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MEY TO EXERCISES IN LATIN LESSONS.
if wisely used, it will prove a hindrance, if not an insuperable obstacle to those who depend on it, rather than on their own care and diligence. Useful as a means of correcting exercises after they are done with the greatest possible care, the key should never be consulted until the student has done his best; first, to commit to memory the example, or to understand the rule, and then to write out the accompanying exercises, relying exclusively on his already acquired resources, and going over it again and again, until he has reason to believe that he has brought it as near to perfection as his power admits. If the spirit of these remarks is observed, the Key will prove of great serviee, and, in combination with the Lessons, afford such aid as may enable any industrious person to make himself master of the Latin language. We now advise all our pupils to begin the lessons again. Having dome each lesson as well as you can, proceed to study it and to correct your exercises, under the light, and with the assistance supplied by the key. While you thus review the past, you may beneficially go on with the lessons as they successively appear; for the two, the old lesson and the new lesson will throw light on each other. If you follow these suggestions, you will now soon find that you are making solid acquisitions and satisfactory progress.
Thou deceivest; he is deceived; we are deceived; I deceive and am blamed; he yields; thou readest; he writes; he reads well; thou deceivest greatly; if he is loved he rejoices; we are pricked; thou conquerest; we are conquered; they are conquered; he falls; thou slayest; if thou slayest thou art blamed (si occidis vituperáris); he reminds (advises) well; ... thou art badly educated; we are eatly moved; we dance and rejoice; he is injured; you are injured; you defend; they are defended; I am loved. Page 35, col. 2–ENGLISH-LATIN. Pareo; si pareo diligor (if I obey I am loved); valde o: scribit bene; Fo male; saltant bene; gaudeo si valde legit; pingis; parent et laudantur; si regitis bene diligimini; defendunt; sendimini; fallitur; punguntur.
Page 35, col.2–LATIN-English.
Thou guardest; he is supported; he comes; why sleepestthou? he sleeps well; he is instructed; thou prickest; he slays; thou deceivest greatly; he is heard; if thou sleepest much thou art punished; he finds; if thou instructest well thou art praised; he is bound; why art thou silent 2 he is silent and is punished; they are found; thou art clothed; they are well clothed; if you are clothed well you are delighted; they are badly instructed; if thou art conquered thou art bound.
Page 35, col. 2-ENGLISH-LATIN.
Cur occidis (why do you slay) custoditur ; custodiunt; si custodimini vineimini; vituperatet punit; auditet eruditur; bene educamini; valde dormis; legunt; si saltatis delectamini; fulcítur; cur puniuntur audiuntur; male vestior; feriuntur et monentur.
Page 35, col. 2–RECAPITULAroRY ExeRoises: LATIN-ENGLISH
I yield; thou readest; we move; thou art exercised; they bite; they flourish; I am deceived; he tries to read; why dost thou read badly he of: badly; thou art much loved; you are conquered; they write well; if you paint well you are praised; we are defended; we strike; why do you punish? we are clothed; we bind; we are conquered; we are bound; you conquer; thou art guarded; he is . they are praised (laudantur); we are feared; thou fearest much; you are bitten; we educate; they dance ill.
Page 35, col. 2–ENGLISH-LATIN.
Cedunt; si ceditis vincimini; si vincimini vincimini; fulcior; dormiunt; cur puniunt? cur puniuntur? male vestimini; vincis; vinceris; vincis; vinciris; pungunt; punguntur; cur moves 2
Page 70, col. 2–LATIN-English. I have a beautiful lark; (est ne) hast thou a beautiful lark? my lark is beautiful; is my lark beautiful? is not thy lark beautiful? thy pigeon is very beautiful; I have a good maid-servant; my maidservant is beautiful; Julia is sacred (augusta); Julia Augusta is beautiful; is Julia Augusta beautiful ? the lark of my maid-servant is beautiful; thy table is not square; the island is great. Page 70, col. 2.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Est mihi columba; est tibibona puella, or, bona puella est tibi, or puella bona est tibi, or, tibi est bona puella; est me tibi bona puella? non est mihi bona puella; alaudatua, est pulchra, or pulchra est alauda tua; nonne magna est insula 2 magna non est insula, or, insula monest magna; estine tibi bona ancilla nonest mihibona ancilla, or, bona ancilla non estmihi; puellae alauda est pulchra. Page 71, col. 1–LATIN-ENGLISH, I have a deserter of Jugurtha's; thou"hast a bad deserter; I praise a good poet; a good poet is praised; the mare is praised by the charioteer; the sailors sail to the island; good sailors praise their country; the eagle is often praised by poets; husbandmen greatly delight in, plants, or are greatly delighted with plants; thou errest, O sailor! do you not err, O charioteers? I have the sadness of good poets; I greatly love the shades of the groves; the husbandmen ride through the wood. Page 71, col. 1–ENGLISH-LATIN. Est me tibi profugao malus ne est profuga 2 boni poetae laudantur; boni agricolae patriam laudant; bonorum poetarum patria laudatur; per sylvam equitat pirata; ad insulan navigant nautae; bonaest equa aurigae boni. (To be continued.)
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
LATIN.—The long wished-for Key to the Latin Exercises is begun in this Number; and all our Latin students can now compare their exercises from the beginning, with this key, and ascertain if they are right, and what progress they are making, just as if we were present with them.-The circumflex accent denotes a contraction, or that a vowel is long, and so requires the stress of the voice to be laid on the vowel over which it stands.-Why is curro of the third, and amo of the first, conjugation? These are ultimate facts which are to be taken as facts. You might as well ask why is the perfect of sing, sang; and the perfect of invite, invited?—Some of our correspondents ask questions which have already been answered, or to which answers may be found in the lessons themselves. A similar remark may be made as to errors.Est ludus in ripá means there is play (or a game) on the river-bank, “Have you" construe into Latin as if it were hast thou. Estre, p. 70, should be est me.—The first signification given in Forcellini's Latin Dictionary to moneo is “I put in mind, bring to one's recollection.” This is the original or proper meaning of the word; “to advise" is a derivation or secondary meaning. It is impossible to give the exceptions to the rules of gender; we have already enough to accomplish in the general view intended in the lessons. Amnis, is, m. a river; cervus, i, m. a stag ; opes, opum, f, wealth, resources; dens, dentis, m. a tooth; semectus, titis, f old age; hora, ae, f. an hour; Timeo Danaos et domaferentes, I fear the Greeks, even when they offer gifts. The inquirer in this last case had not copied the Latin correctly. Another inquirer has been so careless in transcribing, as to present a series of words which belong to no language under the sun. It is not fair that our time should be thus occupied. G. Robinson would find great assistance in using Dr. Beard's “Latin Made Easy" in connexion with the lessons in the Educator. E.R. means English representative, that is, the English word derived from the Latin. GEology.—W. W.: We wish to encourage our readers to ask us questions freely; but we wish their questions or difficulties to be stated concisely. The igneous origin, and the subsequent formation of the earth's crust, do not in the least interfere with the inspired theology of Moses. Moses does not say how long ago it is since the heaven and the earth had a “beginning;" he merely says that they had a “beginning," by God creating them. After the earth had been created, it continued for some time “without form and void,”—that is, desolate and uninhabited by man. How long did it continue thus? For all that Moses says to the contrary, it may have existed for ages, and for many myriads of ages. Geology, as a science, refers to the history of the earth during these ages, called geological time, and not so much to its changes for the last six thousand years. We advise W. W. and others, to read Dr. King’s “Geology and Religion." Hugh Miller's “Footprints of the Creator,” and Dr. Hitchcock’s “Religion of Geology." On “Geological time,” let him read Dr. Pye Smith’s “Lectures on Geology and Scripture." T. W. J. GERMAN.—A. M. M. (Fife): His request will shortly be attended to.—Josephus: Flügel's Dictionary is the best; let him persevere and not heed the remarks of his friend.--DoN JUAN (Blackburn): His translation is not quite correct, but deserves much encouragement; his questions will shortly be answered. M. J. (Belfast): For the study of Greek, twenty-four years of age is a very good time. Scaliger, the most celebrated Greek critic of his age, it is said, began at forty.—NEANLAs: The Latin and French will do well together.—T. C. W. X. Y. Z. must all study Euclid.—E. T. B. E. must apply to a solicitor.—ABRAHAM LEE (Lynn): The correct expression is, “5 and 3 are 8; 8 and l are 9.”—WILLING To LEARN will soon learn Latin, if he sets about it.-C. S. R. (Belfast): Many thanks for his suggestions: they are valuable.—F. KENT (Croydon): The area of a circle is exactly what he says, the product of the radius and half the circumference; and if the ratio of these two quantities was expressible in integer numbers, the circle would be squared.—DIDAskArlos (Kendal): The e in atque is only dropt in reading poetry for scanning, and that only before a word beginning with a vowel.—Joseph H. MoRAN (Dub lin): We thank him for his useful communication.—C. A. Mollyson (Auchinblae): His solution of prob. 2, p. 111, is right.—AN ENGLISHMAN has sent us some excellent remarks on Early Training; we have sent them to our physiologist.—A. GREENwood: The errors have been corrected: J. E. (Shrewsbury): Riddle's.-JAMEs WINNING (Hamilton Farm): The answers to the arithmetical exercises shall be given.—A CoLLIER: Iiis queries shall be inserted.—J. R. (Bristol): A wedge is defined to be a prism; now a cone is not a prism.—H. LEE (Brighton): Why not?—R.P. (Redruth): Yes.—A. J.C. (London): Yes. Memory is improved by exercising it. Begin—Massa (Neilston): Yes.—W. STEPHENSox, Jun. (Bramley): We shall, when algebra comes up. Numeration is THE fundamental rule of arithmetic. His question is good; but is he a subscriber?—To six subscribers, including SAMPsox Ludlow (Hampstead), we say yes, as soon as possible.—We request S. C. (Hanley) and the class to study Dr. Beard's Lessons in English.To Joseph WEastER (Bramley), we say go on, and prosper. We fear it is too soon for riddles.—NATURALIST (Manchester): Consult the annotation to No. 64, Class 18, of the “Official Illustrated Catalogue
of the Great Exhibition,” or Messrs. James Houldsworth and Co., Manchester.—A. M. B. : Received.-R. T. T. (Thornhill) should persever in the study of Euclid.—B. P. (Brighton): Apply to Sims and Macintyre, 13, Paternoster-row, London.—H. F. (Farnham): Something will soon be done to supply the want.—AN INQUIRER (Arundel) should apply to persons connected with the customs.-B. B. (Yorkshire): Received.— ScRIBo (Preston) is right about handwriting. J. W. (Leicester): The Latin lesson is well done; the age of the writer, 37, is no hindrance to progress, but the reverse. Dr. Beard allows two years at two hours a day as sufficient for great proficiency.— AMICUs (Bromley): We much approve of his plan of buying twc copies of the Popular EDUCATor, one common and one fine; and we shall be proud to see it elegantly bound and gilt.—W. H. E. (Teddington) should study English before Latin.-Z. J. (Liverpool); Or. thoepy is best learned by listening to accurate public speakers and readers.-We advise WALTER K–N (Dundee) to keep his owu secret, and to try and do better every time. Sheridan once electrified the House of Commons with a Greek quotation, which was pronounced by every one quite apropos; but which was merely the momentary effusion of his brain, without rhyme or reason. Our corre. spondent is better than this.-J. W. LovE (Stewarton): It is right to say “the number of the years that have elapsed is, &c.," also “I know of no part of Scripture which affirms, &c." The expressions “there is none," and “all is well,” are correct. It is equally right according to modern practice, to say “if it is true,” and "if it be true;” but the latter is the more correct expression. It is clearly not right to say “the 160 page book.”—John WHITE (Edinburgh); Your teetotal-essay-writing acquaintances are right. Smoking tobacco, as well as drinking whiskey, or taking snuff, does unfit the mind for serious study, and is parent to a host of other evils too numerous to mention. We do not see that abstaining from-tobacco, snuff, or whiskey is any self-imposed impediment to learning, because they should never have been indulged in. We hope our friend is not like the highlandman, who, when asked what three wishes he would like to have fulfilled if they were in his power, said, 1st, a Benlomond of “shnuff;” and 2nd, a Lochlomond of “whuskey.” He was asked for the 3rd ; but he said he wanted no more. On being pressed for an answer, howeve, he said, Well, well, a little “mhoreshnuff.” The German pronunciation will be elucidated.—JAMEs JARMAN states that he is a believer in mesmerism, clairvoyance, &c.; all we can say is that we are not. You can very easily divide by 1, if you like, and state that the quotient is the same as the dividend. This is not such a mighty Jiz as he thinks it is. The French have a column in their multiplication table for the products of 0 by the nine digits; and we are of opinion that it is highly necessary for many students that we have had to give lessons to. But we may ask him one question in our turn ; what is the answer to the question divide 0 by 0? Vice versdo means conversely; but this is best illustrated by an example, thus: “All fools are wicked;” vice versdor conversely, “All the wicked are fools." The best dictionary in the English language is Dr. Johnson's yet; but it wants great additions.—Hobert HENDERson (Worksop): Caligraphy and shorthand must wait a little.—G. T. C. (Sheerness): “The Isle of Sheppey Band of Hope, and Juvenile Temperance Society” is the most expressive inscription.—A. HITT (Kirkness): We prefer Young to Bonnycastle.—A Sunscriben: Walker's pronouncing Dictionary is cousidered the best as yet; but it wants many additions.— HENRY JAMEs Howard (Crediton, Devon) is respectfully informed that the “Lessons in English Grammar” are continued under the head of “Lessons in English,” in a very superior style, and we strongly recommend them to his perusal. As to Lessons in Navigation, their time is coming, along with that of many more important subjects. We advise him to study the Lessons in Geography as an introduction.—A Dublin Subscriber recommends us to begin with schools for music instead of French, and gets so much into raptures on the subject, that he actually reminded us of the music of the spheres— “For ever singing, as they shine, The hand that made us is divine.”
G. R. (Paisley): The best method of calculating the solid content of unequal-sided timber is, to find the content of the solid parallelopiped it contains, and that of the rest as wedges or triangular prisms; but see Young's Mensuration.—MARCELLUs (Charles-square) should apply for a German master by advertisement.—J. F. J. (De Beauvoir Town): We hope elocution will be included in the study of the English language.— CHARLEs AUSELL: There is a new edition of the "Emigrant's Handbook,” which contains a Map of Australia, showing the gold regions.— Lupus (Burton-upon-Trent): Algebra and Logarithms shall really have our best attention.—THoMAs LAMB (Hyde): The use of the table of logarithms to 20 places is explained in Dr. Hutton's Mathematical Tables; but we believe his valuable history of the invention and construction of logarithms is left out in the later editions. Our edition is London, 1801; and at page 137 will be found the explanation required. This table is used in the construction of logarithms, not in the extraction of roots.
Printed and Published by John Cassell, 335, Strand, and Ludgate-hill, London.-July 17, 1852,
SECTION II. pose the whole space now occupied by that island, more than On the UPheaval of VoI, - a hundred miles found, to be mere sea;. Let your imagination
- - canic Mountains be first a diving-bell, in which you will descend to the bottom Volcanoes are in many cases mountains of great elevation, of the sea, where you find a calcareous stratum or a bed of
Mount otma, from the south-east, with a few of its conical vents on the left.
and one of the lessons taught by geology is a knowledge of limestone, on which the same shells and animals live, which the circumstances which raised such enormous masses. now exist in the surrounding portions of the Mediterranean.
Mount Jorullo, in Mexico, as seen by Schleiden in 1846.
To assist your conception of this subject, take in your hand | Your imagination must now turn minor, and you must dig a a map of Italy, and blot out the entire island of Sicily. Sup- | shaft deep into the rocks beneath. You dig through a series
of limestone rock, 800 feet deep, all of which are tertiary, like those of Hampshire, Middlesex, Suffolk, and Norfolk. You at once infer that these rocks were deposited, after the period when the Mediterranean fish were created; for the rocks contain very few shells of extinct species. At the bottom of this limestone you diginto a calcareous bed of different structure, the bed is slaty, and the limestone is sandy, imbedding pebbles of limestone. You now come to a bed of lava. How is this? This proves that long, long ago, when the whole space was under water, a submarine volcano had been in action, and had thrown up lava before the upper beds were deposited. As your shaft descends you come to a blue marl crammed with shells. The Sicilians call this marl creta. You dig through this till you come to another blue bed, but that is clay. This clay has no shells, but it contains beautiful crystals o gypsum, sulphur, &c. For the present you need not dig any lower, for this blue clay is the lowest bed found in Sicily. It is the stratum of the Val di Noto, and may be traced all round Mount AEtna, north, east, and south. Suppose that at no very early period in the earth's history, you had a boat safely moored at a respectable distance from the spot now occupied by Sicily and its tremendous volcano. The sea becomes disturbed and agitated, land appears, it swells up and games higher and higher, First, above the waters you see, perhaps, the series of limestone beds heaving up ; then the slaty layers of o limestone rise to view; anon the blue mail called crea is in sight; and finally the blue cla with gypsum is far above the level of the sea. Up, and s up, the enormous mass is rising till, it stands at an elevation of aome thousand feet. The mountain of Etna, as at present constituted, is 10,874 feet above the sea, a height about three times that of Snowdon, in Wales, or Ben Nevis, in Scotland. Its outline in represented in fig, 12. The great limestone deposit is found as high as 3,000 feet, the height of Cader Idris in north Wales. The fossils in that limentone can bo identified with species now existing in spaces of the Mediterranean which have not been heaved up. It is from this fact that geologists deduce the inference, already mentioned, that Sicily has been raised from the Mediterranean since the present fish had been created. Isetween these limestones, and the beds of blue marls and clays, layers of hard and compact lava, with a mixture of volcanio ashes and limestone, are found. . This mixture is called by the Rivilians, Tufo, and Peperino. This proves that, after the low bous of mail and clay had been deposited, a volcano beneath the sea came into action and covered much of the Bicilian district with volcanic materials. That no doubt might remain of the very modern origin of Bicily and Mount AEtna, Sir Charles Lyell found near Wizzini, a town twenty-five miles inland, a bed of oysters, in a rock twenty feet thick, identifiable with the oysters which are now euten, After the whole mass of these rocks had been swelled up and raised to 3,000 feet, the beds violently burst, and cracked into several fissures, which, afterwards became filled up with basaltic lava. The lava imbedded in these cracks formed hard rooks and are called by geologists dikes. The height of Mount AEtna is 10,874 feet above the level of the sea. The first three thousand feet upward from the sea is formed by the calcareous beds, and their associated lavas and clays as a o mentioned. The remaining 7,000 or 8,000 feet upwards have been formed by successive eruptions from the volcano. The upper or the last 1,100 feet consist of the cone of the orater, which rises from an irregular plain, about nine miles in circumference, In the summit op this cone is the grand crater which is perpetually sending forth sulphureous vapours. . It is an unsettled point among geologists, whether the prodigious masses which now lie above the limestone 3,000 feet high, were produced since the island of Sicily rose above the sea, or whether, a large portion of them had not been thrown up and scattered by the volcano while under the sea. The balance of probability is in favour of the hypothesis, that the volcanic rocks which lie over the tertiary limestones were formed before the island arose from the water, and that those masses rose with the upheaval of the limestones and clays. It is supposed ***** *** appearance of Sicily would be like a come above
the reach of the waves, which would, at every eruption, vomit forth volcanic matter into the sea on all sides, as the mountain was in the process of being heaved up. There is one phenomenon very remarkable in the structure of the lower beds in the stratification of this vast mountain. The inferior clay beds of which we have spoken are found on the north, the east, and the south of AEtna, to dip inward towards the mountain. This looks as if they had fallen in from the sudden and free escape of the melted matter that had held them up, rather than they had fallen outward as if they had cracked from being heaved up. They appear as if they had first of all been heaved up by an enormous power of melted matter from below, which by suddenly and freely escaping, caused a cavity, into which these horizontal beds fell on a sides with a dip inward. Since these lower beds of clay dip inward towards the mountain, and not outward from it, and since this inward dipping is found all round AEtna, except to the west, where it is not in sight, it is evident that these clay strata were onte continuous; were a horizontal rock occupying the space now covered by the volcanic mountain; and were penetrated by the eruptive forces of the volcano. They, therefore, lie under the whole mountain, and may be said to be sub-AEunean. In some o even these lower beds appear in hills a thousand feet igh; though in others much lower. Their beds appear in some instances 300 feet thick, and without any mixture of lava. Elsewhere they appear in cliffs 600 or 800 feet high as if they had been ..o. volcanic Tufo thinly laminated.
In the hypothesis which has thus been presented to you, the characters which are found inscribed in the beds, the fissures, and the dikes, may seem to you rather as occult hieroglyphics than as an alphabet which you can spell and read for yourself. Nevertheless, in the geological argumentation, the grounds of conjecture are not extravagant, nor are the inferences unfair or improbable. Amid these cases of difficult interpretation to a beginner, you will be interested in the phenomena of the upheaval of a volcano which has taken place almost within the memory of the present generation. You must now take a voyage across the Atlantic to South America, in the direction of Mexico, a region lying between the 18th and 22nd degrees of north latitude. Instead of the voyage, perhaps your map will do. Look at these latitudes, and between them you will find a high table-land from 2,500 to 3,000 feet above the level of the sea. How came that tableland to be formed? It is surrounded by mountains of granite, which, after their first appearance on the earth's crust, was attended with a large system of deep valleys. But now, these valleys, originally many thousand feet deep, have been filled up with volcanic materials, until every valley was exalted to form the surface of the present high table-land of Mexico. This region is called the Plain of Malpays, and the basaltic hills of the neighbourhood show that, at some very early period in geological time, the district had been the theatre of those volcanic eruptions which had filled up the original valleys. But, from the time of the discovery of America, up to the year 1759, it was never suspected that either in, or under, the neighbourhood there was a volcano. It was not only firm ground and undisturbed, but it was a country of picturesque beauty, cultivated for fields of sugar, indigo, and bananas. It was watered by two purling streams called Rio Cutimbo, and Rio de San Pedro. In June, 1759, deep hollow murmurings began to be heard, and from that time to September, earthquakes followed each other in rapid succession. The surface soil, at last, swelled up like the surface of a large bladder, three or four miles square. The soil cracked, and flames issued forth, and then burning fragments of rock were hurled up to great heights in the air, In various parts of the area, six different vents appeared, which were in the form of cones formed by eruptive * and lava. The lowest of these cones was 800 feet high, Towards the close of September, the next mighty move was made. The vast mountain, Joku LLo itself, was pushed up, in few days, to the elevation of 1682 feet above what was a plain before June, 1759. From the crater of Jorullo, immense streams of basaltic lava issued forth, and continued to flow till February, 1760. Fig. 13 represents the volcano of Jorullo, as seen by Herr Schleiden, a German geologist, in 1846. After 1760 the district seemed to have attained its former stability. When the Indians saw that tranquillity was restored, they tried to occupy the land, but they found that the soil was far too hot to be habitable. When Humboldt visited Jorullo, in 1803, he found around the base of the great cone, and spreading from the cone as from a centre to the extent of four square miles, a mass of matter of convex form, about 500 feet high near the cone, but sloping gradually as it receded from it. This mass, partially represented in the foreground, fig. 13, was still in a heated state, though more than 40 years after the eruption. The temperature had been decreasing every year, but Humboldt says that, in 1780, twenty years after the outburst, the heat was sufficient to light a cigar. About the year 1825, forty-four years later, Mr. Bullock found the cones still smoking. When Schleiden visited it in 1846, eighty-seven years after the upheaval, the aspect of the mountain was as he has represented it in fig. 13. In connexion with this sudden upheaval of a volcano in modern times, is the remarkable fact that the two rivers Cutimbo and San Pedro ran into the crater, and lost themselves below at the eastern limit of the plain, but afterwards reappeared on the western limit as hot springs. The instances of such volcanoes as AEtna in Europe and Jorullo in South America, have been selected to assist your conception of the geological principles implied in the theory of creters of elevation, as presented to you in Lesson W.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—No. VIII.
THE Saxon may be called the native English stock. The Latin portion of our language is of foreign growth, it is an exotic. As being of foreign growth its elements are not easily understood, and must, therefore, receive the greater attention. In entering on the necessary course of instruction, I am met by a distinction already spoken of, namely, the distinction of simple and compound words. Compound words are made up of parts. Those parts are either simple words or particles, that is, fragments of simple words. Country-house is a compound term consisting of two simple words, namely, country and house. Departure is a compound word which comprises these three particles, namely, de-part-ure, that is, de part (pars) and ure Arom part a.
Of these three particles, part is the most important, inasmuch as it determines the specific meaning ; as you may learn by comparing with departure a word exactly the same in the first and third particle:—
de bent In the second word the substitution of bent for part has entirely changed the meaning. The reason is that part and bent are the roots of the two words. Every word has a root. Sometimes the word, especially in Saxon terms, is its own root, at least in the actual state of the language, as heart, think, wise. The root is not always the middle portion as it is in departure and debenture. In •ontradict the root (dictum) is at the end, and in mental the root is at the beginning. It is, however, clear that in compound words three things have to be considered,—namely, 1, the root; 2, that which is put before the root; 3, that which comes after the root. That which is put before the root is in grammar called a prefir (from the Latin prae, before; and figo, I fir), and that which is put after the root is called a suffix (from the Latin sub, under; and figo, I fir). Here then are three subjects to be considered,—namely, roots, prefires, and suffires. Suffixes are sometimes called offires (ad, to; and figo, I fir). They may also be designated terminations, especially when they are not so much fragments of words as letter-endings, or additions forming the specific parts of speech in each case. Thus right becomes righteous, and righteous becomes righteousness, and righteously; where eous, news, and y are terminations; the first modifying the adjective,
the third converting the adjective into an adverb, and the second changing the adjective into a noun. Of these three classes, the roots are by far the most numerous. The roots also undergo very various modifications from the prefixes and the suffixes. On these accounts, it seems desirable to study the prefixes and suffixes before we study the roots. Before entering into the requisite details, I wish to make another distinction. Take the word truthfulness. Analyse the word. Obviously it consists of three elements: 1, truth; 2, full ; 3, mess. Truth is the primitive word. By the addition of full (or ful), truth becomes truthful, an adjective; and the adjective truthful is made into a noun by the annexation of the syllable mess. Instead of a noun, I might have formed an adverb by subjoining ly; thus, truthfully. I have said that truth is the primitive word. Primitive is here used in opposition to the word derivative. In relation to its derivatives truthful, truthfully, and truthfulness, the word truth is a primitive word, for it is their source. It is another question, whether truth may not be reduced to a simpler form. In the same way, truthful is a primitive term when viewed in relation to its derivative truthfully. As with human beings, each word is in turn, child and parent. Still there must be a common stock. But, genealogies in language, are scarcely less obscure than other genealogies. In linguistical genealogies, authority must receive great deference. Now the word truth can be reduced to a simpler form, and yet remain a word. From truth, take th, and you have tru–that is, true. So from strength take th, and you have streng, an old form of strong. But foul is not a derivative word, because you cannot reduce it to another word in a simpler form ; for, if you remove the i or the wi, the remainder is no word at all. Words, then, which appear to be primitive, may be derivative; and the rule by which to ascertain whether a noun is primitive or derivative is this: words which, on the removal of one or more of their letters, have a distinct meaning, are derivatives; and words which, on the removal of one or more of their letters, have no distinct meaning, are primitives. By the application of this rule, we learn that kingdom is a derivative, and addition a derivative; while pen and head are primitives. The prefires and the affires in the English language are numerous. Without a correct acquaintance with their import, the exact force of words can scarcely be understood. But these prefixes and affixes are of Latin and of Saxon origin. Consequently, in our attempt to ascertain their meaning, we must borrow aid from the Latin and from the Saxon. A few prefixes come from the Greek; the signification of which is to be found in the Greek. I shall treat first of prefixes, and for the sake of facility of reference, take them up in alphabetical order.
PREFIxEs IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
A san) of Saxon origin has the force of in or on ; as along, alongside; aback; ahead; abed. In this sense, it is used in connexion with present participles; as, a hunting; that is, in or at hunting. The form occurs in our common version of the Scriptures, in John xxi. 3, being a relic of the language in its older state, such as in part it is now found in colloquial diction. The phrase may be exemplified, and its meaning shown by comparing together the renderings of different versions of this passage :
Common Version. Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing.
Not only are these instances curious as exhibiting varieties of spelling, but they seem to show how thoroughly a part of the language is this prefix in the sense now illustrated. Yet, is the usage disallowed, and by some regarded as a vulgarism. I trust that the healthful sympathies of the people will do something to restore the original idioms of the English tongue.
A, of Saron origin, is also used as an intensive. An intensive (in, on, and tendo, I stretch) is that which increases the force of a word, expanding, as it were, its essential power. A, as an intensive, is of frequent use, and is exemplified in these words, ashamed, afraid (old form afeared), arise, amain (a and mogen, to be able, macht, power in the German); compare the Latin magnus, great Thus Dryden: