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a

able ;

desk;

bour;

silk ;

silk;

Cousine
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. VI.

beautiful cousin. 6. The diligent son of the brisk German has SECTION XIV.

gutes Nouns of the New Declension form their genitive by adding a good conscience. nor en to the nominative. Ex. : Nom. Der Mensch, the man, the QUESTIONS. I. How do nouns of the New Declension form human being; der Herr, the Lord, or Mr.; der Fürst, the prince; their genitive? 2. Can you repeat some examples in the nomider Elephant, the elephant, &c. Gen. Des Menschen, des Herrn, bes native and genitive? 3. What three cases are alike? 4. To Fürsten, des Elephanten, a. Nouns of this Declension retain the what declension belong nearly all masculine nouns ending in e? form of the genitive in the dative and accusative.

SECTION XV.
Nearly all masculine nouns that end in e belong to the New
Declension.

When mein, bein, sein, x. (8 58) are not followed by an ad-
NEW DECLENSION OF THE NOUN.

jective, or a noun, they are called absolute possessives ; and N. Der gute Anabe, the good boy ; der Ochse, the ox;

are declined, as are also fein and ein, like an adjective of the Old

Declension. Ex. :
Des guten Knaben, the good boy's; bet Ochsen, of the ox;
D. Dem guten Knaben, to the good boy ; dem Dosen, to the ox;

Mein Hut ist groß und sein-er (fein My hat is large and his (his X. Den guten Snaben, the good boy; den Ochsen, the ox.

Hut) ist klein.

hat) is small.

Sein Hut ist groß und mein-er His hat is large and mine (my EXERCISE 14.

(mein Hut) ift klein.

hat)

small. An'strengend, fatiguing, Grieche, m. Greek ; Pole, m. Pole ; Sein Buch ist neu, ihr-ef (ihr Buch) His book is new, hers (her

toilsome; Hauptmann, m. cap- Pring, m. prince; ift alt und Ihr-e (Ihr Buch) ist book) is old, and yours Thrist, m. Christian ; tain;

Rubig, quiet, peace-
schön.

(your book) is beautiful. Deutsche, m. German ; Heiter, brisk, lively ;

Er hat Geld und Sie haben kein-c# He has money and you have Franzose, m. French. Immer, always, ever; Kusse, m. Russian ; (kein Geld).

none (no money). man; Jude, m. Jew; Schreibtisch, m.writing.

Eines and feines (the neuters) often drop the vowel of the final Freiheit, f. liberty, Knabe, m. boy;

syllable ; thus producing the forms eins and feins : as, freedom;

Land, n. country ; Soldat', m, soldier ; Freiftaat, m. republic ; Leben, n. life ; Sondern, but;

Er hat ein Bierb, Sie haben eine, He has a horse, you have one, Fürft, m. prince;

and I have none. Monarchie', f. mo- Türke, m. Turk;

und ich habe feins. Geficht', n. counten- narchy;

Unser, our ;

OLD DECLENSION OF THE ADJECTIVE IN ALL GENDERS. Nachbar, m. neigh Un'ficher, unsafe, un

Masculine.

Feminine. ance, face;

Neuter. Gewiss'en, n. con

certain;

N. But-er Wein, good gut-e Seite, good gut-es Wasser, good science; Neffe, m. nephew; Zeichen, n. sign, token ;

wine ;

water; Graf, m. count; Nichte, f. niece ;

G. Gut-es Weines, of gut-er Seite, of good gut-e8 ($ 28) Waffers,

good wine; Karl der Große starb in dem Jahre Charlemagne died in the year D. Gut-em Weine, to, gut-er Seibe, to, for, gut-em Wafier, to, for

of good water; des Herrn Acht hundert und vier- of the Lord eight hundred

for good wine ; good silk;

good water; zehn.

and fourteen.

A. Gut-en Wein, good gut-e Seide, good gut-es Wasser, good Der tapf'ere Ungar ift der Feind des The gallant Hungarian is the

wine.
silk.

water. Russen.

enemy of the Russian. Daf duf’tende Veilchen ist ein schönes The fragrant violet is a beauti- Sie etwat ? have you anything? Ich habe etwas

, I have something.

II. Etwas isto berendered "something," "anything." Ex.: Gaben Erzeug'niß des Frühlings.

ful production of the spring. Verdien'tes Brod ift süß. Earned bread is sweet.

Nicht (not) is seldom used with etwas ; "not anything" being Ein gutes Gewissen ist ein fanftes A good conscience is a softIch habe nichts

, I have not anything, or, I have nothing. So

translated by niqt6, which also signifies “nothing." Ex: Kissen.

pillow. Mancher flei'ßige Mann ist arm. Many an industrious man is etwas is best translated, “such a thing."

III. " At all” in such phrases as “nothing at all," " none at

poor. Noth ist der vertien'te Lohn der Want is the merite? si imi of all," and the like, has in German its equivalent in the particle Faulheit.

idleness.

gar, which, however, always comes immediately before the

word to which it relates. Kindred to this, is the still stronger 1. Hat der Franzose den Wein des Deutschen? 2. Ja, und der Deutsche expression „ganz und gar“, wholly and utterly; „ganz und gar hat das Tuch des Franzosen. 3. Was hat der Ruffe? 4. Er hat das nicht“, wholly and utterly not, i.e. by no means; not at all. Land des Polen. 5. Dieser Griecie ist kein Freund des Türken. 6 Wer IV. When an adjective is used with „etwas" or „nichts“, it follows hat das scharfe Meffer dieses Knaben? 7. Der Freund dieses Griechen hat the Old Declension, and is written with a capital initial. Ex.: 6. 8. Haben Sie den Schreibtisch Ihres Neffen? 9. Nein, ich habe ben

Ich habe etwas Schönes, I have something beautiful.

Gr jagt nichts Schlechtes, he says nothing bad. Schreibtisch meines Vaters. 10. Haben Sie das Buch dieses Knaben, ober

Sie sprechen von etwas Neuem, you speak of something new. bas Papier seines Neffen? 11. Ich habe das Buch des Knaben, und meine

V. German verbs are conjugated negatively in the present and Miehte hat dać Papier des Neffen. 12. Ist unser Freund, der Hauptmann, imperfect tenses, without an auxiliary, like the English verbs ein Franzose, oder ein Grieche ? 13. Er ist ein franzose und ein großer “have" and " be.” 'x. : Feint des Russen. 14. Ist dieses Siind ein Sohn unsers Nachbarn, des Ich habe nicht, I have not ; Kaufmannes ? 15. Nein, es ist der Sohn eines Juden, und sein Vater ist Er siehe nicht, b: sees not (he does not see); der Nachbar eines Christen, 16. Ein heiteres Gesicht ist nicht immer das

Er hatte nicht, he had not; Zeichen eines ruhigen Gewissene. 17. Haben Sie das Buch des Grafen?

Ich sah nicht, 1 saw not (I did not see);

Sie sind nicht, ! 'ou are not; 18. Nein, sondern der Prinz hat das Buch. 19. Da& Leben eines Soldaten

Sie hört nicht, she hears not (she does not hear). ist auftrengend und unsicher. 20. Haben Sie eine Monarchie oder einen Es war nicht, it was not ; Freistadt? 21. Amerika hat keinen Fürsten, sondern Freiheit. 22. Ich Sie liebten nicht, hey loved not (they did not love). habe eine goldene Uhr, und Sie haben einen fibernen Bleistift.

EXERCISE 16.

Ander, other ; Gerber, m. tanner; Sauer, sour; 1. The writing-desk of the gallant Pole. 2. The life of a Barbier', m. barber; Gerste, jf. barley ; Schön, beautiful, fine ;

mit dem lebhaften Blau, blue ;

Hafer, m. oats;

Seife, f. soap; prince is unsafe.

3. The gallant Pole with the lively Budh'binder, m book. Häßlid, ugly; Stimme, f. voice; gesicht

3ft
binder ;
Hier, here;

Sub, sweet;
countenance is an enemy of the Frenchman. 4. Is he a friend @twas, something, Leder, n. leather ; Weizen, m. wheat;
guten
Fener

anything; Nichts, nothing; Menig, little, fews of the good captain ? 5. That soldier is the brother of his Bar, (See III.); Roth, red;

bes

Das Meer wasser hat einen salz’igen The sea-water has a salt taste. and although they were familiar with the use of the astrolabe Gefdmad'.

(an instrument similar to a quadrant) and the mariner's comDieser Schneidergeselle ist ein ges This journeyman tailor is a pass, they were afraid to navigate the open seas, a fact which ididt'er Ar' beiter

skiltul workman.

contributed to their continued ignorance. One of the most Der Hund ist ein treues Thier, und The dog is a faithful animal, learned Arabian geographers of the twelfth century, Edrisi by

die Kaße ist ein schlaues Thier. and the cat is a sly animal. name, the same who constructed for Roger, king of Sicily, Sie haben etwas Schönes, und ich You have something fine and the famous silver planisphere which weighed 800 mares (about babe etipas Outes.

I have something good.

400 lb.) had the most singular ideas of the terrestrial globe. Der Adler ift ein Raub'vogel. The eagle is a bird of prey.

He fancied that all the people of the world lived in the northern

regions ; that the southern regions were desert on account of 1. Hat dieser Luchártoler gutes Tuch? 2. Ja, er hat gutes Tuch— the sun's heat; that the latter were situated in its lower part ; und dieser Gerber hat gutes Leder. 3. Was hat der Barbier ? 4. &r hat and that, consequently, all the waters were dried up, and that gute Seife. 5. Wer hat gutes Heu? 6. Dieser Bauer bat gutes Heu. I no living being could exist in those regions. He asserted that the 7. Was hat der Schmied? 8. Er hat gutes Eisen, und sein Bruder der

ocean entirely enveloped the globe like a circular zone, so that Papierýändler hat gutes Papier, rothes, bizues, und weißes. 9. Haben only one part appeared like an egg partly immersed in water in a

vessel, He placed Africa in the first elimate, which commenced Sie rothen oder weißen Wein? 10. Ich habe weder rothen, noch, weißen. at the western sea, called the Sea of Darkness ; and beyond this 11. Ihr Wein ist füg, aber vieser hier ist sauer. 12. Ihr rother Wein ist all existence becomes invisible. He speaks of the two islands fart, und der weiße Wein meines Nachbarn ist sctywach. 13. Hat dieser called the Fortunate Islands (the Canaries), from which, as the Müller gutes Mebl? 14. Ja, und dieser Bauer þat gutes Korn, guten state of geographical knowiedge among the most learned of the

first meridian, Ptolemy reckoned his longitudes. Such was the Hajer, und gute Berfte. 15. Dicies Mädchen hat eine schöne Stimme. Arabians. 16. Mein Bruder hat etwas Schönes und ich habe nichts Haßliches. 17. The call to arms against the infidels, in the various crusades Dieser Mann hat nur ein wenig Geld, und der andere bat gar keins.

or holy wars which extended over the greater part of the

thirteenth century, drew the attention of Europe to the East. schwarze:

This was the epoch of the travels of Carpini, of Rubruquis, and 1. Has my brother the tailor black or red cloth? 2. The of Aseelin in Tartary. These missionaries, after they had meines

blaues

travelled along the shores of the Caspian Sea to its northern friend of my brother has good paper, red, blue, and white. 3. extremity, reached Karakorum, the capital of the empire of

Cathay (China), situate on the Orchou, a tributary of the The son of the bookbinder has something of the barber. 4. The Selinga." The narratives of Ascelin and' Carpini, reveal the

einen

existence of numerous tribes in a part of the world hitherto bebeautiful daughter of' he old blacksmith has a dog and a cat. lieved, by geographers, to be occupied by the ocean. “Eoüs," Tischlie

says a modern historian, “that fabulous sea of antiquity, the 5. The diligent carpenter has something beautiful. 6. The bed of Aurora, disappeared for ever, and hordes of savages, Kaufmannes.

as well as nations of powerful and warlike people, emerged at draper is a son of the industrious merchant. 7. The old tanner once from its imaginary waters." gesehen

The celebrated travels of Marco Polo took place towards the had not seen the sly cat and the faithful dog. 8. Is the car. end of the 13th century, from 1271 to 1297. They made zu Hause Nein

genommen

known the centre and the eastern extremity of Asia, Japan, penter at home? No, he is not. 9. Have you taken some part of the islands of the Eastern Archipelago and of the con

Brunnenwasser

tinent of Africa, and the large island of Madagascar. Among thing.* I have taken nothing. 10. Has pump-water a sweet the descriptions of the illustrious Venetian, that of China was

feinen
sondern

the most curious and important; it was a complete disclosure or a salt taste? It has not a salt taste, but a sweet taste.

of that empire, which had been hitherto almost an enigma to

Europe. After long and continued suspicions of exaggeration QUESTIONS. 1. How are the absolute possessive pronouns in pis narrative, the assertions of Marco Polo have been, after declined ? 2. Are cing and feins often contracted ? 3. How? careful examination, acknowledged to be correct and agreeable 4. In what two ways is nichts rendered in English ? 5. How is to fact. It is with justice, therefore, that this traveller has been Att að rendered ? 6. „So etwas" ? 7. How is gar rendered ? 8. styled the founder of the modern geography of Asia. A very Banz und gar? 9. How is an adjective declined, and how written considerable time elapsed before any addition was made to the after etwas and nichts? 10. How are German verbs conjugated brilliant discoveries of the Venetian ; but he was not without negatively? 11. What analogy is noticed in the same tenses? travellers to confirm his original statements. Oderic, of

Portenau, visited India and China from 1320 to 1330 ; Schiltberger, of Munich, accompanied Tamerlane in his expeditions,

and thus travelled over central Asia; in 1335, an Italian merLESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-No. V.

chant Balducci Pegoletti went to Pekin by the central Asiatic ARABIAN NOTIONS-EUROPEAN TRAVELS- route ; and in 1403, Clavijo was sent as an ambassador by DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.

the court of Spain to Samarcand. About the end of the THE Arabians, by a series of brilliant conquests under the and announced the existence of a large island, which they

fourteenth century the brothers Zeni rediscovered Greenland, successors of one of the greatest impostors the world ever saw; called Frislana. Modern geographers have not yet arrived at had reached a state of comparative ease and power, and had the satisfactory solution of the problem,—to what country or devoted themselves during the dark ages of Christianity to the

island does this naine apply. study of the exact sciences, in as far as they had escaped the ravages of one of their own princes, who destroyed the library began to explore the western part of this continent. This

Africa had almost become unknown, when the Portuguese of Alexandria, which contained the treasures of the remotest ages. Geography, in connexion with astronomy, was one of nation, animated by a zeal for making voyages and discoveries, the most interesting subjects of their investigation. But their undertook to rectify the errors of geographers, and to contracosmological system was scarcely less absurd than that of the dict the dreams of Greek and Roman antiquity, as well as the ancients. They divided the world into seven climates, and reveries of the middle ages, by experimentally proving the each climate into a certain number of regions. Although some

fact that the zone of the globe hitherto deemed uninhabitable of the Arabs had made long voyages, and one of their geo- to the year 1411, the Portuguese had never ventured beyond

was as accessible to man as the temperate regions. Previous graphers had actually explored Africa as far as Djoliba (the Niger), and the region in which is situated the famous Tim-Cape Nun, which they considered as an impassable limit. An buctoo, still their knowledge of this continent was very incom- expedition was then fitted and sent out, which proved com. plete. They always made the Indian Ocean an inland sea ; but extended its researches as far as Cape Bojador. Then com

pletely successful; it not only doubled this redoubtable cape, • Translate fret" something" and then taken."

menced that series of successful enterprises which have gained.

for this people their lasting reputation as early discoverers of un- | illustrious Genoese met with in the execution of his project, known lands. Under the direction of a noble and zealous prince, and of all the obstacles which ignorance, indifference, and in 1432, Henry of Portugal, exploring squadrons from Lisbon jealousy raised up against him is well known; but the facts of doubled Cape Bojador, discovered the river Senegal, recon- the discovery must be remembered. The three vessels charged noitred the coast of Africa from Cape Blanco to Cape Verde, with this great exploring expedition set sail on the 3rd of landed on the islands which take their name from ihe latter August, 1492, and after a short rest at the Canary Islands, was cape, and took possession of the Azores, situated about nine refitted on the 6th of September following. From that moment hundred miles from the African continent. Some years later, the crew of the little feet, alarmed at the immensity of he the Portuguesse crossed the equinoctial line or equator, and ocean, and destitute of the hope of success to sustain their established the fact, hitherto problematical, that the torrid courage, cherished & shousand apprehensions which almost led zone was not only habitable, but also very populous and fertile. them to despair. Despondency gave place to anger, and No longer did the black statues of the Canary Islands appeal anger produced revolt. The energy of the great leader of the to the fears of the traveller and forbid him to go a step beyond enterprise calmed chese extravagant fears and warded off the that limit. Suddenly also was the Sea of Darkness illumined by dangers with which even his life was threatened. Yet keen the rays of the tropical sun, and soon were its waves opened up anguish continued to agitate his noble heart during those long as a public highway to enterprising navigators. After new and dreary nights when the land, indicated by certain cusexploring expeditions to the kingdoms of Benin and Congo, the tomary signs, seemed to fly from his presence. At last, at 10 Portuguese, under Bartholomew Diaz, in 1493, reached the o'clock on the night of the 11th of October, 1492, Columbus

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Cape of Good Hope, which was then called by him the Cape of | distinctly perceived a light. Some hours afterwards, the rising Tempests, on account of the stormy aspect which it presented sun showed him in the distance the land which he soughi. to them on its first appearance. In 1497, however, under the America was discovered ! auspices of Emanuel of Portugal, Vasco de Gama doubled the The first land seen by Columbus, was the Island of Guanahani, Cape of Good Hope, and reached India, after having rounded which was called San Salvador. The Spaniards discovered, in the whole western and southern coast of Africa.

succession, the Island of Conception, the Isles of Ferdinand Whilst the Portuguese were thus striking out a new route and Isabella, Cuba and Hayti, which received the name of to the East Indies, the Spaniards were opening up America to Hispaniola. It has been said that Amérigo Vespucci, visited, Europe. The latter years of the fifteenth century made this a year before Columbus, the coasts of Guiana and Terra Firma. double present to Christendom. The erroneous representations But this is mere conjecture. Two years later, however, this which the maps of the world presented at this period, and learned Florentine carefully reconnoitred this maritime zone of which according to the authority of Ptolemy and the travels of the world. In the space of a few years, constant accessions were Marco Polo, gave an exaggerated extent to Asia on the male to these discoveries. Yanez Pinzon, in 1600, reached east, led Christopher Columbus to imagine that by sailiag con- Brazil, and three months after him, Alvarez Cabral landed on tinually westward, it was possible to reach the continent of the same coast, which he transferred to the sovereignty of Asia and the East Indies. There was besides, a vague but Portugal; while Gaspard Corteréal discovered Labrador, in the common belief that there existed towards the west a great un- north-east of the same continent. Ponce de Leon, in 1512, was known land. The history of all the difficulties which the the first who landed in Florida. Three years later, the Rio de

LETTER

la Plata, or river Plate, was laid open to Europe by Juan Diaz | kindly criticise each other's letters. Let them ask and give expla. de Solis. Magellan, one of the most illustrious of these early nations. Let A. correct B.'s exercise, and let B. do the same for voyagers, in 1520, established the fact of the existence of the A. Let them agree on some book which they will both read, with strait which bears his name, saw Terra del Fuego, and reached a view to make in writing and submit to each other remarks on the Philippine Islands, after having, ploughed the Pacific the composition. For this purpose I would suggest to them the Ocean, which Nunez de Balboa had taken possession of, in the “.

“ Spectator." name of the king of Spain! This Balboa was the first who In this counsel I have mentioned young men, by no means insaw the waters of the great Pacific, which he named the South tending to exclude young women. Most desirous am I that young Sea, from the elevated shores of Central America. Now the women should receive a good education. Most necessary to them Spaniards commenced the exploration of the new continent. as being the future mothers of our land, is a good education. A The curiosity of Europe was raised to its highest pitch. An far better education ought they to receive than the best which they unknown and mighty world unfolded its wonders to bold ad- do receive. But to be well-educated they must be self-educated. venturers, when Mexico, Guatimala, and Peru, exhibited to the Let young women then consider themselves specially addressed in eyes of the astonished Europeans, the splendours of their im- the lessons I supply, and the advice I give. perial cities, and presented to them the inexhaustible treasures hid in the bowels of their mountains ; when Pizarro undertook

To the Rev. Mr. William Draper, the conquest of the immense empire of the Incas at the head of sixty-two cavalry and one hundred infantry! In the sight of

Dean, near Basingstoke, Hampshire. pretended miracles, what golden dreams surprised the con

London, April 13, 1713. temporaries of Columbus, Cortez, and Alvarado!

SIR, -I am ashamed to tell you how ill a philosopher I am, and that a very ill situation of my affairs for three weeks past made me

utterly incapable of answering your obliging letter, and thanking LESSONS IN ENGLISH-NO. VII.

you for your most agreeable copy of verses. The prints will tell By John R. BEARD, D.D.

you that I am condemned again to live in Ireland; and all that the

court and ministry did for me, was to let me choose my situation Having thus furnished you with some criteria or means of ascer in the country where I am banished. I could not forbear showing taining what words have their origin in the Saxon, or, as it is more both your letter and verses to our great men, as well as to the men correctly called, the Teutonic branch of our language, I must of wit of my acquaintance; and they were highly approved of by now request, that in all your studies, you will constantly ask your all. I am altogether a stranger to your

friend Oppian; and am a self, whether each word you meet with, is, or is not, of Saxon deriva little angry when those who have a genius iay it out in translations. tion: Among English writers, no one has a larger portion of of your motives. Perhaps you want such a bridle as translation,

I question whether “Res angusta domi" (narrow means) be not one Saxon in his compositions than Dean Swift ; and no one writes for your genius is too fruitful, as appears by the frequency of your the language more correctly. I shall therefore make use of his similes, and this employment may teach you to write like a modest writings in this part of my task. William Cobbett's works may man, as Shakespeare expresses it. be advantageously studied for the Saxon treasures which they contain. I have been minding my Lord Boling broke, Mr. Harcourt, and EXERCISES FOR PARBING.

Sir William Windham, to give you a living; as a business which It is a miserable thing to live in suspense. To live in suspense, belongs to our society, who assume the title of rewarders of merit. is to live the life of a spider. No wise man ever wished to be They are very well disposed, and I shall not fail to negotiate for younger. An idle reason lessens the weight of good reasons.

you while I stay in England, which will not be above six weeks; Complaint is the largest tribute paid to Heaven. Complaint is the but I hope to return in October, and if you are not then provided for sincerest part of our devotion. Praise is the daughter of present I will move heaven and earth that something may be done for you. power. Every man desires to live long. No man is willing to be Our society has not met of late, else I would have moved to have old. Kings are said to have long hands. Kings ought to have two of us sent in form to request a living for you from my lord long ears. Vision is the art of seeing things invisible. Good chancellor, and if you have any way to employ my services, I desire manners is the art of making associates easy. Flattery is the worst you will let me know it; and believe me to be very sincerely, Sir,

JONATHAN SWIFT. and falsest way of showing our esteem. A fine gentleman has your most faithful, bumble servant, both wit and learning.

EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION. The reader may exercise his ingenuity, as well as his grammar, while he discovers the explanation of a Riddle of the learned Dean's,

The patriarch Abraham's Visit to Egypt. which is appropriate to my subject. “We are little airy creatures

Form sentences, each having in it one of the following

words :-
All of different voice and features;
One of us in glass is set,

Debts; light; sing; come; health ; water; sky; home ; day;
One of us you'll find in jet;

night; lark; rose ; Victoria ; Mary; Henry; mother'; bread; EngT'other you may see in tin,

land; wife; buttercup; linnet; daisy; stone. And a fourth a box within ;

Describe a chair ; a wheel of a coach ; a kite; a waterpot; an If the fifth you should pursue,

oak-tree; the room in which you write; and the place where you It can never fly from you."

work. An excellent practice in composition is letter-writing. I shall therefore, occasionally, give a specimen of epistolary correspondence.

ON EPISTOLARY WRITING. And I advise my pupils to accustom themselves to express their Its first and fundamental requisite is, to be natural and simple; thoughts in the form of letters. Let the letters be real; I mean, for a stiff and laboured manner is as bad in a letter as it is in conlet them be written, not as exercises in composition, but on some versation. This does not banish sprightliness and wit. These are business, and to some friend or acquaintance. Your chief want graceful in letters, just as they are in conversation : when they at first, as I have before intimated, is the want of matter. “I don't Row easily, and without being studied ; wben employed so as to know what to say,” is a complaint with young composers no less season, not to cloy. One who, either in conversation or in letters, true than embarrassing. You will find something to say if you affects to shine and to sparkle always, will not please long. The take your pen in hand, and sit down to address a few lines to style of letters should not be too bigbly polished. It ought to be an absent friend. Only do not attempt anything great or fine. neat and correct, but no more. All nicety about words, betrays Be simple. Consult your heart, if your head is silent. Just say study; and bence musical periods, and appearances of number and what occurs to you, without being anxious whether it is very wise harmony in arrangement, should be carefully avoided in letters. or very foolish; whether it is trivial or important. Specially The best letters are commonly such as the authors have written with would I advise my pupils to correspond one with another. For most facility. What the beart or the imagination dictates, always instance, say that a young man in Exeter writes a letter to a former flows readily; but where there is no subject to warm or interest companion who has gone to reside at Bristol. B., living at Bristol, these, constraint appears; and hence those letters of mere complireplies to his friend A. at Exeter. The two continue to inter: ment, congratulation, or affected condolence, which have cost the change letters. If they have nothing else to write about, they may authors most labour in composing, and which, for that reason, they write about these lessons. Let them endeavour to give each other perhaps consider as their master-pieces, never fail of being the most aid in their study of the English language. Let them freely and disagreeable and insipid to the readers,

HISTORICAL THEME.

THE POPULAR EDUCATOR.

ae,

f.

LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. XV.

sima, propterea quod utriusque exercitus milites fortissimi fuerunt;

ante belli initium io urbe fuerámus; Demosthenis aetate multi By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D.

oratores magni et clari fuérunt, et antea fúerant, nec postea de COMPOUNDS OF SUM.

fuérunt; haec res non profuit nobis sed obfuit; si quis virtutis

compos erit, semper beátus erit; quamdiu sorte meâ contentos ero, The verb esse is made up of parts of two separate verbs; first, ero felix; actio recta non erit, nisi recta fúerit voluntas ; ci probi a verb of which es is the root; and secondly, of a verb, the stem fúerimus, non deerit hominum laus; atienti este, discipuli; homines of which is fu (compare fio in Latin, and ouw, fuo, in Greek). mortis mémores sunto; contenti estote sorte restra! mi fili, semper From es(esum originally for sum).came the present, the imperfect, virtutis praeceptorum memor esto! vir prudens non solum prae and the first future tenses ; from fuo came the perfect, the sentia curat, sed etiam praetérita mente repetit, et futára ex praepluperfect, and second future tenses.

teritis providet; boni bonis prodesse student. The verb sum has neither gerund nor supine, and is in other

ENGLISH-LATIN. respects defective, as appears from the paradigm just given. Our soldiers were very brave in the fight! why were our soldiers

Sum takes before it certain prepositions, and is modified by braver than yours in the fight? so long as you are happy, friends them in its meaning ; thus, with ad, adsum, it means I am at will not fail you; friends fail the wretched; before the beginning or near; with ab, absum, it means I am from, away from, absent; of the fight, I was in the city; the brave will always be useful to with pro, prosum, it means I am for, that is, I aid or benefit. the brave; my enemies injure me; if you are partakers of virtue, In prosum, the letter d is inserted to prevent the hiatus which you will be happy; so long as I am content with my lot, I shall be would be caused if two vowels came in succession; thus, happy; O scholars, you ought to be attentive in school! they pro-(d).es, pronounced prodes; also prodest, proderam, prodero, endeavour to be very brave; be brave, my soa; prudent men fore

see the future (pl.) from the past. prodessem. From the root mentioned above, namely, fu, fuo, come two

VOCABULARY. forms not so common as those given in the table,-namely, Scio 4, I know (E. R. Science); nescio, I know not; nescius, a, um, forem and fore ; forem (es, et; emus, etis, ent) is the imperfect ignorant; non sum nescius, I am ignorant of; qualis, e, of what kind subjunctive, and signifies, I might be; corresponding to essem (E. R quality); quantus, a, um, howo great (E. R. quantity); quantom, of the table; fore is the infinitive future, to be about be; corre- also) both; in, towards ; quâ mente sis, of what disposition you are,

horo much; prius, ads. before ; tum, then; et-et, andand (and sponding with the futurum esse of the table.

what your feeling is. VOCABULAZY.

Observe that in indirect questions the dependent verb must Absum, abfui, abesse, I am absent ; part. absens, being absent; be in the subjunctive (or dependent) mood; e.g. (exempli adsum, adfui, adesse, I am present; intersum, interfui, interesse gratiâ, for the sake of example) narra mihi ubi fueris, tell mne (E. R. interest ), I am among, I am concerned, I take an interest or part in; where you have been. Such a form is called an indirect question. praesum, praefui, praeesse, I am before, I preside over, command; The direct question would stand thus :-ubi fuisti ? narra mihi, prosum, profui, prodesse, I am for, I am usefud, 1 do good to; concilio where hast thou been? tell me. 1, I reconcile, unite; sera, ae, f. a wild beast (E R. fierce); pugna,

In the latter case the question a fight (E. R. pugilist); arma, orum, n. arms ; oratio, onis, f.a is direct, and the verb, as not being dependent, is in the indicaspeech (E. R. orator); magistrátus, ùs, m. a magistrate or governor; tive mood; but put narra mihi first, and then your question is foris, adv. out of doors ; hodie, to-day; heri, yesterday; longe, far; implied rather than stated; it is, therefore, an indirect question. peregre, abroad; quamdiu, as long as, how long ? ubi, adv. where, when; In both direct and indirect questions the English is in the in. dum, conj, while ; nisi, conj. unless ; quum, conj. when, from the time dicative ; consequently in putting the dependent verb into when ; ut, as ; ita, so. Observe that these compounds of sum re- English, you must in English use the indicative mood; but in quire their object to be in the dative case, as prodest mihi, he does putting the dependent verb into Latin, you must in Latin use good To ME, or he benefits me.

the subjunctive mood. Compare what is said of the consecutio EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH,

temporum, and similar and dissimilar tenses, pages 230, 231. Deus omnibus locis adest; parvi prerii (of little avail), sunt arma

EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH. foris, nisi est consilium domi; contemnuntur ii qui nec sibi nec alteri prosunt; ut magistratibus leges, ita popělo praesunt magis- in nos semper fúeris ; non sum nescius quà"mente tu et

Non sum nescius quâ mente tu in nos sis ; scio quâ mente tu trárus ; ratio et oratio conciliat inter se homines, neque ullâ re prius in nos fueris et nunc sis; non eram nescius qua mente tu in longius absūmus a naturâ ferárum; ego sum laetus, tu es tristis ; nos esses ; scio quam sint incerti animi ho ninum ; cogita quam si sorte vrstrâ contenti estis, beati estis; dum nos in scholâ erámus, brevis sit 'vita: qualis sit animus, ipse animus

nescit; cogita quansorores nostrae in torto erant; quum Carolus (Charles) heri domi nostrae erat, ego perēgre eranı ; quamdiu tu et frater tuus domi tum nobis bona exempla prosint; incertus sum ubi frater meus nostrae eratis, tu laetus eras, sed frater tuus erat tristis ; quamdiu nunc sit; incertus sum ubi amicus meus et fuerit et nunc sit; tu aběras, ego eram tristis ; cur beri in scholâ non fuisti : quia cum

incertus eram ubi heri esses ; narra nobis abi heri fúeritis. patre perēgre fui; quamdiu tu et pater tuus domo abfuistis? sex

ENGLISH-LATIN. menses abfuimus; cur militis nostri pugnae non interfuerunt?

Tell me where thou art; tell me where thy father and mother quia longius abfuérunt; ubi heri fueras quum domi tuae eram?

are; I know not where my sister is ; dost thou know how much ENGLISH-LATIN.

good boys do good (prosum) to their parents ? I know where I am useful to thee; thou art useful to me; the boys are not my son is; my son, where art thou? I knew where my son useful to (their) mothers; why are the girls not useful to (their) ignorant where the army is? I know of what mind thou art toward

I am uncertain where the enemies are; is the general fathers ? when thou wast absent, I was sad; how long has

your father been absent? Charles took part (intersum) in the fight; wast

the king.
thou yesterday at my house? I shall be at thy house to day; unless
thou art happy at home, thou art not joyful abroad.

A KEY TO THE EXERCISES IN THE LATIN
VOCABULARY.

LESSONS.
Desum, defui, deesse, I am down, I fail; obsum, obfui, obesse, I
am in the way of, I oppose, I injure; provideo 2, I see beforehand, foresee,

By John R. BEARD, D.D. (E. R. provide); studeo 2, I endeavour ; repeto 3, I seek again, I repeat ;

LESSONS II. TO VII. amicus, i, a friend ; inimicus, i, an enemy (E. R. inimical): initium, This key will consist of translations of the Exercises given in the i, n. a beginning (E. R. initial) ; pretium, i, n. a reward (E. R. price, Lessons on the Latin language. Those translations will be as precious); Demosthenés, is, m. Demosthenes, the celebrated Grecian oruor ; actio, onis, f. an action, doing (E. R. action); aetas, aetatis, literal—that is, as nearly word for word, as the idioms of the two f, age, a generation ; voluntas, átis, f. will (E. R. voluntary); mens, languages allow. At the same time, some little variety both of mentis, f. mind (E. R. mental); exércitus, ùs, m. an army; attentus, word and position will be introduced, in order to accustom the a, um, attentive ; praeteritus, a, um, past; recius, a, um, right; atrox, learner to a proper degree of freedom, and intimate to him the ocis, frightful (E R. atrocious); compos, otis, partaking of, endued limits within which such liberty may justifiably proceed. As with; prudens, tis, prudent ; an těn, adv. before ; posiča, afterwards; we pass over the exercises, we shall correct any errors that may nunquaro, never ; propterea, on account of; solum, alone ; nisi, conj. have escaped our eye previously, and occasionally throw in urless, if not; quod, because; sed, but.

words which we may judge likely to assist our pupils. EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

It is not without some hesitation that we have resolved to Quamdiu felix eris, multi tibi erunt amici ; pugna fuit atrocis- supply this key. Great as is the assistance which it will give,

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