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THE Arabians, by a series of brilliant conquests under the successors of one of the greatest impostors the world ever saw, had reached a state of comparative ease and power, and had devoted themselves during the dark ages of Christianity to the study of the exact sciences, in as far as they had escaped the ravages of one of their own princes, who destroyed the library jo. which contained the treasures of the remotest es. Geography, in connexion with astronomy, was one of e most interesting subjects of their investigation. But their cosmologieal system was scarcely less absurd than that of the ancients. They divided the world into seven climates, and each climate into a certain number of regions. Although some of the Arabs had made long voyages, and one of their geophers had actually explored Africa as far as Djoliba (the iger), and the region in which is situated the famous Timbuctoo, still their knowledge of this continent was very incomplete. They always made the Indian Ocean an inland sea;
o * Translate first “something" and then “taken."
and although they were familiar with the use of the astrolabe (an instrument similar to a quadrant) and the mariner's compass, they were afraid to navigate the open seas, a fact which contributed to their continued ignorance. One of the most learned Arabian geographers of the twelfth century, Edrisi by name, the same who constructed for Roger, king of Sicily, the famous silver planisphere which weighed 800 mares (about 400 lb.) had the most singular ideas of the terrestrial globe. He fancied that all the people of the world lived in the northern regions; that the southern regions were desert on account of the sun's heat; that the latter were situated in its lower part; and that, consequently, all the waters were dried up, and that noliving being could exist in those regions. He asserted that the ocean entirely enveloped the globe like a circular zone, so that only one part appeared like an egg partly immersed in water in a vessel. He placed Africa in the first climate, which commenced at the western sea, called the Sea of Darkness; and beyond this all existence becomes invisible. He speaks of the two islands called the Fortunate Islands (the Canaries), from which, as the first meridian, Ptolemy reckoned his longitudes. Such was the state of geographical knowledge among the most learned of the Arabians. The call to arms against the infidels, in the various crusades or holy wars which extended over the greater part of the thirteenth century, drew the attention of #. to the East. This was the epoch of the travels of Carpini, of Rubruquis, and of Asselin in Tartary. These missionaries, after they had travelled along the shores of the Caspian Sea to its northern extremity, reached Karakorum, the capital of the empire of Cathay (China), situate on the Orchou, a tributary of the Selinga. The narratives of Ascelin and Carpini, reveal the existence of numerous tribes in a part of the world hitherto be: lieved, by£o. to be occupied by the ocean. “Eois,” says a modern historian, “that fabulous sea of antiquity, the bed of Aurora, disappeared for ever, and hordes of savages, as well as nations of powerful and warlike people, emerged at once from its imaginary waters.” The celebrated travels of Marco Polo took place towards the end of the 13th century, from 1271 to 1297. They made known the centre and the eastern extremity of Asia, Japan, part of the islands of the Eastern Archipelago and of the continent of Africa, and the large island of Madagascar. Among the descriptions of the illustrious Venetian, that of China was the most curious and important; it was a complete disclosure of that empire, which had been hitherto almost an enigma to Turope. After long and continued suspicions of exaggeration in his narrative, the assertions of Marco Polo have been, after careful examination, acknowledged to be correct and agreeable to fact. It is with justice, therefore, that this traveller has been styled the founder of the modern geography of Asia. A very considerable time elapsed before any addition was made to the brilliant discoveries of the Venetian ; but he was not without travellers to confirm his original statements. Oderic, of Portenau, visited India and China from 1320 to 1330; Schiltberger, of Munich, accompanied Tamerlane in his expeditions, and thus travelled over central Asia; in 1335, an fi. inerchant Balducci Pegoletti went to Pekin by the central Asiatic route; and in 1403, Clavijo was sent as an ambassador by the court of Spain to Samarcand. About the end of the fourteenth century the brothers Zeni rediscovered Greenland, and announced the existence of a large island, which they called Frisland. Modern geographers have not yet arrived at the satisfactory solution of the problem,--to what country or island does this name apply. Africa had almost become unknown, when the Portuguese began to explore the western part of this continent. This nation, animated by a zeal for making voyages and discoveries, undertook to rectify the errors of geographers, and to contradict the dreams of Greek and Román antiquity, as well as the reveries of the middle ages, by experimentally proving the fact that the zone of the globe hitherto deemed uninhabitable was as accessible to man as the temperate regions. Previous to the year 1411, the Portuguese had never ventured beyond Cape Nun, which they considered as an impassable limit. An expedition was then fitted and sent out, which proved com" pletely successful; it not only doubled this redoublable cape, but extended its researches as far as Cape Bojador. Then eom:
menced that series of successful enterprises which have gained for this people their lasting reputation as early discoverers of unknown lands. Under the direction of anoble and zealous prince, in 1432, Henry of Portugal, exploring squadrons from Lisbon doubled Cape Bojador, discovered the river Senegal, reconnoitred the coast of Africa from Cape Blanco to Cape Verde, landed on the islands which take their name from the latter cape, and took possession of the Azores, situated about nine hundred miles from the African continent. Some years later, the Portuguesse crossed the equinoctial line or equator, and established the fact, hitherto problematical, that the torrid zone was not only habitable, but also very populous and fertile. No longer did the black statues of the Canary Islands appeal to the fears of the traveller and forbid him to go a step beyond that limit. Suddenly also was the Sea of Darkness illumined by the rays of the tropical sun, and soon were its waves opened up as a public highway to enterprising navigators.
illustrious Genoese met with in the execution of his project, and of all the obstacles which ignorance, indifference, and jealousy raised up against him is well known; but the facts of the discovery must be remembered. The three vessels charged with this great exploring expedition set sail on the 3rd of August, 1492, and after a short rest at the Canary Islands, was refitted on the 6th of September following. From that moment the crew of the little fleet, alarmed at the immensity of he ocean, and destitute of the hope of success to sustain their courage, cherished a housand apprehensions which almost led them to despair. Despondency gave place to anger, and anger produced revolt. The energy of the great leader of the enterprise calmed these extravagant fears and warded off the dangers with which even his life was threatened. Yet keen anguish continued to agitate his noble heart during those long
After new and dreary nights when the land, indicated by certain cusexploring expeditions to the kingdoms of Benin and Congo, the tomary signs, seemed to fly from his presence.
At last, at 10
Portuguese, under Bartholomew Diaz, in 1493, reached the o'clock on the night of the 11th of October, 1492, Columbus
Cape of Good Hope, which was then called by him the Cape of Tempests, on account of the stormy aspect which it presented to them on its first appearance. In 1497, however, under the auspices of Emanuel of Portugal, Vasco de Gama doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and reached India, after having rounded the whole western and southern coast of Africa. Whilst the Portuguese were thus striking out a new route to the East Indies, the Spaniards were opening up America to Europe. The latter years of the fifteenth century made this double present to Christendom. The erroneous representations which the maps of the world presented at this period, and which according to the authority of Ptolemy and the travels of Marco Polo, gave an exaggerated extent to Asia on the east, led Christopher Columbus to imagine that by sailing continually westward, it was possible to reach the continent of Asia and the East Indies. There was besides, a vague but common belief that there existed towards the west a great unknown land. The history of all the difficulties which the
distinctly perceived a light. Some hours afterwards, the rising sun showed him in the distance the land which he sought. America was discovered The first landseen by Columbus, was the Island of Guanahani, which was called San Salvador. The Spaniards discovered, in succession, the Island of Conception, the Isles of Ferdinand and Isabella, Cuba and Hayti, which received the name of Hispaniola. It has been said that Amérigo Vespucci, visited, a year before Columbus, the coasts of Guiana and Terra Firma. But this is mere conjecture. Two years later, however, this learned Florentine carefully reconnoitred this maritime zone of the world. In the space of a few years, constant accessions were made to these discoveries. Yanez Pinzon, in 1500, reached Brazil, and three months after him, Alvarez Cabral landed on the same coast, which he transferred to the sovereignty of Portugal; while Gaspard Corteréal discovered Labrador, in the north-east of the same continent. Ponce de Leon, in 1512, was the first who landed in Florida. Three years later, the Rio de la Plata, or river Plate, was laid open to Europe by Juan Diaz de Solis. Magellan, one of the most illustrious of these early voyagers, in 1520, established the fact of the existence of the strait which bears his name, saw Terra del Fuego, and reached the Philippine_Islands, after having ploughed the Pacific Ocean, which Nunez de Balboa had taken possession of, in the name of the king of Spain : This Balboa was the first who saw the waters of theof. Pacific, which he named the South Sea, from the elevated shores of Central America. Now the Spaniards commenced the exploration of the new continent. The curiosity of Europe was raised to its highest pitch. An unknown and mighty world unfolded its wonders to bold adventurers, when Mexico, Guatimala, and Peru, exhibited to the eyes of the astonished Europeans, the splendours of their im§: cities, and presented to them the inexhaustible treasures id in the bowels of their mountains; when Pizarroundertook the conquest of the immense empire of the Incas at the head of sixty-two cavalry and one hundred infantry . In the sight of pretended miracles, what golden dreams surprised the contemporaries of Columbus, Cortez, and Alvarado'
LESSONS IN ENGLISH-No. VII. By John R. BEARD, D.D.
Having thus furnished you with some criteria or means of ascertaining what words have their origin in the Saxon, or, as it is more correctly called, the Teutonic branch of our language, I must now request, that in all your studies, you will constantly ask yourself, whether each word you meet with, is, or is not, of Saxon derivation? Among English writers, no one has a larger portion of Saxon in his compositions than Dean Swift; and no one writes the language more correctly. I shall therefore make use of his writings in this part of my task. William Cobbett's works may be advantageously studied for the Saxon treasures which they contain. ExERcises Foh PARsing. It is a miserable thing to live in suspense. To live in suspense, is to live the life of a spider. No wise man ever wished to be younger. An idle reason lessens the weight of good reasons. Complaint is the largest tribute paid to Heaven. Complaint is the sincerest part of our devotion. Praise is the daughter of present power. Every man desires to live long. No man is willing to be gld. Kings are said to have long hands. Kings ought to have long ears. Vision is the art of seeing *f; invisible. Good manners is the art of making associates easy. Flattery is the worst and falsest way of showing our esteem. A fine gentleman has both wit and learning. The reader may exercise his ingenuity, as well as his grammar, while he discovers the explanation of a Riddle of the learned Dean's, which is appropriate to my subject. “We are little airy creatures All of different voice and features; One of us in glass is set, One of us you'll find in jet; Tother you may see in tin, And a fourth a box within; If the fifth you should pursue, It can never fly from you.” An excellent practice in composition is letter-writing. I shall therefore, occasionally, give a specimen of epistolary correspondence. And I advise my pupils to accustom themselves to express their thoughts in the form of letters. Let the letters be real; I mean, let them be written, not as exercises in composition, but on some business, and to some friend or acquaintance. Your chief want at first, as I have before intimated, is the want of matter. “I don't know what to say,” is a complaint with young composers no less true than embarrassing. You will find something to say if you take your pen in hand, and sit down to address a few lines to an absent friend. Only do not attempt anything great or fine. Be simple. Consult your heart, if your head is silent. Just say what occurs to you, without being anxious whether it is very wise or very foolish; whether it is trivial or important. Specially would I advise my pupils to correspond one with another. For instance, say that a young man in Exeter writes a letter to a former companion who has gone to reside at Bristol. B., living at Bristol, replies to his friend A. at Exeter. The two continue to interchange letters. If they have nothing else to write about, they may write about these lessons. Let them endeavour to give each other aid in their study of the English language. Let them freely and
kindly criticise each other's letters. Let them ask and give explanations. Let A. correct B.'s exercise, and let B. do the same for A., Let them agree on some book which they will both read, with a view to make in writing and submit to each other remarks on the composition. For this purpose I would suggest to them the “Spectator.”
In this counsel I have mentioned young men, by no means intending to exclude young women. Most desirous am I that young women should receive a good education. Most necessary to them as being the future mothers of our land, is a good education. A far better education ought they to receive than the best which they do receive. But to be well-educated they must be self-educated. Let young women then consider themselves specially addressed in the lessons I supply, and the advice I give.
Sin, I am ashamed to tell you how ill, a philosopher I am, and that a very ill situation of my affairs for three weeks past made me utterly incapable of answering your obliging letter, and thankin you for your most agreeable copy of verses. The prints will te you that I am condemned again to live in Ireland; and all that the court and ministry did for me, was to let me choose my situation in the country where I am banished. I could not forbear showing both your letter and verses to our greatmen, as well as to the men of wit of my acquaintance; and they were highly approved of by all. I am altogether a stranger to your friend Oppian; and am a little angry when those who have a genius iay it out intranslations. I question whether “Res angustadomi” (narrow means) be not one of your motives: Perhaps you want such a bridle as translation, for your genius is too fruitful, as appears by the frequency of your similes, and this employment may teach you to write like a modeut man, as Shakespeare expresses it.
I have been minding my Lord Bolingbroke, Mr. Harcourt, and Sir William Windham, to give you a living; as a business which belongs to our society, who assume the title of rewarders of merit. They are very well disposed, and I shall not fail to negotiate for you while I stay in England, which will not be above six weeks; but I hope to return in October, and if you are not then provided for I will move heaven and earth that something may be done for you. Our society has not met of late, else I would have moved to have two of us sent, in form to request a living for you from my lord chancellor, and if you have any way to employ my services, I desire you will let me know it; and believe me to be very sincerely, Sir, your most faithful, humble servant, JonATHAN SwirT.
EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.
Form sentences, each having in it one of the following words:—
Debts; light; sing; come; health; water; sky; home; day; night; lark; rose; Victoria; Mary; Henry; mother; bread; England; wife; buttercup. ; linnet; daisy; stone.
Describe a chair; a wheel of a coach ; a kite; a waterpot; an oak-tree; the room in which you write; and the place where you work.
ON EPISTOLARY WRITING.
Its first and fundamental requisite is, to be natural and simple; for a stiff and laboured manner is as bad in a letter as it is in conversation. This does not banish sprightliness and wit. These are graceful in letters, just as they are in conversation: when they flow easily, and without being studied; when employed so as to season, not to cloy. One who, either in conversation or in letters, affects to shine and to sparkle always, will not please long. The style of letters should not be too highly polished. It ought to be neat and correct, but no more. All nicety about words, betrays study; and hence musical periods, and appearances of number and harmony in arrangement, should be carefully avoided in letters. The best letters are commonly such as the authors have written with most facility. What the heart or the imagination dictates, always flows readily; but where there is no subject to warm or interest these, constraint appears; and hence those letters of mere compliment, congratulation, or affected condolence, which have cost the authors most labour in composing, and which, for that reason, they perhaps consider as their master-pieces, never fail of being the most disagreeable and insipid to the readers.
LESS ONS IN LATIN.—No. XV. By John R. BEARD, D.D.
C OMPOUNDS OF SU M.
The verb esse is made up of parts of two separate verbs; first, a verb of which es is the root; and secondly, of a verb, the stem of which is fu (compare fio in Latin, and ove, fuo, in Greek). Fromes (esum originally for sum).came the present, the imperfect, and the first future tenses; from fuo came the perfect, the pluperfect, and second future tenses.
#. verb sum has neither gerund nor supine, and is in other respects defective, as appears from the paradigm just given.
um takes before it certain prepositions, and is modified by
them in its meaning; thus, with ad, adsum, it means I am at or near; with ab, absum, it means I am from, away from, absent; with pro, prosum, it means I am for, that is, I aid or benefit. In prosum, the letter d is inserted to prevent the hiatus which would be caused if two vowels came in succession; thus, pro-(d)-es, pronounced prodes; also prodest, prodøram, prodero, prodessem.
From the root mentioned above, namely, fu, fuo, come two forms not so common as those given in the table, namely, forem and fore; forem (es, et; emus, etis, ent) is the imperfect subjunctive, and signifies, I might be; corresponding to essem of the table; fore is the infinitive future, to be about be; corresponding with the futurum esse of the table.
Absum, abfui, abesse, I am absena; part, absens, being absent; adsum, adfui, adesse, I am present; intersum, interfui, interesse (E. R. interest), I am among, I am concerned, I takean interest or partin; praesum, praefui, praeesse, I am before, I preside over, command; prosum, profui, prodesse, I am Jor, I am useful, I do good to; concilio 1, I reconcile, unite; fera, ae, f. a wild beast (E R. Jierce); pugna, ae, f. a fight (E. R. pugilist); arma, orum, n. arms; oratio, önis, f. a speech (E. R. orator); magistrátus, as, m. a magistrate or governor; foris, adv. out of doors; hodie, to-day; heri, yesterday; longe, far; peregre, abroad; quamdiu, as long as, how long 2 ubi, adv. where, when; dum, conj. while; nisi, conj. unless; quum, conj. when, from the time when ; ut, as ; ita, so. Observe that these compounds of sum require their object to be in the dative case, as prodest MIHI, he does good to ME, or he benefits me.
Deus omnibus locis adest; parvi pretii (of little avail), sunt arma foris, nisi est consilium domi; contemnunturii quinec sibinec ălteri prosunt; ut magistratibus leges, ita poptilo praesunt magistrátus; ratio et oratio conciliat inter se homines, neque ullā re longius abstimus a natură serárum; ego sum laetus, tu es tristis; si sorte vestra contenti estis, beati estis; dum nos in scholā erámus, soróres nostrae in horto erant; quum Carölus (Charles) heri domi nostrae erat, ego peregre eram; quamdiu tu et frater tuus domi nostrae eratis, tu laetus eras, sed frater tuus erat tristis; quamdiu tu abéras, ego eram tristis; cur heri in scholā nonfuisti o quia cum patre peregre fui; quamdiu tu et pater tuus domo abfuistis sex menses abfuimus; cur militis nostri pugnae non interfuérunt? quia longius abfuérunt; ubi heri fueras quum domi tuae eram *
sima, propterea quod utriusque exercitàs milites fortissimi fuérunt; ante belli initium in urbe fuerámas; Demósthenis aetate mul oratores magni et clari fuérunt, et antea fåerant, nec postea defuérunt; haec res non profuit nobis sed obfuit; si quis virtátis composerit, semper beatus erit; quamdiusorte meå contentus ero ero elix; actio recta non erit, nisi recta sūerit voluntas; tipro. fáerimus, non deerit hominum laus; attentieste, discipuli; hemines mortis mémores sunto; contentiestote sorte vestrfi! mi fili, semper virtutis praeceptorum memor esto! vir prudens non solum prae. sentia curat, sedetiam praetérita mente repetit, et futura ex praetéritis providet; boni bonis prodesse student.
Our soldiers were very brave in the fight! why were our soldiers braver than yours in the fight? so long as you are happy, friends will not fail you; friends fail the wretched; before the beginning of the fight, I was in the city; the brave will always be useful to the brave; my enemies injure me; if you are partakers of virtue, you will be happy; so long as I am content with my lot, I shall be happy; O scholars, you ought to be attentive in school! they endeavour to be very brave; be brave, my son; prudent men foresee the future (pl.) from the past.
Scio 4, I know (E. R. science); mescio, I know not; nescius, a, um, ignorant; non sum nescius, I am ignorant of; qualis, e, of what kind (E. R. quality); quantus, a, um, how great (E. R. quantity); quantum, how much; prius, adv. before; tum, then; et—et, and—and (and– also) both; in, towards; quá mente sis, of what disposition you are, what your feeling is.
Observe that in indirect questions the dependent verb must be in the subjunctive (or dependent) mood; e.g. (exempli gratiá, for the sake of example) narra mihi ubi fueris, tell me where you have been. Such a form is called an indirect question. The direct question would stand thus:-ubi fuisti o narra mihi, where hast thou been? tell me. In the latter case the question is direct, and the verb, as not being dependent, is in the indicative mood; but put narramihi first, and then your question is implied rather than stated; it is, therefore, an indirect question. In both direct and indirect questions the English is in the indicative; consequently in putting the dependent verb into English, you must in English use the indicative mood; but in puttin dependent verb into Latin, you must in Latin use the subjunctive mood. Compare what is said of the consecutio temporum, and similar and dissimilar tenses, pages 230, 231.
Non sum nescius quá mente tu in nos sis; scio quá mente tu in nos semper füeris; non sum nescius quá mente tu et prius in nos fueris et nunc sis; non eram nescius qua mente tu in nos esses; scio quam sint incerti animi hominum; cogita quam brevis sit vita! qualis sit animus, ipse animus nescit; cogita quantum nobis bona exempla prosint; incertus sum ubi frater meus nunc sit; incertus sum ubi amicus meus et fuerit et nunc sit; incertus eram ubi heri esses; narra nobis abi heri féeritis.
L E S S O N S II. T. O VII.
This key will consist of translations of the Exercises given in the Lessons on the Latin language. Those translations will be as literal—that is, as nearly word for word, as the idioms of the two languages allow. At the same time, some little variety both of word and position will be introduced, in order to accustom the learner to a proper degree of freedom, and intimate to him the limits within which such liberty may justifiably proceed. As we pass over the exercises, we shall correct any errors that may have escaped our eye previously, and occasionally throw in words which we may judge likely to assist our pupils.
It is not without some hesitation that we have resolved to supply this key. Great as is the assistance which it will give,