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mouth of the vent. . Its structure after the volcanic fire had been withdrawn is represented in fig. 16., which may be regarded as its skeleton. The facts stated, and the principles involved in this Lesson, will be found of importance, when you coine to study the geokogical theory about dikes of lava or basalt, which are discovered in the masses, or in the beds, of other rocks. You will find it a good intellectual exercise to imagine that fig:16, instead of representing a small fumerole, represents a yolcanic mountain itself. It was once filled with melted matter, but that is withdrawn, and the volcano has become extinct. It was once covered and enveloped by sand and scoriae; but since then, rains and torrents have washed away the loose sand and volcanic mud, and only the more hard and the more solid materials of the mountain is left. Mountains of this structure are constantly met with, not only in France and Sicily, but in England, Scotland, and Ireand, as you will find in the progress of these Lessons.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—No. IX. By John R. BEARD, D.D.
Apo, of Greek origin, from ; as, apostle (apo, from, and stello, I send); that is, a person sent from one to another, a messenger.
Apo has the force of our English prefix un, as in uncover. This is its exact importin the word apocalypse (apo and kalupto (Greek), I conceal), a revelation; that is, according to the Latin, an unveiling; and according to the Greek, an uncovering.
"O for that warning voice which he who saw
Arch (ch sounded like k) of Greek origin (from arché, a begin*ing), in the forms arch, arche, and archy, denotes the origin, the head, and hence government. It is the second syllable in monarch, monarchy; and as the letter which in Greek represents the ch is pronounced like k, arch thus introduces a Greek pronunciation into our tongue. Hence, you may learn the error which pronounces orchitect (from arché, first, or head, and tekton, a maker or builder), as if its arch was pronounced like the monosyllabic word •reh; that is, the arch in a building.
Besides a type and an antitype theology recognises an archetype, or original type, an original mould or model, in which, in virtue of which, and after the likeness of which, all created beings were formed, as was taught by the Greek philosopher Plato.
"There were other objects of the mind, universal, eternal, immutable, which they called original ideas, all originally containedin one archetypal
mind or understanding, and from thence participated by inferior minds and souls.”—
This word arch (from arché) is found also pronounced in the ordinary English manner, as in archbishop, that is, achief bishop, the chief bishop of a province. In its signification of chief it is used also to denote something questionable, bad, or humorous.
“Doggett thanked me, and after his comic manner spoke his request with so arch a leer that I promised,” &c.—Tatler.
“‘Come, tell us honestly, Frank,' said the squire with his usual archness, ‘suppose the church, your present mistress, drest in lawn sleeves, on one hand, and Miss Sophia, with no lawn about her, on the other, which would you be for?’”—Goldsmith.
Auto, of Greek origin, equivalent to self, is found in autocrat (from auto and Gr. kratia, power, government), one who governs of himself and by himself; hence autocracy is arbitrary power, despotism.
“The divine will is absolute; t is its own reason; it is both the producer and the ground of all its acts. It moves not by the external impulse, or inclination of objects, but determines itself by an absolute autocracy.”—South.
Be, of Saxon origin, in the forms be and by, connected probably with the verb to be and the preposition by, denoting the active power or agent, as a prefix, performs the part of an intensive, and increases, sometimes, in a bad sense, the inherent import of a word; e.g.—beloved; bedaub ; besmear; bepraise. In other cases, it seems to do little more than aid in forming words; as an adverb out of an adjective; as behind (hind, hinder); before; below: beneath. The adverb betimes (early) is made up of by and time, bytime; that is, in time. “He that goes out betimes in the morning, is more like to dispatch his journey than he that lingers till the day be spent.”—Bishop Hall. By means also, near; as, “stand by me.” “And as he (Jesus) passed by he saw Levi" (Markii. 14).
Hence the phrase by and by denoted immediately, as may be seen in Mark vi. 25; in which, and in other passages of Scripture, it is the representation of a Greek word which signifies, straightway, forthwith. The repetition of the by may have had emphasis for its object. Hence is explained the word by-stander; that is, one who stands near. At present, by and by seems in conversation to intimate some little distance of time from the actual moment.
Bene, a prefix of Latin origin (from bonus, good, bene, well), is found in union with words of Latin origin; thus with facio, I do, and its parts facere, factum (in combination a may pass into i), it forms benefaction, benefit, beneficial, beneficent; so in union with dico, I say (dicere, dictum), bene forms benediction, and with volo, I am willing, it forms benevolent. Hence, one who is benevolent, is one who wishes well; and one who is beneficent, is one who does well; a benediction, is a good word, a blessing; and a benefaction, is a good deed, a gift. The opposite prefix is male, ill or evil. The contrastis well illustrated in these words, where, as in other instances, the old spelling is retained, as offering so many historical facts:
“The kyng willing to show that this benefit was to hym much acceptable, and not worthy to be put in blivion, called this grant of money a benevolence, notwithstanding that many with grudge and malevolence gave great summes toward the new foude (found) benevolence."— Hall, “Edward IV.”
Bi, in the forms of bi and his, of Latin origin (bis, twice), has in English the force of two or twice; biped (pes, Lat. a foot), twofooted; biscuit (cuire, Fr. to cook), twice-cooked.
“The inconvenience attending the form of the year above mentioned, was in a great measure remedied by the Romans in the time of Julius Caesar, who added one day every fourth year; which (from the place of its insertion,-viz. (namely), after the sixth of the calends of March) was called bissextile or leap-year.”—Priestley, on History.
*, *, *. Co, as in coalesee (from eo, and aleo, Lat. I groo, to grow together; it is found in the derivatives ovalescence, oalition. “Moon which, under the specious name of , carries **boom theoreoeilable principles of the original disord of parties, ever was or will be, a sealing coalition.”—Barke, on the Nation. Coy, as in cognate (from cog, and natus, Latorm), or, with, of the same family or kind; e.g. is found also in ognition (Lat. eum, with, and noooo, I know), knowledge; a means of knowing, a ognizance or token; * For which cause men imagined that he gave the sonne in his full langatues for his cominance or badge.”—Hall, “Henry IV.” Col, as in colloquia! (Lat. cum, with, and loquor, I peak), relating to conversation; as also in collusion (from col, and ludo, Lat. I play), a playing together; that is, to deceive. “Well, let as now leve the cloked collusion that remayned in France, and return to the open dissaulation which now appeared in Englande." —Hall, “Henry VI.” Com, as in commemorate (from com, and memor, Lat. mindful), to keep in mind, to recall to mind; found in commensurate, comminute, commute, , &c. “A different spinning every different web Asks from your glowing singers; some require The more compact, and some the loser wreath.” Dyer, “Fleece.” Ør, as in correct (from cor, and rego, Lat. I rule), and correspond, corrode, corrupt, corrugate (from cor, and ruga, Lat. a wrinkle). "The fulllips, the rough tongue, the corrugate cartilaginous palate, the broad, entting teeth of the ox, the deer, the horse, and the sheep, qualify this tribe for browsing upon their pasture."—Paley, “Natural Theology." Contra, of Latin origin (contra, over against), as in contraband (hannum, low Lat, a decree, law), against the law, smuggled; and in contradict, contrary. Contra appears in another form, namely, counter, counterfeit (from counter, contre, and faire, Fr. to make), and in counterpane, a covering. * On which a tissue counterpane was cast, Arachné’s web the same did not surpass, Wherein the story of his fortunes past, In lively pictures neatly handled was.” Prayton, “The Barons' Wars.”
It ap that societies of this kind have existed in the north of Scotland for years past. We have now lying before us the second annual report of the Aberdeen and Boo. **Mutual Instruction Union." This union consists of a number of associated classes, in the districts which give name to the union, and its object is to cultivate friendship and co-operation
The general report, which contains the above extract, makes the following just observations upon it:—
There appears to have been a period of decline, similar to that noticed in this extract, in the history of most of the societies with which we are acquainted. The novelty, incident on the formation of such a society, having passed away, the ardour of those who had connected themselves with it, partly from this novelty, and artly expecting to find in it a royal road to learning—a sort of intellectual California, where the pure gold of knowledge might be had with comparative ease—their ardour (we say) is damped, and their attendance at the meetings becomes irregular. education—the grand object of our societies—even with all the aids which mutaal instruction supplies, is not to be attained under such conditions as these gentlemen have sup Some degree of mental exertion must be made-reading, study, and composition must be jo. in, to some extent, by those who continue any length of time members of our societies. There is for some time, in the parties we have mentioned, a struggle ing on between the innate mental inactivity, and the thirst for
owledge, excited by attendance at the meetings; and according as the one or the other of these antagonistic principles obtains the mastery, so will those who are the subjects of this contest, meet no more with their fellow-members, or continue to go onwards. The loss sustained in this latter case, is, to the individual withdrawing, although he may esteem it lightly, really a heavy one ; to the Society which he leaves it is simply numerical, and ought to exercise no discouraging influence on the rest of its members. It does happen sometimes, as is noticed in the extract, that the decline is caused by the removal from the locality of some of the more active and able members; but let there be in any society, half-a-dozen young men, devoted to its interests, and determined, under every discouragement, to pursue their efforts at self and mutual improvement, and we hesitate not to affirm, that such a society will, grow in numbers, in influence, and in usefulness.
That which secmed to be wanting to stir up these mutual instruction societies to active operation we have at length supplied. The reading of the PopULAR EDucator is the very means which should be used to keep all the members together, and to excite them to active exertion. Here is at last food sufficient for every mind; and all that they have to do is to #. into a regular system of mutual instruction from its pages.
o read a lesson from this work to the assembled class, to discuss its merits with the class, to give your own opinion, and to hear their opinions on any given subject or question, is the way to create a lively interest in the minds of all. While this is going on in the class, you are learning something of real value, something that will be of the greatest use to you through life. We hope these societies will take these hints in good part, and act upon them at once; and, when they have made a fair trial, we have no fear of the result. We shall be glad to hear from them at a future perfod.
SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS AND QUERIES.
The parties in this question are to pay not in direct proportion to their distances from the church, but in reciprocal proportion to those distances. Now the reciprocal of any fraction is that fraction inverted, and of any integer or whole number is unity divided by that integer. In like manner, the reciprocal of a mixed number is unity divided by that mixed number. The numbers in question, or distances, are 2, 2; or **, and 3} or #. The reciprocals of these numbers are +, or, and #. It is, therefore, in the proportion of these numbers that the money, £1655s., is to be contributed. The sum of these fractional numbers is found by reducing them to a common denominator; thus,
SIR,-Amongst the many who visited the Great Exhibition, I was one. Surrounded by the specimens of modern art, wonderfully beautiful and perfect, the inventive, or rather imitative, faculties were marvellously stimulated within me, and I thought within myself, manibus pedibusque aliquid conabor, recte aut secus, jacta est alea. So, perambulating the building with these ideas pleasantly floating in my mind, I chanced to come where some large globes were exhibited, made by Newton, Fleetstreet, or somebody else, which arrested my attention. Having felt the want of a pair for a long time, being deterred from buying them, owing to their high price, I determined, on my return to the country, to set about making a pair. I first began a globe three feet in diameter, and got the shell made, an agricultural labourer and country blacksmith being my only assistants; but when this shell was finished. I found it was too large, several doors refusing it admission; even the room in which it was made denied it egress. Well, I made another of 2 feet 1 inch diameter. I agreed with a cabinet-maker to make the stand and horizon; and with a brass-founder and engraver to make the meridian and to engrave it. I proposed, by hiring or borrowing a globe of small dimensions, to delineate the surface myself, lay down the countries, and print all the letters with the pen; but when I came to consider the thousands of letters I should have to make, and the great draft it would make upon my time, which I could ill spare, except by detracting from the necessary hours of sleep, I abandoned this part of my undertaking. I said I will buy a printed cover, ready to my hand, and stick it upon my shell, carefully constructed in the spherical form, and made smoota to receive it. Accordingly, I deputed a friend to buy me one in London. He called on three different globe-makers; but, to my great disappointment and sorrow, they each and all respectfully declined selling the cover. They answered the inquiry by saying that they must make the whole globe themselves, otherwise they would make no part of it. He was shown some fine specimens three feet in diameter, at thirty guineas the pair. This price is monstrous! How could a poor man ever expect to treat himself to such a costly article, however desirous he may be to enlarge the sphere of his knowledge in this direction. Now, I will presume to state, and that presumption shall be founded in much truthfulness, that an ordinary mechanic, under the guidance of, or with a few hints from, a scientific person, could make just as good a pair, for all practical purposes, as those alluded to, at a much smaller sum, the printing of the covers alone excepted; and assuredly in these days of printing and map-making, when the art has arrived at such perfection, the arrangement of type, to print covers for globes to suit any diameters, is surely not a secret known only to a few of the trade. This is a literary monopoly that should not be allowed to maintain its selfish position. I have written this letter to solicit your advice and assistance, and shall feel obliged and thankful by your noticing the matter in the “Educator,” in the hope of its attracting the attention of some kind and skilful correspondent, whose suggestions, auxiliary with your own, may enable me to surmount my difficulty. Indeed the instruments manufactured by opticians for scientific purposes are all inordinately high priced ; and why they are so it is difficult to assign a reason, sufficiently valid, unless it be to place them beyond the reach of those who are contemptuously styled the profanum vulgus. Their manufactured articles realise an enormous profit, say from 6 to 9 hundred percent. It is true that the manufacture consists of nearly all manual labour; but this labour is performed by mechanics, who do not get extraordinary wages. Opifex. [We have inserted this letter because we think the author is entitled to consideration for his manly attempt to execute one of the most useful apparatus ever invented for the illusoration of the science of Geography. Printed covers for globes ought to be sold with the utmost readiness to any one who chooses to take the trouble to construct them. There can be no reason in the world why they should not, except a wish to monopolise an extraordinary profit. The remarks about the instruments manufactured or sold by opticians are equally true. The progress of knowledge among the lower classes has been greatly retarded by the want of suitable apparatus at a reasonable price. The Society of Arts promised to do something to remove this difficulty; but we have not heard of the success of its attempts. We do not see why the stripes which cover the globes cannot be glyphographed like maps and printed like stereotype. We recommend our friend Mr. Hughes, of Aldine Chambers, Paternoster-row, to turn his attention to this point."
CAssELL's SHILLING EDITION or EucLID.—THE ELEMENTs of GeoMETRY, containing the First Six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth Books of Euclid, from the text of Robert Simson, M.D., Emeritus Professor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow; with Corrections, Auuotations, and Exercises, by Robert Wallace. A.M., of the same university, and Collegiate Tutor of the University of London, will be ready with the magazines for August, price is, in stir covers, or is.6d. meat cloth.
-------->~ * * in the homo ------------ *-os-os-----d two---------- ** * * few others - o ------sates Fo Resis os-Sorst- ---or the ** ********s ---- --to-one is a -state of Peo--- --------tio- it remains so long as it is ------~y. Now it is not the motion that keeps it in -------- has been drawn from a vein-mokind or ------------agulation. Nor does a state of rest ------ lead to any very speedy crimmediate coagula- --------out-ou-de-dos - the vital principle; but what --------is----able to determine. Out of the --vital power is no longerpre-ent with the blood and the fibrine -------the-lid state—Torrior: Are you serious --s your questions? You speak of the diameter of each air-cell - the lungs being-eo more than the oth part of an inch," and soofre-as the whole auber of these air-cells to three hundred millions.or -half of what we stated what do you mean by no more than oth part of an inch? That is to make each cell nearly as large again as wha-we-asserted, and hence your reduction of the aggregate. But these cells vary from rosthto oth part of an inch. Now take the mean of these two numbers added together, which is Tirth, and having thus uade each cell only one-half you supposed. your aggregate will come very near to our six hundred millions—JAMEs BATEs is not sufficiently readin archaeology to lift himself up into an authority. Dr. Ferguson is not ignorant of the labours of the younger Champollion, and the illustrious men who have followed in his steps. Notwithstanding all that has been done during the last twenty years, we hesitate not to affirm that much more yet remains to be done before any man will be qualified perfectly to read the hieroglyphics of Egypt; and until they are perfectly read, they never can be rightly interpreted. This even Mr. Gliddon admits. Nor he alone. It is the conviction of some of the most learned men of the age. Z. J. (Liverpool): Your drawings may be made upon common drawing paper, or upon drawing cartridge; the first is best for fine drawings, the latter where bold effect is required. The paper may be stretched on a board, or pasted on canvass or cotton, on a stretching frame, according to circumstances; either will be equally suitable for framing. Sketch your subject with a blacklead pencil, of medium hardness: the distance, trees, &c., very lightly; the buildings and other objects more in detail, and with greater firmness. These hints may suffice; it would occupy a large space to give you full directions. J. J. H. (Bradford): Query 3, p. 228, wrong. R. Yotso should buy alatin Dictionary. We have purchased a very good old one ourselves for a shilling at an old-book shop—J. GUTHEIE (Kelso): Query 3, P. 228, right in principle; but the sum is £1645s.-R. R. L. (Lynn): We would give chemistry, but wenust not leave any course unfinished; we have so many students working at our national system as it is, and working well.—W. S. BATE (Sheerness): Problems 4, 5, and 6, P. 228, all right; the first is not very correctly worded.—Discipults (Newbury): The day when the sun reaches the tropic of Cancer, is the longest day; because then the sun is longest above our horizon. This is usually on or about the 22nd of June, but not always exactly on the same day, because about six hours of the sun's annual march or periodic time is neglected every year, till leap year comes round, when 4 times 6 hours, or a day, is added in February, to bring the points of the sun's course exactly to the same days again. But this subject will be more fully and clearly treated in our lessons on astronomy. Riddle's complete Dictionary (Latin-English and English-Latinj is published by Longman, at a guinea and a half. The English-Latin is sold at the half-guinea, and the Latin-English at the guinea. There is a diamond Latin-English by the same at four shillings; but a good old LatinEnglish Dictionary, and sometimes one with both parts, may be had very cheap at an old book-stall. The Latin Key will solve all his difficulties.-R. H. (Bolton): Our lessons in bookkeeping, &c. will be quite in time; let him go on with the English as fast as possible.—A c. (Blackburn): We think the French the easier language. A few months, hard study will make a tolerable proficient of an intelligent person.— John Thuklow (Minories) : Query 4, p. 22s, right; but too long.— J.B. (Newcastle-on-Tyne): The difference between a foot square and a square foot is nothing; but the difference between 8 feet square and a square feet, is 6 square feet; and so of all similar expressions, except where unity or 1 occurs.-J. B. C. (Largs): Queries 3 and 4 not rightly solved. Practise the English mode of pronunciation.— Lessur (Glasgow): Best thanks for his interest in our work, and kind suggestions.—J. BRIDDox (Bonsall): Pronounce the Latin words as if they were English, excepting where finale and es occurs, and pronounce these as additional syllables; thus pronounce mare, the sea, in two syllables like Mary; and dives in two syllables, thus: di-ves.—F. WARNER o: : Query 3, p. 223, wrong.—IRREsolute (Gateshead): Latin again, and stick to it; then French.-W. HALsreAD (Bury):
*Early to bed, and early to rise, Is the way to be healthy, wealthy, and wise." | Study Geometroin the morning, and English in the afternoon or evening. | Cheerful conversation at dinner is better than reading or any other | employments and this is a species of exercise of great importance. As to taking exercise-your daily avocation should give enough of this or when you can do it. take a walk in the open air with an intelurom lfriend—Joss Croris, and Axicts LITERARUM: A French dictionm |: talked of—UxE soxx's FILLE: We always judge for ourselves an for our readers: but we cannot always give the grounds of our judoment: she-sfsee the reason: true etiquette requires us to be silen-W. Sottox (Leamington): Query 3, p. 223, not right—C MTCREADY (Billsborough): There is no rule for all cases. Lookinn Hutton's or Barlow's Mathematical Dictionary.art. Magic Square--S.M. (20mch): Solution right: go on and prosper; don’t be afraidwords, search their meaning; and when you fail, ask us.-G. M. Burr [Kentish-town): An index to the volume will put all right— |G. B. should read-Tytlers Elements of General History,” with adds. |tions to the present time, or Keightley's Elements of the same things | both are good works-AMAtos MATHEMATIcAL (Montrose): Queries |sands, p. 223, right–LEARNER (Manchester) asks the following ques|tion. which our mathematical friends will be so good as to solve for us. | A. B. and C. can do a piece of work in 8 days, which A and B can do in 12 days, and B and Coca-do in 16 days; in what time could each do |it separately 3–J. Sownrx's solutions are all excellent.—c. Riser (Leicester): Query 3, p. 22s, not right—H. N. and his friends are under a grievous mistake: Dr. Beard's Lessons in English are an upon the grammar of the language:–ALICE: The "French Lessons-to be had by post for seven stamps are not the same as those in the P. E. but they form a very useful introduction, especially as to the pronunciation. Send your address to this office, and you may rely upon receiving them.—W. C.W. (Rochdale): Query 3. p 223, wrong–H. J. Raoui. J.D. (Reading), J.B. (Hulme). Juvrxis Disciptics, and F. S. Proser (Kennington); Query 3, p. 223, all wrong–E. C. Hughes (Islington): Queries 1 and 4, p. 233, nearly right—J. D. (Reading): The esses: Latin Testament is Beza's, or the Latin vulgate—W. B. N. (Bidefore, should buy the “French Leesons.” for the pronunciation, published here, price 7d., including postage. Get Tomlinson’s “Mechanics" if you want an elementary book, and Wallace’s “Commercial Bookkeeping”— Qentis Pangle (Glasgow): Received.—W.H. (Colne): Study English first–W. W. J. (Penzance): We recommend him to procure the Rev. Greville Ewing's Greek Lexicon, and to study the short grammar prefixed to it. This grammar is essentially a translation of Moors Greek Grammar originally written in Latin, and is decidedly the most plain and simple ever published. Thus armed, after a short time, he may begin the study of the Greek Testament, the most important book every placed in the hands of men, whether for time or eternity. The first edition of Ewing's Lexicon is small and cheap, but it may not be easily had. ONE who Wishes to GET Fokward: Study English and French, cr English and Geometry. Get the Shilling Euclid–R-SMITH (Cardiff): Cur occidis and curoxiditis are both right; it is our English idiom that is infault: we say you when we mean thou.-A Wellwissert (Manchester): We advise him to buy a patent-lever watchin preference to others—If ARCHIMEDes (Dublin) reads the answers to correspondents, he will find his question answered long ago.—CHARLEs CLEFT (Southampton): The Scriptural account of the deluge appears to an ordinary reader to imply its universality; geology says no. The best proof that nature alone is not sufficient to show to us the existence of our God, is that HE has given us the Bible. The temptation of the Saviour was indeed real, and it was a step in the preperation of him as a substitute and a ransom for us. The first question is not necessarily an article of faith, and is, therefore, of comparatively small importance. The last two are highly important, and we hope that our answers win set our readers athinking in the right direction.—G. D., Plasterer (Camden-town), secretary to a large body of mechanics, is strongly advised to study the English language, the Arithmetic, the Geometry, the Geography, &c., in the P.E. He and his friends will get all the kinds of lessons they want in due time.—GUILLAt MEs (London), and MUNao (Edinburgh), should study both languages if possible.—A Workman (Bradford): The trades and manufactures of England are treated of in the "Illusurated Exhibitor.”
Printed and Published by John Cassall, La Belle Sauvage Yard, Ludgatehill, London.-July 31, 1852.
CLASS XIII.-POLY ANDRIA. Plants bearing flowers with numerous Stamens, arising from the receptacle.
The receptacle, it should be remembered, is the fleshy expanded body at the bottom of the flower, into which its different parts are inserted.
In this order are arranged very dissimilar vegetable products in certain respects, though, of course, agreeing in others, at some of which we must rapidly glance. The herb Christopher, or bane-berry, grows in woods and shady places in Yorkshire, flowers in May and June, in a close cluster, with white petals, and yields purplish black and poisonous berries. Toads are said to be attracted to this plant by its fetid odour.
The common celandine grows in thickets and waste ground, generally near houses; its flowers, in umbels, on long stalks with yellow petals, appear in May and June. The juice of every part of the plant is yellow and acrid; it removes warts, and is said to cure the itch.
Of the horned poppy there are three kinds—the yellow, the scarlet, and the violet. The first produces large flowers, with bright yellow petals, in July and August, and grows near the sea-coast. The scarlet one springs up there also, with its petals of that colour, with a black spot at its base, appearing in June and July. While the violet is found in corn-fields, in Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, and puts forth its large violet-blue petals in May and June. Still more numerous are the diversities of the common poppy. The field-poppy was named by the Greeks the corn-rose, from its growing among grain; and on this account it was considered sacred to the goddess Ceres, whose garland was formed of ears of corn and the red poppy. It was offered to her, in her rites, by pagans, and she was sometimes represented as holding poppies in her hand; and so acceptable was this plant supposed to be to this }.} divinity, that one of her names was derived from it. The name papaver is said to be derived from the Celtic papa, signifying pap,-the soft food given to infants, among which it was usual formerly to boil poppy-seeds, in order to induce sleep. We have six wild
*pecies, found sometimes on hedge-banks and road-sides; but we must look chiefly to the fields for the
Like the common scarlet poppy, it is slightly narcotic, and the foliage of both species has been used as a culinary vegetable. In England, the scarlet flowers of our wild poppies are collected and made into a syrup, which is used in soups, porridge, and gruel. Rhaeas added as the specific name, papawer rhaas is derived from the Greek word “to flow,” or “fall,”—and is well suited to describe these plants, as the blossoms of all the poppies are very fragile. The round rough-headed poppy, found in some of our chalky and sandy fields, is scarce. A yellow poppy grows in rocky places in Devonshire, Wales, and Ireland; and in some of the corn-fields of England, particularly in Cumberland and Westmoreland, a white poppy may be observed. Pliny states that the Romans made incisions in the head of the poppy, after it had done flowering, and caught the liquid on wool, unless it ran in small quantities and became a gum, in which case it was gathered by the thumb-nail. In the time of this writer, opium appears to have been much used; he says he has known many die in their sleep from taking this medicine, and he names some who, by its means, committed suicide; but he observes, moreover, that physicians had discovered in opium many valuable properties. Of its pernicious and fatal use in this country, there are, unhappily, many examples; but in China, opium is madeincalculably destructive. The white water-lily adorns slow rivers and ponds with its beautiful flowers, in the months of July and August. The calyx is composed of four large leaves, coloured on the upper surface; the petals of the corolla are numerous, often as many as fifteen, and delicately white, so that, in this respect, it has been regarded as the queen of British flowers. One provision for the increase of this plant ought not to be overlooked. As soon as these splendid water-flowers have perfected their fructification, by absorbing their pollen, their long stalks, which always grow in proportion to the depth of the water, in order to raise the corollas above it, refuse their support, and the flowers sink down many feet below the surface.—There are two other kinds of water-lily well-deserving of notice. The yellow water-lily grows in rivers and pools, and flowers in July; the blossoms, which are about two inches in diameter, and of a golden hue, having a strong smell, which has been compared to that of brandy, or some kinds of wine. The lesser yellow water-lily grows.in lakes. The flowers, which are of a pale yellow, tinged with green, are scarcely more than an inch in diameter. The lime or linden, the most beautiful, graceful, and fragrant of our native trees, was well known to the ancient Romans, and is found not only in England, but in most parts of Europe. Several species of this tree have been enumerated, but Mr. Loudon is disposed to class them all as so many varieties of the