Handbook," R. BOLAND (Great Shelford): We thank him for his correct and useful (9d.).-R. J. (Mount Sorrel) is advised to study French first.-CLAUDE remarks; we shall avail ourselves of them.--Answers to queries 1, 2, 3, (Blandford) should read all the answers to Correspondents.-ONE WHO page 80, from P. G. ANDERSON (Birmingham), correct.-J. BOWMAN PERSEVERES is advised to be content with stenography.--JAMEX STEEL (Preston), is thanked for his very ingenious commanication on the (Bradford). B. MILVERTON (Winsham), A FACTORY OPERATIVE mystical number 9.-A. CAMPBELL (Cathcart): Ditto.-LEWIS W. H. (New Lanark), and A YOUNG BEGINNER, should read the notices (Wolverhampton), proposes a curious question : "Can the nine digits be appended to Lessons in French, No. 13.-GEORGE WETTOX (Kirkby-inplaced in rows nine times to form an exact square of 81 figures, without Ashfield), received.-E. P. a Young BEGINNER will find what he having two figures of the same name in any one line, either perpendicu- wants at present in the Illustrated Exhibitor.”-DAVID M.(Norwich): larly, horizontally, or diagonally?" We thank him for his second com. Study " Macculloch's Commercial Dictionary."-J. T. D. (Bloomsbury) munication, and shall keep it in view.--DELECTOR: His answer to the should try by himself first.-S Y. (North Shields): His problems are arithmetical question is right.-G. J. E. (London): His difficulty is not sufficiently explicit.— Ouabnoris ( Backwell): See above.-GEORGE removed by making the second distance 2 and seven-eights, instead of 2 HERBERT (Brid. Quay): Thanks for his hints.-AMICUS (Delph); and one-eighth miles.-W. FAULKNER (Smethwick): Ingenious and His question shall be inserted. -JAMES WILKINSON (Earby): We correct.-A. Fleming (Broughton-in-Furness): Correct.-J. CAREY advise him to let such words alone as he sent to us; their meaning is (Clapham): Ingenious.-F. R. W. (Islington): Not so foggy either. – bad. - John GOWANS (Liverpool): His reasons are excellent for hasie, J. N. L. (Dublin): Under consideration.—Correct solutions of Problems but ours are better for delay at present.-A. M. BELL (Liverpool): As and Queries from H. S. T., of No 2, p. 111.-John (Berwick-upon- soon as other subjects are disposed of.-WILLIAM Peer (Bedford): Tweed), of No. 5; and from G. W.(Dundee), of No. 3.

Right.-H. F. (Belfast), Duxc. F.(Glasgow), A SUBSCRIBER (Lublin). Music.-John is informed that some of the best flute instructors are TuEOPHILLS (Caledonian-:ond): The subject of German pronunciathe following :--Tegg's " Flute Preceptor," 29.; ** Alexander's Flute tiou will soon be discussed more fully.-S. S H. (Holywell-hill, St. Preceptor,” 38.; “Dressler's Flute Instructions,” 9s. ; and Richardson's, Alban's): We are not in a state at present to avail ourselves of his kind Pratten's, and Wragg's “ Flute Tutors.”—GEORGE Con: The Me, in ex. offer -ÉRNEST M. (Wolverhampton): His criticisms are on the whole ercise 5, is printed on the wrong line.-A GREENWICH AMATEUR just; errors will be corrected. Study Macculloch, above mentioned.suggests for the monochord, instead of a weight, “ a peg, similar to those THOMAS PATTISOX (Newcastle on-Tyne) is right; the solution of of a violin, where weights cannot be easily obtained.” If so, there James Veecock is defective.-C. F. P. (Dúnmanway, Cork): His solushould be one at each end, and both should be used in tightening the tions are correct and good.-D. D. 0. (Great Yarmouth): We say go string. He “finds a string of thirty inches quite sufficient,” and wants

on and prosper in the Co-instruction Society.-,. M. WHITE (Woodus to print " a scale of the divisions of the monochord fifteen inches street): Thanks for his suggestions, they shall not be lost sight of.long." Any length is sufficient if tho divisions are correct. There DANKBAR: Yes.-A. D. is premature. -MURAT (Halifas), a system trould not be sale enough for the scale le proposes.-W. G. (Bury): A of bookkeeping is preparing. The least charge for an advertisement is guitar is one of the worst instruments for a “pattern," on account of its 55.-R. S. DALE (North Shields): It is in progress.-J. S.: The numinaccuracy of tune. Let W. G. take a pattern from the best instrument ber of years from the creation of Adam to the deluge was 2262, accordat hand, but use his pattern as little as possible. The uatural ear, with ing to the Scriptures and by the Christians. According to ruleg is soft in frequent practice, will soon guide him to sing better than a falsely | Dolgelly.-P. Ė. A. (Bywell, Newcastle) : “ The Popular Educator."tuned instrument. Let him practise well the first exercises, and study T. Crox (Fareham): We are entirely of his mind.

We should only the mental effect of notes.-W. L. H. S.: We still be happy to see his be too happy if our numerous subscribers wanted lessons in religion. views on Pianoforte Teaching: -W2. PARKER (Newnham): Gene- We hope and trust this will be a blessed consequence of the spread of rally speaking, any simple instrument that allows you to play only in education among all classes of the people.-WILLIAM LIVSEY (Manone key (the key of c for instance), is, for that key, correcily tuned. It

chester): We cannot positively say how soon, but they are sure to be giver. is only when they attempt to combine several keys that ice common instruments require " teraperament." The eight-beyed Hute is, therefore, I piment and Published by JOHN CASSELL, 335, Strand, and Ludgate-hill, not so free from temperament as that with one key; the word key in

London,- July 10, 1554.

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We have disposed of the liver and its functions. But import- | as its ordinary constituents. The principal of these consti. ant as the office of that organ may be in separating and with- tuents is named vrea, and it is in this substance that the drawing certain superfluities from the blood, there are certain nitrogen of decomposed tissues and superfluous food is carried other matters which must be immediately and completely re- off from the body. If the nitrogen were not so removed, its moved from the system, which would otherwise prove highly retention in the blood would be followed with the most per

nicious effects. injurious. This is effected by the KIDNEYS, which are, perhaps, the most purely excreting or draining organs in the body. In wasted tissue and superfluous food? We get at this conclusion

But how do we know that this urea takes off the nitrogen of each kidney, there are numerous secreting tubes, which pro- in two ways. If we substitute an animal for a vegetable diet, ject into its pelvis or basin ; and from this basin there is a we find an increase of urea, and therefore it must be derived small but somewhat extended canal, called the URETER, which in part from those unassimilated elements of this highly nitrocarries the urine from the kidney to the bladder. Each kidney genous food which circulate with the blood. That is one has its own ureter or conducting canal. The secreting tubes substances from the food, and let the diet for several days con

method. The other is this :-If we exclude all nitrogenous are about tooth part of an inch in diametor, and are lined sist of sugar, starch, gum, oil, and such like articles, the quanthroughout with nucleated gland-cells, as if the urine were tity is diminished, still urea is excreted or thrown off. It filtered through those cells in its way to the pelvis.

comes off even if there be no food taken for a considerable time. But how is the urine formed? If we take a section of the And therefore it must, in a still larger part, be derived from kidney, and examine it with a slightly magnified power, we

the waste of those animal tissues of which the body is made up.

Whatever of this injurious substance exists ready-formed in shall find that its cut surface is studded with the blood is withdrawn by the kidneys; but by far the larger a number of little dark points, each of which portion passes off with the water. consists of a knot of minute blood-vessels. Another animal substance, rarely absent from the urine, is Each of these knots is included in the ex- URIC ACID, which is derived from the breaking down or waste

of alb ninous tissues. The relation which this acid bears to tremity of one of the secreting tubes, and is directly supplied by a branch of the renal the use of animal food, and is diminished by adopting an ex

urea has not yet been determined. It is increased like wrea by artery.* This artery arises from the aorta, clusively vegetable diet, or such as is free from nitrogen. A passes across, enters the kidney, divides into numerous branches nitrogenous compound, named HIPPURIC ACID, in the quantity which become very minute, frequently unite and form arches of about one-third of the uric acid, exists in the urine, and is in the outward covering or substance of the organ; their ex

removed from the system in the same way as the others.

It is now clear that the grand purpose of the urinary secretremities at last wind in toward the medullary or internal sub- tion is to carry off those products which neither can be set stance, and are coiled up into clusters, which take on the free in the condition of carbonic acid and water through the appearance and form of corpuscles. In these corpuscles or lungs, nor be got rid of by the agency of the liver in the form small bodies, which are situated in the external substance of of solid biliary matter. In all this there is evident design. the kidney, the urine is secreted, and is there received by the This design bespeaks a wisdom which is infinite, and a good.

ness which is exhaustless. The Father of our spirits is to be secreting tubes, which gradually unite to form larger tubes, worshipped no less as the Framer of our bodies. The creation and then converge towards the pelvis of the organ.

of man was nothing fortuitous-not a thing which happened by The separation of urine, as a surperfluous fluid from the chance. It was one of the highest acts of divine power. How blood, ij in all likelihood effected by the agency of the gland- perfect is the structure of every organ! How beautiful and cells which line the secreting tubes, and equally in all parts of end, and how beneficent in their functions! In the midst of

harmonious is their arrangement ! How adapted to their these tubes. Thers are certain matters existing ready-formed such profound contrivance and skill—such arrangement, and in the blood, which require only to be separated from the vital harmony, and beneficence, we are lost in wonder, and fall down tiuid. That is to say, that all such matters may pass from the in silent adoration. blood to the urine without any further elaboration; but there But we have not done with the process of secretion. The are certain other properties which do not exist in the blood, little glands which are disposed in the substance of Thx

SKIN, and in the walls of THE INTESTINAL CANAL, although inand must iherefore be formed by the chemical agency of the dividually minute, serve a most important end in the human cells. These, also, must be carried off, or life would soon economy. In the skin we meet with two distinct classes of cease.

these little glands, one of which is destined to free the blood Healthy urine is a clear limpid fluid, of a pale yellow or

of a large quantity of fluid, and is named PERSPIRATORY or amber colour, with a peculiar faint aromatic odour; and yet, considerable amount of solid matter is styled sebaceous or

SWEAT GLANDS ; and the other being designed to draw off a cunsistently with a good state of health, it may be ali but

OIL GLANDS. The first class presents the appearance of small colourless, or present every shade between that and a deep oval or globular masses, situated just beneath the skin, and orange tint. Clear and transparent at first, it often becomes, found in almost every part of the surface of the body. Of as it cools, opaque and turbid from the settlement of those their number some idea may be formed from the fact that not particles which before were held in a state of solution. The

fewer than three thousand five hundred and twenty-eight of average amount of this fluid which is excreted within the four of the hand. Now if we allow that each of these little coiled

these little glands exist in a square inch of surface in the palm and-twenty hours by an adult healthy man, is thirty-five up tubes measures one-fourth of an inch, we have thus within ounces, and ite average specific gravity may be taken as very a single square inch, a length of tube equal to eight hundred near 1,020. Ic summer, owing to the larger proportion of fluid and eighty-two inches, or seventy-three feet and a half, or exhaled by the skin, its quantity is less than in winter, and twenty-four yards and a half. Nor is this all :-the number of consequently its specific gravity is proportionally higher.

square inches of surface in the body of a man of ordinary

height and size, is computed at ten thousand five hundred, and The water holds in solution certain animal and saline matters if we allow two thousand eight hundred pores at an average

in every square inch, then the number of pores in the human • From the Latin word ren, the kidneys or reins.

body cannot be fewer than twenty-nine millions ! TOL. 1.

16

means

we

We have said that each of these little glands consists of a

hair. These hair-follicles, into which the small globe-like mass. Now from this mass there ascende a

sebageous glands open, are in fact among conducting-tube which makes numerous

the secretory organs of the skin ; since it spiral turnings in its course, penetrates

is only at their root or lowest part that the outer skin rather obliquely, and opens

the material produced from their walis is by a sort of valve to allow the fluid to

appropriated to the growth of hair. All issue from it. On the palm of the hand,

the rest goes to anoint the hairs and the the sole of the foot, and the ends of the

surface of the skin. Hence it is that this fingers, the opening of these ducts or

secretion is much more abundant in the tubes is visible to the naked eye. Ву

inhabitants of tropical climates than in those means of this gracious and wonderful ar

which inhabit cold countries. But for this rangement, a secretion of watery fluid is

benevolent provisior of the great Creator continually taking place, while a con

the skin would become parched and dry. siderable amount of solid matter is at the

And even with this provision of nature, the same time drawn off by the cells which

natives of the warm countries are in the line these small tubes. The fluid secreted

habit of lubricating their skin with vegetable is formed so gradually, that as fast as it

oils of various kinds, to protect it from reaches the surface, the watery

the scorching influence of the solar rays.is of it escape by evaporation. This is

These wonderful functions of the skin called inserisible perspiration. But during

have led some medical men to the constrong exercise, exposure to great ex.

clusion, that hydropathy, or the use of the ternal warmth, in certain diseases, or

wet sheet, is the most valuable curative when evaporation is prevented by any

possess for

almost every means, the secretion is increased and

form and variety of disease to which collects on the skin in the form of drops of sweat. This

the human body is subject. It is possible is named sensible perspiration. But the amount of fluid

that not enough has been made of this sent off by the skin depends very much upon the tem- most powerful of all diaphoretics--it is possible that it perature of the surrounding medium. When the surface of may come to be more generally employed as the functions the body is exposed to a high degree of external heat, an of these glands are better understood—but we can never increased amount of Auid is set free from the perspiratory believe that any one remedy is equal to every type and developglands. But as this fluid is carried off in a state of vapour ment of disease. At the same time, we can, while in health, as fast as it is set free, and in this form withdraws a large never be too lavish in our daily use of cold water, quantity of caloric from the surface, the temperature of the Another fact on this subject of secretion. The mucous surbody itself is kept down and regulated. On the other hand, if face of the alimentary canal, is, like the skin, furnished with a the hot atmosphere be already loaded with vapour, this

cooling vast number of these small glands. There are simple follicles power fails to be exerted. The temperature of the body is to secrete the mucus; there are more complex follicles to raised, and if this temperature continues for any length of elaborate the gastric juice; while those which crowd the walls time, there follow the most fatal consequences.

of the small intestine are destined to withdraw the putrescent The entire loss by exhalation from the lungs and skin may matters from the blood, and convey them by the readiest chanbe taken at the average of two pounds and a half in the nel completely out of the body. It may be very necessary twenty-four hours. In a warm, dry, atmosphere, it will rise indispensable, if you will—to take food to repair that cons int above this, and in cold and damp, it will fall below it. . Of waste of the tissues which is going on within us at every sucthis quantity, the exhalation from the lungs is about one-third, cessive moment of our earthly life"; but there is a far greater and rather more than two-thirds from the skin. The variations necessity why these tissues, in a state of disintegration or in the amount of fluid set free at different times, and in differ- decomposition, should be removed from the body: Life ent states of the body, by exhalation from the skin and lungs, may be prolonged for a considerable period with little if any are counterbalanced by the action of the kidneys. If the ex. food, but the retaining of this morbific matter in the system

for halation be less, then the kidneys allow a larger proportion of even a short length of time would issue in a fatal result. For water to be strained off in a liquid state from the blood-vessels. its removal the most beautiful provision has been made, and On the contrary, the kidneys have less to do in proportion to the quantity that is exhaled from the lungs and skin. It is it become us to lift up our hearts in adoring gratitude and love

as we study, and perceive, and understand this provision, does supposed that at least one hundred grains of effete nitrogenous to God, whose tender mercies are over all his works, matter are daily thrown off from the skin; but let this excretion be checked or arrested, and how much more labour is imposed

QuestioNS FOR EXAMINATION. on the kidneys, since if it is not got rid of—if it accumulate in the blood-it must prove fatal to health and life! Great What is the function or the office of the kidneys ? attention, therefore, should be paid to the functions of the skin, How is the urine carried from the kidney to the bladder ? so as to keep its pores open, and its action free, and for this pur- How is the urine formed ? pose nothing is so efficacious as bathing in cold water, followed How is the separation of urine from the blood effected? by friction and exercise.

What is the grand purpose of the urinary secretion 1] Besides this beautiful arrangement for the perspiration, the

With what little organs do we meet in the skin? skin is provided with another set of special organs, named

Can you give their names and functions?

?0000;tortor SEBACEOUS GLANDS, whose office it is to withdraw a pecu

Where are the perspiratory glands situated ?

What is the secretion which is effected by these glands pole liar fatty matter from the system, while the secretion itself

On what does the amount of fluid sent off by the skin depend? prevents the skin from being dried and cracked by the influ

What is the entire loss by exhalation from the lungs and skin in ence of the sun and air. These glands are distributed more or the twenty-four hours ? less closely over the whole surface of the body, but are most What quantity of effete matter is daily thrown off from the numerous in those parts which are largely supplied with hair, skin? such as the scalp and face, and are thickly distributed about Where are the SEBACEOUS GLANDS chiefly distributed ? the entrances of the various passages into the body, as the What is their peculiar function? anus, nose, lips, and external ear. They are altogether absent Do the functions of the skin in any way favour the practice of in the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. As the hydropathy? engraving very nicely indicates, they appear to be made up of

is the alimentary canal furnished with many of these little

glands? an aggregate of small vesicles, and these small vessels are filled with an opaque white substance, something like soft oint- tinal glands ?

Can you describe the various offices performed by these intes. ment. These glands are overspread with minute capillaries or

How is it more important to remove effete matter frim the body blood-vessels, and their ducts open either in the surface of the than to supply the body with good nourishing food ? skin, or, which is more usual, directly into the follicle of the How do these facts illustrate the goodness of God?

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LESSONS IN FRENCH.--No. XV. cette chambre ? 15. Il n'y fait ni trop froid ni trop chaud.

16. Y a-t-il beaucoup de foin dans votre écurie? 17. Il y en By Professor Louis FAEQUELLE, LL.D.

a assez pour mon cheval. 18. Restez vous à la maison quand SECTION XXXII.

il pleut ? 19. Quand il pleut je reste à la maison, mais quan

il fait beau temps je vais chez mors cousin. 20. Y a-t-il de la UNIPERSONAL VERBS.

viande au marché? 21. Il y en a beaucoup, il y a aussi du 1. The unipersonal verb is conjugated only in the third gibier. 22. Il y a du veau, du mouton et de la volaille. 23. person singular of a tense. Its nominative pronoun il, it, is N'y a-t-il pas aussi des légumes et des fruits ? 24. Il n'y en used absolutely, i.e. it represents no noun previously expressed. a pas. 25. Il y en a aussi. Il pleut aujourd'hui. A rains to-day.

EXERCISE 64, 2. The unipersonal verb assumes the termination of the class or conjugation to which it belongs. Some verbs are always 1. Are you cold this morning? 2. I am not cold, it is warm unipersonal, and will be found in $ 62. Others are only occa- this morning. 3. Is it foggy or windy? 4. It is neither foggy sionally so, and if irregular, will be found in the personal form nor windy, it rains in torrents (à verse). 5. Is it going to rain in the same $ 62.

or to snow: 6. It is going to freeze, it is very cold. 7. It is

windy and foggy. 8. Is there anybody at your brother's to3. PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE OF THE UNIPERSONAL VERBS. day? 9. My brother is at home, and my sister is at church. Y AVOIR, to be there: PLEUVOIR, to rain : NEIGER, to snow : 10. Is there any meat in the market? 11. There is meat and Il y a, there is, there are. Il pleut, it rains, it is Il neige, it snows, it is poultry. 12. Is it too warm or too cold for your sister in this

raining.

snowing.

room: 13. It is not so warm in this room as in your brother's GRELER, to hail : GELER, to freeze: DEGELER, to thaw : liorary. 14. Are there good English books in your sister's

16. Are there grèle ($ 49) it hails, it Il gèle ($ 49) it freezes, Il dégèle ($ 49)thare, library? 15. There are some good ones. is haiting. it is freezing.

it is thawing.

peaches and plums in your garden? 17. There are many. 4. Jl y a means there is, or there are, and may be followed by When it snows we remain at home. 20. Are there ladies at

18. Do you remain at your brother's when it snows? 19. a singular or plural noun (j 61, 2].

your mother's ? 21. Your two sisters are there to-day. 22. Il y a du gibier au marché.

There is game in the market. Have you time to go and fetch them? 23. I have no time this Il y a des pommes dans votre jardin. There are apples in your garden. morning. 24. Is your horse in the stable? 25. It is not

5. In relation to the weather, the verb faire is used uni- there, it is at my brother's. 26. Does it hail this morning? personally in the same manner as the English verb to be.

27. It does not hail, it freezes. 28. What weather is it this

morning? 29. It is very fine weather. 30. Is it too warm? Il fait beau temps aujourd'hui. It is fine weather to-day.

31. It is neither too warm nor too cold, 32. Is it going to Il fait chaud, il fait froid,

It is warm, it is cold.

freeze? 33. It is going to snow. 34. Does it snow every day? Resume or EXAMPLES.

35. It does not snow every day, but it snows very often

(sowent). Pleat il ce matin ?

Does it rain this morning!
Il ne pleut pas, il neige.
It does not rain, it snous.

SECTION XXXIII.
Il va pieavoir ce matin.
It is going to rain this morning.

PLACE OF THE ADVERB ($ 136).
Ne gèle-t-il pas ce matin ?

Does it riot freeze this morning ? I ne gèle pas, il fait du brouillard, it does not frecce, it is foggy.

1. In simple tenses, the adverb generally follows the verb, Y a-t-il du sucre chez vous ? Is there any sugar at your house?

and is placed as near it as possible :Il y en a beaucoup chez mon frère. There is a great deal at

my
brother's

Votre commis écrit très bien. Your clerk writes very well. Y a-t-il plusieurs personnes chez Are there several persons at my

Cette demoiselle lit très mal.

lady reads very badly. noi ?

house? Il y a plus de cent personnes. There are more than one hundred 2. When a verb is in the infinitive, the two negatives ne and

persons.

pas, ne and rien, should be placed before it :N'y a-t-il personne à l'église ? Is there robody at church?

Ne pas parler, ne pas lire.

Not to speak, not to read. Il n'y a encore personne.

There is as yet no one there. Ext il trop tôt ?

3. The adverb assez, enough, tolerably, precedes generally An contraire, il est trop tard On the contrary, it is too late. the other adverbs. It precedes also adjectives and nouns :Fait il froid ou chaud aujourd'hui ? Is it cold or warm to-day?

Vous écrivez assez correctement. You write pretty correctly. Il fait chaud et huinide, It is warm and damp. Vous avez assez de livres.

You have books enough. Fait il du vent ou du brouillard ? Is it windy or foggy?

That child is attentive enough.

Cet enfant est assez attentif, Il fait un tenips bien désagréable. It is very disagreeable weather,

4. Voici means, here is ; voilà, there is :EXERCISE 63.

Voici le livre que vous aimez. Here is the book which like. Aasemblée, f. assenbly, Couvert, e, ciouly. Manuscrit, manu- Voila le monsieur dont vous parlez. There is the gentleman of whom you party. Ecurie, f, stable. script.

speak. Bibliothèque, f. übrary. Epais, se, thick. Veau, m, veal.

5. Dans is used for in or into, when the noun which follows Brouillard, m. fog. Foin, ra. hay.

Vent, m. wind, Chambre, 1. room. Gibier, m. game.

Volaille, f. poultry

it is preceded by an article, or by a possessive, demonstrative, Cinquante, Afty. Humide, damp.

or numeral adjective [{ 142 (2)] :2. Il fait un temps

Le crayon est dans le pupitre. 1. Quel temps fait il aujourd'hui ?

The pencil is in the desk. superbe. 3. Fait il très beau temps aujourd'hui ? 4. Ii fait Mettez cette lettre dans votre malle. Put this letter into your trunk. un temps couvert et humide. 5. Pleuci beaucoup ce matin?

6. En renders to, in, or into, coming after the verbs to be, to 6. Il ne pleut pas encore, mais il va pleuvoir 7. Fait il du go, to reside, followed by the name of a part of the earth, a vent ou du brouillard ? 8. Il ne fait pas de vent. 9. Le country, or province :brouillard est très épais. 10. Combien de personnes y a-t-il à Notre ami est en France.

Our friend is in France. l'assemblée? 11. Il y a plus de deux cents (Sect. 19. 7) per- Vous allez en Italie.

You go to Italy. sonnes. 12. N'y a-t-il pas beaucoup de manuscrits dans votre bibliothèque? 13. Il n'y en a pas beaucoup, il n'y en a before the name of a town, city, or village, preceded by the

7. The preposition à is used for the words at or to, in or into, que cinquante-cinq. 14. Fait il trop froid pour vous dans

verbs mentioned above :B; unipersonal verbs is simply meant those verhs which are used only in

Il va à Paris le mois prochain. He is yoing to Paris next month. the third person singular. Having, properly speaking, no personal subjeci, they are so greu mes called impersonal; for the third person singular, used in

8. The same preposition is used in the expressions, à la Engliah, to neuter; and in French, though il be used, it is understood and campagne, à la ville, à la chasse, à la pêche, &c. translated as neuber by the word it. These verbs express chiefly an abstract Nous allons à la campagne. opin en or senument; most frequently they denote the state or change of the

We go into the coundry. weather; and thes generally precede or announce the occurrence of an

Vous n'allez pas à la ville.

You do not go to the city. evet; as, it happened.

Je yais à la chasse et à la pêche. · Igo hunting and fishing.

That you

Is it too soon?

you

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9. INDICATIVE PRESENT OF THE IRREGULAR VExos, France. 7. Voilà votre livre, en avez vous besoin ? 8. Je CONDUI-RE, 1. to conduct. ECRI-RZ, 4. to write. LI-RE, 4. to read. n'en ai pas besoin, j'en ai un autre. 9. Avez vous encore Je conduis, I conduct, do j'écris, I write, do write, Je lis, I real. do read, besoin de mon canif: 10. Je n'en ai plus besoin, je vais vous conduct, or am or on writing.

or an reading; le rendre. 11. Notre cousin demeure-t-il à la ville ? 12. Il ducting;

ne demeure plus à la ville, il demeure à la campagne. 13. Tu conduis,

Tu écris,
Ta lis,

Aime-t-il à aller à la chasse? 14. Il n'aime pas à aller à la Il conduit,

Il écrit,
Il lit.,

chasse._15. Il va tous les jours à la pêche. 16. Notre associé Nous conduisons, Nous écrivona, Nous lisons,

est il à Paris ou à Rouen 17. Il est à Marseille. 18. Où Vous conduisez, Vous écrivez, Vous lisez, Ils conduisent. Is écrivent.

Ils lisent.

avez vous l'intention de conduire votre fils ? 19. Je vais le

conduire en Italie. 20. Demeurez vous à Milan ou à Florence? Restue 07 EXAMPLES.

21. Je ni demeure ni à Milan ni à Florence, je demeure à

Turin. 22. Votre ami demeure-t-il en Suisse ? 23. Il ne Votre parent écrit il bien ? Does your relation write well! Il écrit assez bien et assez vite. He writes well enown and rapidly demeure plus en Suisse, il demeure en Prusse. 24. Votre

chorus.

domestique est il à l'eglise ? 25. Non, Monsieur, il est à l'école. Nous avons assez de livres. We hare scolas enough

EXERCISE 66. Nous sommes assez attentifs à nos "Fe ere attentive ausgk to our les- 1. Does your clerk write as well as your son? 2. He writes leçons.

colerably well, but not so well as my son. 3. Have you books Voilà la demoiselle dont vous There is the young lady of them you enough in your library? 4. I have not books enough, but I parlez.

speak.

intend to buy some more. 5. Here is your sister's letter, will Votre cheval n'est il pas dans le is not your worse in the field ! you read it? 6. I intend to read it. 7. Does your son like to

champ ? Il n'y est pas, il est dans le jardin. p is ret there, it is in the garden.

go fishing8. He likes to go fishing and hunting. 9. When Allez vous en France ette année ? Do gous go to France this year !

does he like to go fishing? 10. When I am in the country. Nous allons à Paris et à Lyon. We go to Paris and to Lyonis.

11. What do you do when you are in the city? 12. When I Où conduisez vous ce jeune homme? Where do you take this young man !

am in the city, I read and learn my lesson. 13. Do you Je le conduis en Allemagne. I take in to Germany.

intend to go to France this year? 14. I intend to go to Ger. Demeurez vous à la ville? Dw you lice in the town!

many. 15. Will you go to the city if it (s'il) rains; 16. Nous demeurons à la campagne. We live in the country

When it rains I always remain at home_[R. 1]. 17. How Allez vous souvent à la chasse ? Do you yo prien kunting.

many friends have you in the city? 18. I have many friends Nous allons quelquefois à la pêche. He sometimes.go isung.

there. 19. Are there many English in France ? 20. There EXERCISE 65.

are many English in France and in Italy (Italie). 21. Are Associé, m. portier. Fort, rery.

Suisse, 1. Switzerland. there more English in Germany than in Italy 22. There Canif, m. peniruje. Prehe, 1. iting. Terre, i farm, estate. are more English in Italy than in Germany. 23. Is it fine Campague. 1. catryPrusse, 1. Pron. Ville, 1. toun, city. weather in Italy? 24. It is very fine weather there. 25. Chasse, f hurting Rapidement, repiši. Vîte, quickly

Does it often freeze there? 26. It freezes sometimes there, Commis, m. ciert Kend-re, 4. to return. Voyage, m. journey. but not often. 27. Does that young lady read as well as her

1. Eerivez vous encore la même leçon : 2. Je n'écris plus sister? 28. She reads better than her sister, but her sister la même, j'en écris une autre. 3. Votre commis écrit il reads better than I. 29. Is there any one at your house? 30. rapidement? 4. Il écrit fort bien, mais il n'ecrit pas vite. 6. My father is at home. 31. Is your brother-in-law absent? N'avez vous pas assez d'argent pour acheter cette terre? 6. 32. My brother-in-law is at your house. 33. There is noone J'ai asses d'argent, mais j'ai l'intention de faire un voyage en at home to-day.

LESSONS IN MUSIC.-Xo. VII. paratively little importance to exercises on fourths or sevenths
By Joux CURWEN.

or any other intervals. They may be learnt by ear as well as

nursery songs, and are so learnt in large classes. Progress is M. Jeu de BERNKVAL, in his expensive but admirable work thus made, but the pupil's great difficulty is in remembering, when

Murio Simplitied," uses certain signs for the notes of the 4ths, 3rds, 6ths, and 7ths are grouped promiscuously together, Roule, which well illustrate the closing remarks of our last what is the precise sound (mental effect] belonging to each. And mon. He represents von, the key-note (the strongest of the to learn this without the incessant practice of professional are pillars of the soulo), by a square tirm-standing note; singers (which makes it an affair not of mind but of habit) an on the ninth (next to the key.note in strength), by another, appeal must be made to the understanding, and the pupil must but mtanding on an angle; and ne, the third (also a strong be taught to mark the quality of the sounds characteristic of each note), by the ordinary round note ; Tx, the seventh (the most interval. M. Jeu de Berneval's system (M. Jeu was marked of the notes of "suspense and dependence," com- professor of sight-singing at the Royal Academy of Music), wonly called "the loading note," because of its "leading"! to which may be termed an intellectual method, differs entirely mou, the key.note), he represents by a triangular shape point- from that of Wilhem, which is purely mechanical from begins ing pwani, nu though indicating its desire for von; Fan, ning to end. M. Jeu draws the attention of his pupils to the the month (which is tiene in its leaning tendency), he marks fact that each interval (it would be more correct to say note] of loy another triangular noe, but pointing downwards, as though the diatonic scale has a sound so peculiar to itself, that, when its

whity in two itaello4 mmilau and rar are expressed by character is once understood, they can never be at a loss to who win which need not now be described. (Lau is a distinguish it from any other. For example, the 7th (TE) may

with the sidew hollowed out, and rar a crescent moon.) be remembered by noting its tendency to ascend to the 8th We ve per another work in which the imagination of the (DOH). The ear cannot rest or repose on the 7th. It is a note wheepwomented tho woulos in the form of a four-barred of passage, leading to the octave of the key. The 4th (FAR) ** , *****, and upper som being the strong bars of and the 6th (LAH) are in like manner notes of passage, but

** ho vasto animals and objects clinging to them having a tendency to descend. The 4th (Far) leading to the ***hw vaste waters of the leaning notes." We 3rd (MB), and the 6th (LAR) to the 5th (808). While the Ist on the line in the purpose of retaining your (DOH), 3rd (MB), 5th (801), and 8th (upper Dow), are all notes **** the prout 4**. Have to which they point, and of repose, -notes upon which the ear may rest,--employed, *** . *** your money. For the same purpose we therefore, as the concluding chord of every composition, and * ****** the town summary by Mr. Nickson remembered with ease as the most natural progression from

*** Www Htaviows and produce to" Part Singing") the key-note to its octave. For example:-HM H He **viewer "After all we attach com

Notes of repose.

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