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Ad.

Ad.
O

Pass. or

Pass. eris aris

atur

bar

23 bas res

Write the rane of each species on the top of the ital, and az examples gives are in the indicative mood. We subjoin an trolom the place were, and he t me wic, it ve gainerei, insta..ce G the charge in the er.dogs, by which the subjunctive Trag antar ge the plants according to sya!em, ant lyore te lood is indicated. In the subjuncuve mood, rem is acided to tw"+115 viwo pazz. The books, as we have c2... thesis, the siemn, instead of bam; thus: aze, ed in o buca, by bei:.z.ad a tertia:e's up 4.1036 VOICE-ENDINGS, PERSOS-ENDINOS, TEXSB-ENDINGS, HOOD-ESDupon each other, because the staiks and roots are thicker than us fowers. The bund.eu may be covered with piece ví paste. ACTIVE, legeren, legeres, legerd, legeremus, legeratis. legerent

INGS OF THE SCEIUNCTITE MOUD, IMPERFECT TEXzE. board tied with strings. The collection should be k-pt in Passiva, legere, jegestris, legeretur, legeremur, legeremini, legere dry and weil- ventilated piace, and a piece of sponge soaked fu lof rectified oil of turper sine, will be an effectual defence The erdings will be more clearly seen, if they stand by them. from the assaults of insects.

selves, as in the following example: More summary methods may of course be adopted. Some VOICE-ZXDINGS, PERSOX-ENDINGS, TEXSR-ENDINGS, Moon perrgus keep their dried specimens loose, within sheeis of!

ENDINGS, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE. paper. Others fasten the specimens to leaves of stout paper

Singular Number. of uniform size, then arrange the species in order, while all those of the saine genus are placed within one or more

Ad. Pass PRESENT INDICATIVE,

it sheets of paper, on the outside of which the generic name is written. The bundles of genera have the names of the ciasses IMPERFECT INDICATIVE bam

PRESEST SUBJUNCTIVE,

baris bat batur and orders.

| IMPERFECT SCBJUNCTIVE, rem rer

Teris ret retur

Some tenses in the passive voice are formed as in English, by LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. XVI. the addition not of an ending, but of another word. Thus, as By John R. BEARD, D.D.

we say, I have been loved, so the Latins say, amatus sum. THE LATIN VERB: ITS SEVERAL TERMINATIONS.

Amatus sum is a form made up of parts of two separate words ;

namely, amatus, the passive participle of amo; and sum, the The student is already familiar with case-endings and the indicative mood present tense, first person singular of the verb way in which they modify the signification of nouns. He to be. This is, in effect, to declare that the Romans cannot be must now pass on' to consider certain endings in the verbs said to have a perfect tense of the passive voice. The idea which in a similar manner affect their import. Referring him which that tense conveys, they express by combining parts of back to what has already been said respecting the verb, we the verb sum with the passive participle.' In this way, howhere take up the subject, and ask his attention to voice-end- ever, the perfect passive has peculiarities of its own. We subings, person-endings, iense-endings, and mood-endings. These join an example of are grave matters, and we must move slowly in order to move ENDINGS OF THE PERFECT Texse, INDICATIVE ACTIVE AND surely.

PASSIVE. As preliminary to the whole we must recall to mind what ACTIVE, legi, legisti, legüt, legimus

, legistis

, legérunt, or legere has been said respecting the stem of words. Having reviewed Passive, lectus sum, lectus es, lectus est, lecti sumus, lecti estis, lecti sunt in his thoughts what has gone before, the reader will tind our present statements easy. The endings, then, to which we have Where observe, that instead of bam, bas, bat, &c., of the imperjust adverted, are added to the stem of the verb, and being so fect, you havei, isti, it, &c. Observe, also, that in the passive, parts added, vary the meaning. The stem of a verb is that part to of the verb, sum, &c., denote the persons; the participle lectus which these endings are added. If the endings have been undergoes, however, one charge in the plural, lectus becomes already made they must be removed. When you have gone lecti. Now, if you wanted to put the passive form just given through these instructions you will know what they are. Take into the subjunctive mood, you have only to substitute the sublego, I read, as an instance. You are already aware that the junctive sim, sis, sit, &c., for the indicative sum, es, est, &c. Other o at the end is the sign of the first person singular, indicative forms of sum may stand in combination with the past participle, mood, present tense, active voice. Cut off that o and you as, lectus eram, I had been read; lectus essem, I might have have leg; leg is the stem. Now in English if we want to make been read ; lectus ero, I shall have been read. Also the enrings I read passive, we insert another word, and say I am read. of the perfect indicative active change to suit corresponding Instead of inserting another word the Romans added an r to changes in the meaning, they become, in the singular, erim the active form, making the verb stand thus, legor, I am read. eris, erit, and in the plural, erimus, eritis, erint, in the perfect Hence, you see is here the sign of the passive. In verbs, tense subjunctive mood; and in the pluperfect tense subjunctive, r at or near the end is generally the sign of the passive voice; they pass into essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent. thus in legar, I may be read ; and legerır, I might be read, the r There is yet another source of variation in these endings, is the sign of the passive ; for the corresponding active forms That source is in the conjugations. There are, you know, four are legam, I may read; legerem, I might read. The voice conjugations, or general models for the formation of verbs. All endings vary with the persons; thus, as the active endings verbs which follow these models are called regular. Such as are o, is, it, so the passive endings are or, &ris, itur. Thus voice- deviate from these models are called irregular. Confining our. endings and person-endinge combine, as you see, in this ex- selves, at present, to the regular verbs, we find the endings of ample of

the present tense indicative mood active and passive voices THE VOICE-ENDINGS AND PERSON-ENDINGS OF THE PRESENT

vary, as already (pp. 34 and 35) shown. We shall presently give

a table, in which all these varieties are presented. In order to TENSE, INDICATIVE Mood.

get the full forms, you must prefix for the first conjugation am, ACTIVE, lego, legis, legit, legimus, legitia, legunt

or ama; doc, or doce, for the second ; leg for the third ; and PASSIVE, legor, legéris, legitur, legimur, legimini, leguntur aud for the fourth. Am is the stem to be prefixed in the pre

To the voice-endings and person-endings must be added the sent tense; ama, in the imperfect and future, and amav in the terse-endings. In English we form the past tense, for in- perfect; as appears in this view of the stance, of the verb I love, by adding to love the consonant d, I

STEMS OF THE CHIEF PARTS OF THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. lored. Something like this takes place in Latin. Thus as

IMP. AND FUT. INFINIT. PERF. amo is I love, amabam is I loved ; the bam performing in Latin Conj. PRES.

SUPINE. the part which the d performs in English. This bam, in the

amat active voice, is made passive by being changed into bar, r taking the place of m. Putting these three endings together

leg
lege

lege
leg

lect audie

audi

audiv audit we huve un example of VOICE-ENDINGS, PERSON-ENDINGS, AND TENS E-ENDINGS OF

These Cher PARTS ARE COMMONLY EXHIBITPD THUS;

INFINIT.
Conj. PRESENT.

PERFECT. SUPINE.
THE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE.
ACTIVE, legebam, legebas, legebat, legebamus, legebatis, legebant

docere docui doctum Passive, legebar, legeburis, legebulur, legebamur, legebamini, legebantur

lego iegere legi lectum Another variation is introduced by the mood-endings. The

audio audire auditi auditum

am

am &
doce

ama
doce

am av docu

doce

doct

1.
2.
8.
4.

aud

amare

amave

amatum

amo
doceo

1. 2. 3. 4.

A KEY TO THE EXERCISES IN THE LATIN caelebs ? caelebes vituperat plebs; sunt militibus mercedes; multa LESSONS.

docet aetas.

LESSON VI.
By John R. BEARD, D.D.

Page 102, col. 1-LATIN-ENGLISH,
LESSONS II. TO VII.

Birds deceive bachelors; mothers are slain by fevers; I greatly
Page 71, col. 2-LATIN-ENGLISH.

like the sea; the sea is liked by sailors; husbandmen cultivate Good min love good boys; good boys are loved by good men; a globe; the brothers are in the fires (Aames) the goddesses have

coin-fields; there are sailors in the ships; there is fire in the good boy love: school; the good masters of good boys are loved ; aliars; have not the gods altars ? the husbandmen defend the hast thou a good master the war is deadly; I have a good female friend ; the boys are in school; are not the boys in school?

sheepfolds with a hatchet.

many foreigners sail into Britain ; the boar of my friend is great; there

Page 102, col. 2-ENGLISH-LATIN. is play on the river's bank; scholars love (like) letters; there are frogs on the banks; the guat is great; there are deadly wars in the

Corporibus naves defendant nautae; in rupibus sunt aves; a island.

nau'is rupes ne amantur? nocet plebi caedes; aves feriunt nubes; Page 71, col. 2_ENGLISH-LATIN.

secures defendunt naves; civium aves noceniur; principis sedile

laudatur ; vincimus principum comites. Bonos discipulos amo; boni discipuli a bonis viris amantur; amas ne amicum ? a per est mihi; tibi est caper ; capri sunt in

Page 104, col. 1-LATIN-ENGLISH. ripa; est in insula magnum et funestum bellum; in Britannia sunt A soldier ought to fight with a brave mind; men have mortal agri multi; funesti saepe sunt apri; 0 viri, amatis ne pueros ? bodies, immorial minds; have not men morial bodies? I am deamici mei peregrinos non amant; ludum amant pueri; amant ne lighted with the sweet voice of birds; art thou delighted with the pueri ludum ? est ne tibi amica? magnus aper non est mihi; sweet voice of birds ? boys should apply to learning with an eager amicae epistola est iu horto,

mind; wby, 0 boys, do you not apply to knowledge with an earnest Page 72, col. 1--LATIN-ENGLISH.

mind? the praise of scholars consists in good characters and The horse neighs; the horse's mane is beautiful; the flies are

severe industry; with earnest industry my father applies to literatroublesome; are the flies troublesome? good scholars are not delight me; brave men are not overcome by severe pains; we do

ture ; piety is the basis of all the virtues; thy virtues, O mother, troublesome; long wars are troublesome; horses run quickly ; a man guides the horse ; a horse is guided by a man; I am delighted thy mother; thy voices (words), o sister, are sweet to me.

not yield lo daring enemies; every voice (sound) is well heard by by a beautiful borse; the fields are fruitful; the herbs of the fields are various ; the husbandman commits to the fields grains of corn;

Page 104, col. 1-ENGLISH-LATIN. the husbandman tills the fields; how beautifully the fields flourish (virent); various herbs flourish in the fields.

Fortes viri hostibus non cedunt; audax agmen non facile vincitur ; Page 72, col. 1-ENGLISH-LATIN.

alacri apimo in litteras incumbit meus filius; sorores tuae amaut

ne litteras ? avium vocibus delectantur; aves hostium suaves Fecundus est ager; sunt ne agri secundi ? bella fecunda non habent voces; bene in litteras incumbunt discipu': mei; a Julio sunt; agri coluntur ; deos colis; dii coluntur a Tullio; equus et Caesare vincitur audax agmen; hominum corpora mortalia sunt, equa a viro reguntur; celeriter currunt apri; currunt ne capri immortales animi; matris pietas filium delectat; filia patris virceleriter? in pulchro borto sunt muscae; equum agro committis; tute delectatur; industria et bonis muribus puerorum constat boni discivuli coluntur; O mi fili! diis et deabus committuntur virtus; matris epistola ab omnibus auditur. templa; 0 Antoni! dii deaeque in templis coluntur; O bone Deus! in fecundis agris coleris; boni viri a filiis et filiabus coluntur.

LESSON VII.
LESSON V.

Page 115, col. 2-LATIN-ENGLISH.
Page 92, col. 1-LATIN-ENGLISH.

Play is pleasant to boys; there are various kinds of play ; boys I have great grief; hast thou not great grief? mothers have willingly indulge in play; is not play, pleasant tu boys ? play is great griefs; the colour of the cushion is beautiful; is the colour pleasauí to me; play' is exceediugły pleasant to thee ; grave men ofite cu-bion beautiful? he has (is under) a deadly error; why avoid boyish plays (gaines); O play, how sweetly thou delighiest kas father (is under) deadly errors? I have a bruther ; brothers boys' minus ! kings are not deligheid with boyish play; the senses hare great griefs ; lighining frightens animals; does not lightning are keen; I have keen senses; great is the power of the senses; frigbten mothers ? lightning frightens sparrows.

is the power of the senses great ? a brave man does not yield to Page 92, col. 1-ENGLISH-LATIN,

feelings of pain; beasis hare keen senses; Oye sensis, how Est mihi calcar (I have a spur); est ne tibi anser ? illis sunt great pleasure you procure for (occasion) men! ihe animals are an-eres; est ne tibi agger ? fulguris odor in pulvinari est; vecti.

endowed with senses. galia non diligo ; molesti sunt rumores; pulvinar (pillow or

Page 115, col. 2-ENGLISH-LATIN. cushion) est ne illis ? non est illis anser; tibi sunt pater, frater et mater; illis sunt dolores, or dolores sunt illis ; tibi est magnum

Sensus doloris est amarus ; est ne amarus tibi doloris sensus? puiyinar.

omnibus hominibus et omuibus animalibus sensus doloris est Page 92, col. 2-LATIN-ENGLISH.

amarus ; magna est luciùs vis; sapiens vi sensuum non vincitur; I rear charcoal; the boy strikes the peacocks; the regions are

fortis luglui non cedit; fortes ne vi sensuum cedunt? O lucbezutiful; thou hast an opportuni y; we move the ashes; the us, quam vincís bominum animos! pueri libenter indulgent hinge is moved; the becomingness of order delights mothers : lusui; multa genera sunt lusus; lusus omnis generis grati sunt there is a great dust of the ashes ; peacocks are on the shore; we pueris et puellis ; viros non delectant pueriles lusus; viri puerili

lusu non delectantur; indulgent voluptari pueriet homines; quam have not songs; there is a wound in (his) breast; the light of the region is great; he has a great name; pledges are not praised.

magnopere evitar ur luctus a liberis ; arcubus et sagittis delectant

pueri ; acubus delectant puellae. Page 92, col. 2-ENGLISH-LATIN. Times de carbonem? cur puerum ferit mater? decus non (not)

Page 116, col. 1-LATIN-ENGLISH. est illis; vulous est iibi; tuis patribus sunt vulnera; vulnera terrent The terrible thunder greatly moves the minds of men ; is not the matres, in regiore florent poemata; tibi est nomen magnum; sound of thunder terrible? ihe roaring of thunder is frightful; mihi non est pignus; illis est occasio ; viro magna est occasio.

thunder is frightful; lightning precedes thunder; many men fear

thunder; thunder is feared by many men; O thunder, huw frightful Page 93—LATIN-ENGLISH.

is thy roaring! the house resounds with the thunder; men's knees Artificers ought to teach boys; the king moves (his) thumb; are strong; the vigour of the knees indicates the strength of the kiog guard the laws; laws are guarded by kings; the son bites body; the knees have great strength ; suppliants fall on (iheir) (his) thumb; the horsemen are harassed (grieved); artists adorn knees; O knees, how much you trenuble! in the kuees there is ciries; the wages of artificers support (their) sons and daughters; great strength. the bachelor sleeps; the people are defended; the race of the

Page 116, col. 1-ENGLISH-LATIN, artifices is praised; hast thou corn-land ? the neck of the soldier is injured; the age of the bachelor is great.

Hominis genu validum est; validis genibus est vigor; sunt ne Page 93-ENGLISH-LATIN.

valida genua lua ? silvae resonant horribili sonu tomirûs; sonuş

tonitros animalia permovet; tonitru a validis bestiis exrimescirur; 'Artifices defendo; artifices a me defenduntur; est ne illi merces ? sunt mihi debilia genua ; sunt ne patri tuo debilia genua? Non; pecus aon est illi; in éervice pungor; artifices pingunt pecora; valida genua sunt patri meo; permoyeor multo fulmine ; fremitus funestae sunt regum leges; seges equitis ceditur; cur vituperatur tonitras supplices permovent; supplex pulchram domum indicat. hints. He does not write with a silver pen.-W. F. F. (London): The ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

sun is more than a million times larger than the earth, because its W. B. (Belfast), and ROBERTO: The German approaches the Dutch diameter is more than a hundred times greater ; and that the bulks of so much as to be called High Dutch in our language, and Deutsch in the globes are to one another as the cubes of their diameters.-L.

A. I. German itself.-S. A. R. (Ravenfield) wishes to lift us before we fall. (Frome) must, in order to become a physician, come to London, get apHe might give us credit for understanding proportion.-HUMILIS prenticed, study hard, and walk the hospitals.-SEVEN STUDENTS (Lon. ARTIFEX : Dr. Cornwall is right. If " John is the best of his brothers," history of the oldest matter we know of, the earth's crust.-W. H.

don) are respectfully invited to read the biography of Ferguson, and the then surely John is a brother, and his own brother too! Stick to Dr. Evans (Liverpool) should study English Arst, and

read Dr. Watts on Beard's lessons : you will get all you want, and more too. --UN JEUNE the “ Improvement of the Mind.”—3. W. REDMAN (Liverpool): ReEcossais (Dunfermline), should send to Mr. Cassell for a copy of the ceived. 2. (Bristol): One hindrance to his progress is mixing up " French Lessons" reprinted from the “ Working Man's Friend.” Enclose Drawing and Phonetic Shorthand with Grammar, Writing, and Arithseven penny stamps, and you will have it by return of post.-John metic. Stick to Dr. Beard's Lessons in English. The rhymes contain HUNTER (Liverpool): His answer to query 3, No. 14, is not correct. The solution of T. W., K. P. D. is right, but rather long.--C. S. R.

some good thoughts. (Belfast): A “ New History of England” has been very recently published an enormous degree before Sacred Lessons are attempted.-IOTA

SACRÆ LITERÆ (Barnsbury): Our Band of Hope must increase to atoa cheap rate by Mr. Cassell. — ROBERT GIBBON (Manchester):. Such (Glasgow) : If you can turn a square into a circle whose superficies a one" is the most correct phrase ; because one is pronounced

as if it spelt will be EXACTLY equal (in a few minutes) et vice verså;" you have wun, and therefore it virtually begins with a consonant. sul edition of Addison's works is that contained in the series called the accomplished the greatest problem in Mathematics! Your vice versd is “British Essayists,” of which there are various editions, some very being offered for its discovery or solution.” We rather think this is a

the problem of squaring the circle. We never heard of any “ reward cheap.-W. J. BUTTONS : The words printed in italics in the Bible are called supplements or supplementary words, because they are considered whom you could apply with diagrams and proof. If you have not dis

vulgar error. But the Royal Society of London is the best party to necessary to complete the sense in translating from the original tongue. covered a mare's nest, you will be sure to get their gold medal. Before Many of these words ought not to have been to printed. Not a few sending to the Society, perhaps you would favour us with an example or injure the sense, and some are quite erroneous. new translation in this country. If this were done at the Government two, by way of testing the accuracy of your discovery. Thus, a square expense, and honestly done by a fair mixture of pious, and good, and is 8863 feet in the length of its side, what

is the diameter of the equal able men of different orthodox persuasions, it would be the glory of circle? And a circle is 1128$ feet in diameter, what is the side of the Victoria's reign, the security of her throne, and the admiration of the equal square ?--AN INQUIRER should apply to Highbury College if he world.

be a Churchman, and to Homerton College if he be a Dissenter.-J.S. AMICUS VERITATIS (Manchester): The reason of taking two-thirds (Wishaw): His answer to query 3, p. 223, is wrong in principle; and perpendicular rests on the geometrical theorem that in an equilateral his writing might be greatly improved. triangle, the radius of the circumscribing circle is at this distance from

ERRATA IN SOME COPIES. the vertex of each triangle. The general expression for this radius

page 201, col. 1, last line, for I see them read I love them. being R = fabc-V 8(8-a)(8-0)(s-c); when the triangle is equilateral, it becomes R-a-V3, which is two-thirds of the perpendicular of such a triangle, a being the length of its side. --RICHARD PHILLPOTT (Bristol):

LITERARY NOTICES. To answer all letters containing exercises is impossible. A Key to the French and German exercises, similar to the Key now given to the Latin HISTORY OF THE PAINTERS OF ALL NATIONS.—The first part of exercises, will follow.-J. F. Wilson (Halifax): His problem is good; this magnificent work, in imperial quarto, containing a portrait of it will bo given in due time.-A. ADAMS (Leicestershire): His solution | Murillo, and eight specimens of his choicest works, including the “ Conof the different ways of the Pythagorean theorem is the simplest we ception of the Virgin," lately in the collection of Marshal Soult, and have seen. It will be given in the P. E.-LINCOLN: Bookkeeping by recently purchased by the French Government for the Gallery of the Double Entry is preparing.-SOMKINS (Norwich): 784 inches is the Louvre, for the sum of £23,440, is now ready. The successive parts exact length of the surveying chain, being the same as 7 92 inches; and will appear on the first of every month, at 28. each, and will be supplied it differs by 's of an inch from 8 inches, this quantity being nearly is through every bookseller in town or country. of an inch.-W. D. CROCKER (Dover): To find the area of a circle, CASSELL'S SHILLING EDITION OF EUCLID.—THE ELEMENTS or square the diameter, and multiply the square by the decimal .7854; the GEOMETRY, containing the First Six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth product will be the area very nearly. J.J. (Wood-street): Dou should Books of Euclid, from the text of Robert Simson, M.D., Emeritus be on note c, in the 1st lesson.-A STUDENT and SUBSCRIBER from the Professor of Mathematica in the University of Glasgow; with Corrections, beginning, is informed that all the Physical Sciences, both theoretical Annotations, and Exercises, by Robert Wallace, A.M., of the same and practical shall have their turn.-T. D. S. (Doncaster): Learn university, and Collegiate Tutor of the University of London, will be English before Latin, or both together if you have time; but Geometry ready with the magazines for August, price 1s. in stiff covers, or 18. 6d. would be a more useful interchange of study.—JAMES HEATON (Stock- neat cloth. port) will find all his difficulties removed by studying Dr. Beard's SCRIPTURE LIBRARY FOR TIIE YOUNG, in Shilling Volumes.-The lerrons carefully.-LAZARUS should persevere ; his age is no hindrance, first two volumes of this instructive series of works, “ The LIFE of but the reverse. By all means get Cassell's Euclid, and study the JOSEPH," illustrated with sixteen choice engravings and maps, and Arithmetic and Geometry in the POPULAR EDUCATOR.-T. W. “ The TABERNACLE, its PRIESTS, and SERVICES," with twelve engrav. ROWBOTHAM (Sutton in Ashfield) should let systems of artificial ings, are now ready. The " LIFE OF MOSES" is in the press. memory alone, and study the French and Latin as laid down in the Lessons contained in our pages.

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First Volume of this splendidly embellished work, handsomely bound, sti te, how could the crust have cooled sufficiently for man to inhabit it rains upwards of Trro Hundred principal Engravings and an equal on the sixth day from the creation '-Geological divines argue that numier of minor Engravings, Diagrams, &c. thu phrase " in the beginning," does not mean the beginning" of the six days; or indeed “the beginning of the present form of the earth.

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years. It was at "the beginning” of this time that the crust of the earth was cool- Buildings, Domestic Scenes, &c., of this most remarkable people; toins, and not at“ the beginning” of Abp. Usher's chronology. We recom- gether with numerous instructive Tales and Narratives ; Biographies, mend a “ Schoolgirl” to read the following works by geological ladies with Portraits ; Scientific and Miscellaneous Articles, &c. Maria Hack's “ Geological Sketches and Glimpses," Miss Zornlin's “Con- CASSELL'S EMIGRANT'S HANDBOOK, a Guide to the Various Fields versations on Geology," and above all, Mrs. Somerville's “Physical of Emigration in all Parts of the Globe, Second Edition, with considerGeography"

able Additions, and a Map of Australia, with the Gold Regions clearly T. W. GREATHEAD (London): “ There was only 2 dozen” is incor- marked, is now ready, price 9d. rect; it should be “there were," &c. It is the same with “1 dozen."- THE PATHWAY, a Monthly Religious Magazine, is published on the W. P. (Watton): The accent is on the o in vocative.-Un BOULANGER 1st of every month, price twopence-32 pages enclosed in a neat (South Shields): The grammar he speaks of may be used till the wrapper. Vols. I. and 11., neatly bound in cloth and lettered, price lessons appear in the P. E.-HAMLET : His system of short-hand may 25, 3d. each, are now ready. Im good; but he should study Dr. Beard's Lessons in English first.-AN APPRENTICE is entitled to our thanks for his good opinion of us ; but, if Printed and Published by JOHN CASSELL, 386, strand, and Ludgate-biu, were what he assumes to be, he would have been more modest in his

Lendon.-July 4, 18-2,

LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.- No. I.

ARCHITECTURE is the art of planning, constructing, and adorn-structed them. It is easy to understand how their different ing public or private buildings according to their intended arrangements and structures are but the reflection of the reuse. The word architecture is derived from the Greek apxw, ligion or the manners of the people. The general style of the archo, I command, and 7:*TW, tecton, a workman. This etymo-monuments of a country is a durable image of the different logy (derivation) indicates the operatives engaged in the building phases of its civilisation. In these, we see it in its primitive, on the one hand, and the leader or chief, the man of science and refined, or degraded state, as civilisation arose, approached to practical skill, putting in action all his resources in order to perfection, or decayed. execute his plan on the other. Such a division as this was, no Nations naturally established great divisions in their architecdoubt, established from the beginning of the art. According, ture. They first built their private dwellings; then their public therefore, to the literal meaning of the etymology, mankind buildings; and these, in their numerous subdivisions, constituted must have, at the origin of architecture, possessed a degree of civil architecture. Religion caused them to build temples and civilisation sufficient for the organisation of different kinds other edifices, attaching to them ideas of duty and moral of industrial operations, and acquired a degree of skill in obligation: thus arose sacred architecture. The fortification of the art, which enabled some men by their experience to be their frontiers, their towns, and their conquered countries,

gave birth to military architecture. In this hasty sketch, we the leaders or directors of others. In this way, we may sup- see how extensive is the series of buildings which cover the pose that the art itself, or rather the symmetry, the harmony face of the globe, some of which belong to the first ages of its hisof proportions, and good taste in structures, at first began to tory, and others of which are being rediscovered in our own day. be developed. Before arriving at this point mankind must

The study of these will be duly appreciated by the historian, have overleapt ages. One of the first wants of society was a

the philosopher, the archæologist, and the artist, who, each

with his own particular view, knows how to find a great covering or shelter from the inclemency of the weather, lesson in these silent witnesses of past civilisation, as well as whether of heat or of cold. Simple was the art employed in in those existing in full vigour around us. constructions of this kind. Grottoes or caves hollowed square Architecture is founded upon three great principles which to make them more habitable, and cottages constructed of ought to be immutable : 1, the useful, without which states and branches of trees and blocks of stone—such were the primitive private individuals would be led into superfluous and ruinous

expenses ; 2, the true, because it ought to express in all its constructions in wood and stone which formed the rudiments varied forms the great principles of construction upon which of architecture. From the simplicity of early structures men it rests; 3, the beautiful, which is the end of all the arts depassed to the study of proportions; they then dared to attempt pending upon design, and no less of architecture the most useful. the grand ; and, at last, reached the sublime. The origin of On these principles, every style of architecture has the same

value; architecture cannot be assigned to any particular country. himself to the study of one particular style. It is only the

and an artist should not curb his genius by confining Every nation produced its own art, or style, by employing the

man of talent, to whom the construction of an edifice is envarious materials within its reach, and by giving to them such trusted, who can combine the different arrangements and forms, forms as their wants required. Proceeding at first from the harmonise the various parts, and particularly express by high table-lands of Asia, in order to people the earth, the early plans, skilfully worked out, the disposition of the whole or of fathers of our race could have but little idea of architecture, plans rests the reputation of an architect, and science demands

every part of the building. Upon these arrangements and or of a well-established system of construction. As wandering of him a well-grounded assurance of the good construction and pastoral tribes, they lived in tents or wretched cottages, and durability of his work. which had no pretensions to architecture. It was not until Architecture is not an imitative art, like her sister arts, they became more settled that they sought the means of ren- , sculpture and painting. We see nothing in nature like our dering their buildings,more durable

, by employing in their buildings as a whole ; or rather nothing which could serve to

guide us in its applications, or in the harmony of its lines. In construction, wood or stone, and bricks baked in the sun.

this art, man has done everything himself. He has employed From the differences in the materials, and from the variety of matter; he has invented forms and proportions to produce in tastes and feelings, arise the varied appearances which the the minds of his fellow-creatures ideas correlative of order, monuments of different nations present, and which constitute harmony, grandeur, richness, and durability. He has been their peculiar style of architecture. Thus the Egyptian, born enabled, by the force of art, to give, as it were, thought to in the hot climate of Africa, in a country destitute of wood fit ternal forms of nature. Like the poet and the musician, the

matter, without being indebted for his ideas to any of the exfor building, and near the mountains of the valley of the Nile, architect can transport the spectator into an ideal world, by containing large blocks of freestone and granite, created for creating forins and effects formerly unknown; but, very different himself a vigorous style of buildings, which completely shel. from them in results, he renders his creations palpable, and tered him from the burning rays of the sun. These buildings the beautiful, must be ever present to his view; and, however

gives them durability. Moreover, the useful, the true, and were formed of colossal masses, which were easily transported fruitful his imagination may be, he cannot emancipate it along the waters of that famous river. The Greek, inhabiting from science, the eternal basis of all the productions of his a milder climate, surrounded by forests and quarries, gave a lighter form to his edifices ; and employed wood in their con

The architect is not, therefore, as the vulgar think, and, more struction, which harmonised well with the marble-a material unhappily, still, as ignorant men who usurp the title thinkof which the fineness admitted of a greater delicacy of struc

simply a head workman or common decorator of miserable

constructions, a species of animal always to be found. He ture and arrangement. The Chinese, surrounded by rivers spends his youth in the study of his art, and of the splendid bordered with bamboo, had only a meagre and tortuous species examples left on the face of the old world by ancient civili, of architecture, as ephemeral in its duration as it was fragile sation. In conjunction with these studies he makes himself in its origin and construction. The very different character with precision, and study the nature of their construction. He

master of the exact sciences, in order that he may execute his plans exhibited in local architecture enable us to judge of a country also makes himself acquainted with the physical sciences, in by its monuments, inasmuch as the buildings themselves are order that he may become acquainted with the nature of the the expression of the various wants of the people who con materials which he must some day employ, and be able to calVOL. I.

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art.

[graphic]

culate their effects. In short, he devotes himself to practical presented the square form, if they did not give them this form experience, and to the working part of architecture, in order by manual labour. Stonehenge in Bagland exhibits a number to render himself capable of executing public or private build- of square pillars supporting enormous architraves, the whole ings, and to make himself responsible for the stability of appearing to have constituted a large and well-constructed edifices entrusted to him either by private individuals or by edifice. These evidences of the first attempts of past civilisathe state.

tion are gradually and daily disappearing under the progress BUILDINGS OF UXHZWA STONES,

of those which are being developed around them. Thus Asia

has lost the most of her ancient monuments, owing to the early After these preliminary remarks, we may shortly trace the state of her progress in the arts. Africa, for the same reason, progress of architecture amongst the different nations of anti- presents as few examples, although they are mentioned by quity, for the purpose of reaching our own times in chronologi- ancient authors. Greece and Italy, and their neighbouring cal order. Before entering into details, we may point out the islands, only exhibit examples of the same kind in places particular features which characterise the grand periods of the nearly deserted. The northern countries of Europe alone preart, and the different systems in which its resources were de- serve some, because that civilisation was later there ; and the veloped, in order to satisfy the numerous demands of the civili- history of their sudden and unexpected conquests extends only sation in which it originated.

to a period of about two thousand years. In America the later Architecture, like all the productions of the human mind, civilisation of the Aztecs (1196) and the Mexicans caused the presents at first only simple rudiments, quite in accordance with primitive monuments

around them to disappear, by the deprimitive manners. From the earliest ages we find three velopment of their own. This process is perfectly analogous great divisions established amongst all nations : 1st, private to that which took place first in Asia, then in Greece, in buildings; 2nd, religious edifices ; 3rd, military constructions. Africa, and in Italy, and which we see taking place in the

The first care of a people, as we remarked before, would be western countries, where every day they are destroyed in to construct individual dwellings; but being at first hunters order that the materials may be used for roads and private and shepherds, they would be necessarily wanderers, and their buildings. dwellings would be tents constructed of the skins of animals, This simple and primitive style of architecture appears to or cottages made of branches of trees. When they dwelt on the borders of rivers they would employ reeds; Asia and

Fig. 1.

have been originally universal, if it was

not simultaneous with the progress of Egypt present us with examples of this kind. In some ex

civilisation, which marched from east to ceptional cases they dwelt in caverns, or in shallow excava

west; and has left monuments and editions. The cottages were usually circular; piles of stones and

fices so varied, as to occasion them to be earth, arranged in a circle, constituted their foundation. This

classified, and have names given to each form is found amongst all nations; that of the square, requir

class. These names are borrowed from ing more complicated combinations was not adopted at first.

the old Celtie tongue, or language of the The simplicity of the first erections for religious purposes may

Druids. Thus, class Ist was called Peulbe seen in the construction of the altars of early times. The

tans, or Men-hirs, which consisted of long first sacrifices, which the Bible and ancient tradition trace up

stones, erect and isolated (standing singly) to the creation, were made upon consecrated heaps of stones,

like obelisks. (Fig. 1.) 2nd, Cromlechs, which they collected upon high places. These first altars,

which were great circles, elliptical or called Beth-EL (the House of God), were erected in Chaldea,

spiral, formed

of huge stones slightly elein Judea, and in Egypt. They were built, according to the vated. 3rd, Dolmens, consisting of large tables or platforms of Scriptures, of stones without cement, if the places where they stone, supported by several huge vertical stones. (Fig. 2.) 4th, were raised afforded proper materials. In other places they Rows, or Uncovered Alleys, of up

Fig. 2. were constructed of turf and earth, where the plain country pre right stones, placed in rows like sented no solid materials. Such erections or mounds are found trees, and occupying a very conin Asia Minor and in India ; at Heliopolis, celebrated for the siderable area, like those of the worship of the sun, and the great Sidereal divinity of the plain of Carnac in the department Syrians. Lucian describes a throne or altar to the sun com- of Morbihan, or the province of posed of four great stones arranged in the form of a table. At Brittany in France. 5th, Covered Ortosia, in Syria, there is an edifice of this kind raised in an Alleys, or long rows of parallel open enclosure,

and built of stones in a square form. Strabo stones set upright, and supporting masses of stone placed relates, that travelling in Egypt, he saw his road covered with horizontally so as to form a ceiling. (Fig. 3.) 6th, the mili. temples devoted to the god Mercury, which were composed of

Fig. 3. two unhewn stones, which supported a third. Artemidorus, quoted by Strabo, mentions that in Africa, near Carthage, the god Melkart (Moloch), or the Phænician Hercules, the worship of which was brought from Tyre, was worshipped in a similar manner, three or four stones being placed one upon another.

This simple manner of building applied to primitive altars, and to the sacred enclosures which surrounded then, after having been developed, as we have seen, in Asia and

Africa, extended into Europe from the borders of the Black Sea and tary constructions of early times appear to have been mounds the Caucasus, where M. Dubois, of Neufchatel, saw a great or artificial hills, at the summit of which there was a shallow exnumber, even to the Atlantic Ocean and to the northern seas. cavation, of which the edges formed a rampart. It is certain that Pausanias describes some of those in Argolis, and recent tra- in countries, where hills naturally occurred, they fortified them vellers have seen others in Greece. It is well known that in the same way as those which were raised by art. And these they exist in France, in England, in Norway, and in Sweden, where all these works of early civilisation are known under

Fig. 4.

natural fortifications are still to

be seen in the neighbourhood of the name of Celtic and Druidical monuments. America pre

Athens and the Piræus ; they sents numerous examples of similar constructions, which show

were of immense service in the how rising nations exhibit the same analogies, as their arts are

last war of independence. Manin the process of formation.

kind in a savage or wandering Simple as this system of building is, for it cannot yet be

state having no instruments for called architecture, we recognise the periods of its commence

raising the earth or digging ment, its progress, and its development. Thus the most

ditches, made fortified enclosures ancient of these edifices, such as were erected by the most

with heaped stones, having a ignorant people, were built of enormous stones in the shape double slope. The entrances to these fortresses were defended which nature gave them. Moreover they selected

those which by artificial hills, placed inside near the gates. (Fig. 4.)

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