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Tika Europea, differing only in the size of the leaves. Evelyn says in his "Sylva:""It is of all others the most proper and beautiful for walks, as producing an upright body, smooth and even bark, ample leaf, sweet blossom, the delight of bees, and a goodly shade at the distance of eighteen or twenty feet. Besides its unparalleled beauty for walks, its other perfections are-that it will grow in almost all gardens; that it lasts long; that it soon heals its scars; that it affects uprightness; that it resists a storm; that it seidom becomes hollow."

The flowers, which are of a greenish-white colour, in loose panicled cymes, and come forth in June and July, are very abundant, and larger than those of most other timber-trees. Cowper has alluded to

"The lime, at dewy eve diffusing odours;"

and its stem has about the middle, three dark, smooth, green leaves, very beautifully formed, having veins tinged with crimson. The flower, if bruised, will raise a blister on the skin; to cattle, it is poisonous.

There are three other species of wild anemone, blooming during April and May, all beautiful in appearance, but all possessing very acrimonious, and some even poisonous, qualities. One, the pasque-flower anemone, grows in elevated open pastures, especially in chalky soils; the stalks are four or five inches high. The blossom, which is much larger than that of the wood anemone, is very silky, and of a delicate lilac colour.

The lesser celandine, growing in shady places, and common in meadows, flowers in March, April, and May, with petals of a shining, golden yellow. Wordsworth thus expresses his

in a fine, calm summer's evening, the perfume they emit is feelings in reference to this humble plant :fragrant beyond expression, which led Keats to say,

"Grateful the incense of the lime-tree bower."

Pliny speaks of

"Lime-trees for a thousand uses sought;"

but these are far beyond our present enumeration. The honey obtained from the flowers of the lime is said to be the finest in the world. The fruit of the linden-tree, when mixed with the flowers, produces a paste not unlike that of cocoa. Evelyn says, "the berries, reduced to powder, cure dysentery, and stop bleeding at the nose. The distilled water is good against the epilepsy, apoplexy, vertigo, trembling of the heart, and gravel." Schroder recommends a mucilage of the bark for wounds; and adds that the juice of the leaves fixes colours. And to mention only one other use of this beautiful and valuable product of the vegetable kingdom:

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Smooth linden best obeys

The carver's chisel; best his curious work
Displays in all its nicest touches."

The hoary dwarf rock-rose grows on elevated rocks, and in mountainous pastures in Wales and in the north of England: its petals, inversely egg-shaped, and of a bright yellow colour, appear in May and June. The common rock-rose is a shrub, growing in hilly pastures, on gravelly soil, which flowers in July and August. The white mountain rock-rose is a rare plant, sometimes found in Somersetshire and Devonshire.


The entire-leaved poony has stems about two feet high, simple, round, and smooth; flowers with crimson petals, almost four inches broad; and a knobbed root. It grows on islands in the Severn, and flowers in May and June, but is not truly wild.

The stem of the field larkspur is nearly two feet high, erect, leafy, and branched. It grows in corn-fields, and flowers in July. A good blue ink, it is said, may be obtained from the juice of the petals.

Common wolf's-bane, or monk's-hood, is found in several places in England, though not truly native, and flowers in June and July. The stem, which is erect and leafy, terminates in a cluster of dark-blue flowers.

"Pansies, lilies, kingcups, daisies,
Let them live upon their prises;
Long as there's a sun that sets,
Primroses wild have their glory;
Long as there are violets,

They will have a place in story:
There's a flower that shall be mine,
'Tis the little celandine.

"See its varnish'd golden flowers
Peeping through the chilling showers.
Ere a leaf is on the bush,

In the time before the thrush
Has a thought about its nest,

Thou wilt come with half a call,
Spreading out thy glossy breast,
Like a careless Prodigal;
Telling tales about the sun,

When we've little warmth or none.
"Comfort have thee of thy merit,
Kindly, unassuming spirit!
Careless of thy neighbourhood,

Thou dost show thy pleasant face
On the moor, and in the wood,

In the lane, there's not a place,
Howsoever mean it be,

But 'tis good enough for thee."

Of the crowfoots, there is a very large family, defying all present attempts at description. Among them are the buttercups, with which we are so familiar. There are two species of this plant, both very common in our fields and pastures, which the botanist can readily distinguish, while the difference is seldom noticed by the ordinary observer. The more common of the two, in the pastures near London, and near the seacoasts of Scotland, is the bulbous crowfoot, or buttercup, at once recognised on digging up the plant, from its having a bulbous root, somewhat like a leek or a small onion; while the acrid species, commonly called the upright meadow crowfoot, has a fibrous root, without any bulging. But without digging up the plants, the two sorts may be instantly distinguished by the calyx or cup, which supports the yellow petals of the blossom: this cup having its five leaves upright or nearly so in the acrid sort, and bent downwards in the bulbous species.

It is a common, but most erroneous opinion, that the fine yellow colour of butter in spring is owing to the cows feeding on the buttercups in the pastures, and hence the name borne by these flowers; while the slightest observation will show that they carefully avoid these plants. If we consider the probable intention of Divine Providence in rendering these poigar-sonous plants so common, we infer that it may be to afford

The common columbine, with its pendulous, purple flowers, appearing in June, grows in meadows, pastures, and thickets. It has an erect stem, two or three feet in height, five capsules of a cylindrical form, and five equal nectaries, situated alternately between the petals. Cultivation frequently increases the number of these nectaries, and diminishes that of the petals. The blossoms of the wild plant are blue, but the den exhibits them of various hues.


The wood anemone, though unknown in many parts of Essex, and some other counties, is generally common in England. The ancients called it anemos, because its delicate flowers quivered in the fierce breezes of March, and its shining seeds were carried about on the air; and from this word our English name is taken. In France, it retains its old appellation of wind-flower. Though frail when gathered, and dying quickly, the anemone continues longer in bloom than many other flowers. Its blossom is white and star-shaped,

protection to the grasses, and other herbage eaten by cattle. For were the whole green sward of the field composed of nothing besides grass, it might be eaten so bare as to destroy the roots, and produce a serious scarcity of forage; whereas, by the mingling of the poisonous buttercups with the grass, the cattle are prevented from grubbing up the latter to so great an extent as to injure its subsequent productiveness as the season advances. This is a very interesting view of the ordinance of God; and might be illustrated by many similar facts.

We add only, in concluding our present Lesson, that to the order of plants now under consideration, belongs that splendid cultivated flower, the magnolia,

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I. The personal pronouns (in the 1st and 2nd persons) are often used reflexively; and are to be rendered by our compounds, myself, thyself, ourselves, yourselves. Ex.: Ich lobe

mich; I praise myself. Du lobft Dich; thou praisest thyself.

Bir loben uns; we praise ourselves. 3hr lobt Euch, &c.

II. The reflexive form of the personal pronouns, in the third person singular and plural, is sich (Latin se), and answers to our objective, himself, herself, itself, themselves; its gender and number being determined by the subject of the verb. Ex.: Er erlaubt sich; he allows (to) himself. Sie erlaubt sich; she allows (to) herself. Der Knabe lobt sich; the boy praises himself. Sie alle leben sich, THEY all praise themselves, &c. (See § 60. 4.)

III. A personal pronoun of one gender is frequently translated by one of another. Ex.: Der Tisch ist gut, aber er ist nicht gre; the table is good, but it is not large. Das Märchen ist schön, aber es ist nicht fleißig; the girl is beautiful, but she is not industrious. Diese Beter schreibt nicht gut, sie ist zu weid; this pen does not write well, it is too soft (limber). Note.-This respects merely the translation. If, for instance, we were to transle the last German sentence according to the German idiom, the English for it would be, "This pen does not write well, SHE is too soft." Now such a rendering would be contrary to the English idiom, and therefore on translating German into English, we try to come as near the English idiom as possible; although it ought to be remembered, that the dif ference of gender, as referring to the same noun, does never take place in German.

DECLENSION OF Niemand (with examples of each case). R. Riemand; nobody. ($ 59. 3.) Niemand ist hier; nobody is here. G. Niemants; of nobody. Niemants Hut ist hier; nobody's hat is here.

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the third person singular: the corresponding parts in the plural, being made by the addition of the letter n. The second person singular is formed by adding to the root the letters test: the plural of the same person taking tet.

The root is found by removing the letters en from the form of the present infinitive: thus, from loben (to praise), take en, and you get lob, which is the root.

The Present Participle is made by adding to the root the syllable end; as, lob+end, praising.

the augment ge ($ 69. 2.4.) and suffixing the letter t (sometimes The Perfect Participle is produced by prefixing to the root et): thus, ge+lob+t, praised.

The Perfect tense is formed by combining the perfect participle with the present indicative of the auxiliary haben or sein, to HAVE or to BE: as, ich habe gelobt, I have praised.

The Pluperfect is formed by combining the perfect participle with the imperfect of haben or sein : as, ich hatte gelobt, I had praised. The First Future is formed by adding to the present of the infinitive, the present indicative of the auxiliary werben, to BECOME: as, ich werde loben, I shall praise.

The Second Future is formed by adding to the perfect of the infinitive, the present indicative of the auxiliary werden: as, ich werde gelobt haben, I shall have praised.


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wir haben gelobt, we have praised; ihr habet gelobt, you have praised; fie haben gelobt, they have praised.

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lobet or lobt ihr, praise you; Loben fic, let them praise.

Lobe du, praise thou; Lobe er, let him praise; The preceding paragraph must be well understood and the verb thoroughly mastered, before proceeding any further. The pupil will derive much benefit from working out other verbs

after the above model. The vocabularies will furnish sufficient examples.

the end of the sentence, whether affirmative or interrogative. V. In compound tenses, the participle or infinitive is put at Ex.: Ich batte ren Brief gelobt, I had praised the letter; atte ich den Brief gelebt? had I praised the letter? Wen werten Sie loben? whom will you praise? Werten Sie ihn gelebt haben? will you have praised him?

VI. In English we have three forms for the present tense; he

tem Scila

praises, he does praise, he is praising. The German has for all'i işte ben tapferen Soldaten, und nicht den Junier and Grelman. 10. these but one form: er lobt. The present, besides its ordinary Die Arbeiten in meiner Jugend haben meinen Körper geñärft. 11. Del use, is often used in relation to past time, when the period re- Greinen warnt vie Menschen vor (§ 116. List.) ter Sine. ferred to is still unfinished. Ex.: 36 wohne ichon ein ganzes Jahr in Ferlin, I reside (have resided) already a whole year in Berlin. Ich habe das Biert nur eine Boche, I have (had) the horse only a week. The present is moreover often used for the future. Ex.: Morgen gebe ich nach Wien, to morrow I am going to Vienna. 34 gebe Ihnen einen Gulden für das Buch, I (will) give you a florin for the book.

VII. The imperfect is used to denote continuance of being, action or passion; as, te lacht bei Leipzig dauerte trei Tage, the battle near Leipsic continued three days. Hence it comes, also, to be used in expressing what is customary or habitual; as, Die alten Deutschen jagten gern, unt führten eft Arieg mit ten Rimern, the ancient Germans were fond of hunting, and often carried on war with the Romans. Kindred to this, is its use in cases where one action or event is to be represented as simultaneous with another: as, er starb, als er auf dem Lante war, he died, while he was in the country; er frielte, als ich arbeitete, he played while I worked. (See $ 138.)

VIII. The perfect describes an action as finished without reference to another action, and unlike the same tense in English, may be used with an adverb that denotes past as well as present time. Ex.: Gr bat ihn gelebt, he has praised him. Er hat ihn geftern gelebt, he (has) praised him yesterday. Er hat ihn heute

gelebt, he has praised him to-day. (See § 139.)

IX. The second future is often used in reference to past time to indicate a probability. Ex.: Er wird es gehört haben, he has probably heard it; literally, he will have heard it.

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Ecele, f. soul;
Seben, to see;

Sommer, m. summer;
Start, f. city;
Stärfen, to strengthen;
Stroh, n. straw;
Stube, f. room;
Sünte, f. sin;
Tapfer, adj. brave,

Täuschen, to deceive,
Chau, m. dew;
Trefter, m. comforter;
Trunk, m. draught;
Un'gerathen, ill-bred;
Unglück, n. misfortune;
Vor, before, from;
Vorsichtig, adj. cau-


Wachen, to watch;

Warnen, to warn ; Schimmer, m. glitter; Welf, adj. withered. (A) sweet music (attunes) makes the heart glad and cheerful. The friends sought me in the garden.

Eine schöne Musik stimmt das Herz froh und heiter. Die Freunde suchten mich in tem


Der Kaufmann hat den Erelstein sehr hoch geschägt. Die Freundin wird diesen Nach'mit. tag nach der Start kommen. Er wird vie Nachricht schon gehört' Haben.

The merchant (has) prized the precious stone very highly. The friend will come to the city this afternoon. He will already have heard the


1. Ich liebe das Kind des Nachbars. 2. Der Vater hat mit tiefen Brief geschickt. 3. Ich werde den Freund warnen. 4. Ich habe die ganze Racht bei dem franken Bruder gewacht. 5. Die Jäger jagten gestern Morgen in dem Walde, und werden diesen Nachmittag in der Nähe des Dorfes jagen. 6. Mein Freund liebte den Ruhm und den Schimmer. 7. Er hat eine Rose gepflückt und sie seiner Freundin geschenkt. geschickter Maurer rieser Stadt hat dieses schöne Haus gebaut. 9. Napoleon

• Simultaneous-existing at the same time.

8. Ein

1. The teacher presented a beautiful book to the scholar. 2.



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She had deceived her friend. 3. The children have probably (See No. IX. above) grieved the old father. 4. An ill-bred child grieves (the) father and (the) mother. 5. I have heard Stimme thy voice in the room. 6 He has probably tested the messenger zu dem Freunde before he sent him to the friend. 7. The peasant has covered his house with straw. 8. This misfortune has probably taught gesehen viele him to be cautious. 9. I have seen many fishes in the river. 10. A cool draught strengthens in summer the body, as the dew the withered grass of the field. 11. (The) pain loves the moon as a comforter, (the) solitude loves it as a companion, and (the) piety as the residence of a pure soul.


als einen


in dem



QUESTIONS. 1. What peculiarities of the pronouns are stated in this Section? 2. What is said of sich? 3. How is the root of a verb obtained? 4 How are the participles formed? 5. How are the several tenses formed? 6. Can you form the several participles and tenses of the verb loben?



OUR present lesson is to be on the nervous system, and is one of great importance. This system includes the brain, the spinal marrow, and the sympathetic ganglia, or those accumulations of nervous substance whose influence is confined more particularly to the tissues contained within the cavity of the body. For a long time, the brain was regarded as nothing more than a larger development of the spinal marrow, and then the spinal marrow was held to be but a lengthening out of the brain. The fact is, that neither proceeds from the other ;the two are merely connected, and form independent centres of nervous power. No parts of the living body have excited greater interest than the study of the brain and the nerves. Till the time of Sir Charles Bell, it was taken for granted, "that all parts of the nervous system had certain general properties belonging to them in common; so that all were considered alike in function. The brain, including the spinal marrow, was looked upon as a common store, from which body, and into which others such as sensation-were received, certain powers-such as that of motion-were issued to the

the nerves being regarded as the conductors; and, in conformity with that view, it was further supposed that any part of the brain, or any single nerve, had equal power with all the rest of bestowing the numerous properties commonly assigned to the nervous system." This Sir Charles doubted. In his judgment, it was contrary to reason to suppose that two functions, so essentially distinct from each other as motion and sensation, could belong to the same nerve. For example:-I will to move my hand;-this volition or willingness originates in the brain, and the force, whatever it is, acts upon the nerve, the nerve conveys it to the muscle, and the muscle so acted upon leads to the motion of the hand. In this instance, the power proceeds from within to without. But I prick my finger ;the impression is received by the nerve expanded in the skin of the finger, is conveyed by that nerve to the sensorium, or that part of the brain which is the seat of sensation, and the mind becomes conscious of pain. In this case, the course of the nervous agency is from without to within. The force which

• From the Greek word GAGGLION, swelling or increase.

causes muscular contraction, passes along a nerve in one direction; and that which causes sensation, in a contrary direction. The question is, can the same nerve perform both functions at once?

It was after years of intense study and application that Sir Charles Bell answered this question. His idea is, that "the nerves of the body possess distinct and appropriate functions, corresponding with the parts of the brain and spinal marrow with which they are connected at their ROOTS; and when a nerve, which appears simple, is found to bestow more than one endowment, it is a sign that that nerve has more than one origin from the brain, and consists, in reality, of several nerves joined together." He maintained that each nerve of sense is limited to receiving a distinct and appropriate impression:that the nerve of vision can only give ideas of light and colour; the nerve of hearing, impressions of sound; the nerve of smelling, the perception of odours, and so on; and that these special properties depended on each of the nerves of sense having its root in a distinct portion of the brain, provided and adapted for receiving its own peculiar impression. To establish his theory, he took a nerve of the arm, and, tracing it from the arm towards its origin in the spinal marrow, he found that, as it approached that origin, it subdivided into two parts or roots; that one of these roots entered a division of nervous substance distinct from the other; that the root which passed to the posterior division of the spinal marrow had a ganglion or an accumulation of nervous substance upon it, and bestowed sensation alone; while the root which went to the anterior division gave motion alone. While the great fact was thus brought out that the nerves of sensation are distinct from those of motion, Dr. Marshall Hall laid claim to the discovery of another set of nerves, which he calls the EXCITO-MOTORY, and which have their root or origin in the true spinal marrow; whereas, according to his theory, the nerves of sensation and volition only run along the course of the spinal cord. These excitor nerves have peculiar excitabilities, and pursue their course principally from internal surfaces to the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, or termination of the true spinal marrow; while the motor nerves pursue a reflex course from that medulla to certain muscles. Hence their name. The nerves of sense may act spontaneously, but these are always excited. Besides these two grand divisions, there is a third distribution known by the name of the ganglionic or sympathetic nerves, which are peculiar to the viscera of the chest and abdomen.* Let us try and simplify this a little.

We have the spinal cord, the top of which is called THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA, or the spinal marrow lengthened in its upward course till it becomes united with the brain.

In the brain we have the CEREBRUM, or that portion of it which is situated in the front and top of the skull, and which is the seat of sensation. We have also the CEREBELLUM, or that portion which is situated in the back of the skull, which is divided into two lobes, and which is inseparable from the power of volition.

among the viscera of the abdomen, and intended to unite in sympathy those parts by which the various organic functions are performed; such as secretion, absorption, circulation, assimilation of the food, the growth and decay of the body, and so on. But this is a point which we leave for the present. Sir Charles Bell was of opinion, that there are certain nerves which pass off from a circumscribed central portion of the nervous system-the medulla oblongata-and diverge to different parts of the head, neck, throat, and chest,-or those stru tures which together form a mechanism for respiration-that such an arrangement is not to be found in the lowest animals, but would seem to be a gradual development in the animal kingdom, until in man it becomes the organ of Voice and Expression. These he named RESPIRATORY NERVES. Of his numerous examples, we select the two following "Observe the condition of a man convulsed with laughter, and consider what are the organs or system of parts affected. He draws a full breath, and throws it out in interrupted, short, and audible cachinnations; the muscles of his throat, neck, and chest, are agitated; the diaphragm is especially convulsed. He holds his sides, and, from the violent agitation, he is incapable of a voluntary act. It is impossible to avoid the conclusion, that it is the respiratory organs and their muscles which are affected during the paroxysm of laughter. "There is no state of suffering from which we can so well infer the nature of the agitation of the frame as from hydrophobia. The patient being sensible of his condition; and calm, and aware of the experiment which is to be made upon him by his physician when he calls for a glass of water, cannot resist the influence of the disease. He shudders-his face assumes an expression of extreme horror and alarm-convulsive gulpings take place in his throat;-he flies to some support, and clings to the bedpost in an agony of suffocation. This I have witnessed in a powerful man. I have had the pain of seeing the disease in a girl of eighteen. The irritability of the skin being increased to an awful degree, so that the touch of her long hair falling on the naked body excited the paroxysms. These recurred with a sense of choking, with sudden and convulsive heavings of the chest, a shuddering, and catching of the muscles of breathing, and an appalling expression of suffering. The paroxysms in such a case becoming more frequent and severe, finally exhaust the powers of life. In these convulsions, it is the nervous and muscular systems belonging to the natural function of respiration which are affected; and as they are also the organs of expression, the condition is seen, not only in the countenance, but in the throat and chest, to be that of extreme horror."

Connected with this nervous system we have a particular structure made up in part of small vesicles, and in part of minute fibres. The vesicles are found in masses, and mingle with the fibrous structure. These masses constitute nervous centres, being the organs in which it is supposed that the nervous force is generated, and from which that force is sent forth and distributed in the body. The fibres form the nerves or cords of communication, which connect the various nervous The nerves arising from these two portions of the brain, and centres. They convey nervous force to the several parts of the from the spinal marrow, are called CEREBRO-SPINAL NERVES. body in which they are distributed, and transmit to the nerThey pass off from the whole length of the spinal cord, at in-vous centres those impressions which are made by external tervals of about an inch from each other, and go in regular succession to the back of the head, the neck, the upper extremities, the whole trunk, and the lower extremities. Each of these nerves is composed of two roots; one for motion, and the other for sensation.

In addition to these, there is THE FIFTH CEREBRAL NERVE, whose larger root confers sensation on all parts of the head not supplied by the superior spinal nerves; while its lesser root gives the power of action to those muscles which we employ in mastication or the chewing of our food.

Then come THE EXCITO-MOTORY NERVES, which arise from the medulla oblongata, or true spinal marrow. The excitement passes from some internal surface to the medulla or marrow, and from thence the motive-power is conveyed to the muscles to be affected and moved.

Lastly, comes THE SYMPATHETIC SYSTEM. This consists of ganglia, or accumulations of nervous substance, scattered

Viscera, from the Latin VISCUS, the bowels or entrails, but including the heert, liver, and lungs. ABDOMEN is also from the Latin-and signifies the belly.


These nerve-fibres are full of nervous matter, are arranged in parallel or interlacing bundles, and the whole nerve is enclosed in a sheath or tube, which is composed externally of a very delicate transparent membrane. Within this tube is a hollow cylinder, of a substance which differs from the matter that occupies the centre of the tube-the centre being occupied by a transparent substance, which is the essential component of the nervous fibre. The diameter of these little tubes is between both and 6th part of an inch. It may, however, be as much as th, and as little in some few instances as 16th. They are larger in the nerve-trunks than in the brain.

Now what is the purpose, design, or end of this grand nervous system? It may be that it has little to do with those operations or functions which go to make up the vegetative or organic life of the animal. For example:-it may have little to do with the reduction of food in the stomach, since that is a purely chemical operation produced by the solvent power of the gastric juice. It may have nothing more to do with the process of absorption, this being a purely vegetative operation,

In what way does it assist in the process of digestion, or secretion, or reproduction?

Is there any physical peculiarity in man which is not found in the lowest animals?

Why has man been endowed with the organ of voice and the power of expression in so high a degree?


by which the nutritive materials are taken into the respective
vessels:-nor with the process of assimilation, which is effected
by each cell taking up into itself its own appropriate element:
-nor with the circulation of the blood, since the contractions
of the heart result from its own inherent powers, so as to con-
tinue these contractions after it has been completely detached
from the body :-nor with the act of nutrition, since, as in the
case of the embryo itself, every tissue draws from the circula-
ting blood the materials for its continued growth and develop-
ment, by incorporating these with its own substance :-nor
with the process of secretion, since the separation of certain
products from the blood, is effected by cells situated upon free
surfaces :-nor with the interchange of oxygen and carbonic acid
in the function of respiration, which takes place between the
external atmosphere and the venous blood when brought into
mutual relation in the lungs :-nor with the function of repro-
duction, which is effected by the inherent powers of the parts
concerned, at the expense of the materials supplied by the
blood. Still, there must be in all animals various accessory
changes which are requisite for their growth and development," French Revolution."
and which can be secured only by the peculiar powers with

which animals are endowed.

PREFIXES (continued).

De, of Latin origin, denoting motion downward, has, in combination, the following meanings, being modifications of its original import.

1. Down, as in decrease, develop (Lat. volvo, I roll); dethrone, to put down a king.

extraordinary question of state, and wholly out of the law."-Burke, "The question of dethroning or cashiering of kings will always be an also, in debase (from de, and battre, Fr. to beat), which originally meant to lower in regard to material things; e. g.,

Thus, to commence with digestion. Dr. Carpenter says:"This preliminary process, which the nature of the food of the plant renders unnecessary for its maintenance, can only be accomplished [in the animal] by the introduction of the food into a cavity or sac, in which it may be submitted to the action of the solvent fluid. The operation of grasping and swallowing the food, whenever it is performed, is accomplished through the agency of the nervous system; and if it be checked by the loss of nervous power, the digestive process must cease for want of material. So again, although interchange of gaseous ingredients between the atmosphere and the circulating fluid may take place with sufficient energy in plants and 2. From, as in debar, to bar or keep from, to prevent.

"King Edward the Third, in the sixteenth year of his reign, proclaimed that no man should sell wool-fels or leather under such a price, so that these staple commodities might not be debased."-State Trials, 1606. The application of the word debase to a moral influence is exemplified in this citation :

"Sam. So let her go. God sent her to debase me,
And aggravate my folly, who committed
To such a viper his most sacred trust

Of secresie, my safety, and my life."

Milton, "Samson Agonistes."

"His song was all a lamentable lay,

Of great unkindness, and of usage hard,

Of Cythia the lady of the sea,

Which from her presence faultless him debarr'd."-Spenser.

which the prefix has the form of an intensive; to make clear, that 3. Out, thoroughly, as in declare (de and clarus, Lat. clear), in is, by utterance.

lower animals, through the mere exposure of the general surface to the atmosphere, yet we find that in all the higher animals, certain movements are requisite for the continual renewal of the air or water which are in contact with one side of the respiratory surface, and of the blood which is in relation with the other-for the direction of which movements, a NERVOUS SYSTEM is requisite. In the excretory processes, moreover, the removal of the effete matters from the body can 4. Not, with a force like un in undo, reversing the sense; as, only be accomplished, in the higher animals, by certain combined movements, the object of which is to take up the decompose, to do the opposite of composing, that is compounding; products that are separated by the action of the proper secret-decollation (de and collum, Lat. the neck) un-necking, that is being cells, and to carry them to the exterior of the body, there heading, decorticate (de and cortex, Lat. bark), to strip off the bark; defame, &c.

to be set free; and those combined movements can only be effected by the agency of THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Lastly:-in the act of reproduction, the arrangement of the sexual organs in animals requires that a certain set of movements should be adapted to set free the germ from the body of the male, and convey it to the ovule of the female; and further, that the ovum should be expelled from the body of the latter in a state of more or less advanced development. For these movements, a special arrangement is made in the construction of THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, and in the application of its peculiar powers."

This does not exhaust the purpose or end of the nervous system. But we must reserve other equally interesting and important facts for our next lesson.


What are the seats or centres of the nervous system?
What is the relation of the brain and spinal marrow?
Can motion and sensation belong to the same nerve?
In what consisted Sir Charles Bell's discovery?
To what discovery did Dr. Marshall Hall lay claim?

"Bless ye men that cursen you, preye ye for men that defamen you."-Wiclif, "Test. Luke vi.""

Deca, of Greek origin, meaning ten, is found in decade, a period of ten years; in decalogue (deca and logos, Gr. word, discourse), the ten words or commandments of God. Deca is found also in the Latin form of Decem, as in decemviri (decem and vir, a man), the Decemvirs.

"By this time were the ambassadors returned with the Athenian lawes. And therefore the tribunes (at Rome) were so much the more earnest and urgent that once at length they would set on to describe and put down some lawes. And agreed it was that there should be created decemvirs above all appeale."-Holland, "Livy."

Demi, of Latin origin, in the forms demi, semi, hemi, a half, is found in demy, in semibreve, and in hemisphere.

"Thou wouldst make an absolute courtier, and the firm fixture of thy foot, would give an excellent motion to thy gait, in a semi-circled farthingale.".-Shakspeare," Merry Wives of Windsor."

A farthingale is a hooped petticoat or gown.

Dia, of Greek origin, through (so as to divide), is found in

What is meant by excito-motory nerves; and where must we look diameter, a measure through, from one side of the circle to the for their centre?

Whence arise the nerves of sensation and volition?

What do you mean by the ganglionic or sympathetic nerves?
What is the office of the fifth cerebral nerve?

Which nerves did Sir Charles Bell call respiratory, and why did he so name them?

Of what is the nervous system made up?

How do you distinguish between a vesicle and a fibre?
By what is the substance of the nerve protected?
What is the diameter of these sheath-tubes?
What is the purpose or design of the nervous system?

opposite; in diagonal (from dia and gonia, Gr. a corner or angle), a line drawn from corner to corner; in dialogue (from dia and logos, Gr. a discourse), &c.

Var. How dost, fool?

Ape. Dost dialogue with thy shadow?

Var. I speak not to thee."-Shakspeare, "Timon."

Dia is abbreviated into di, as in dichotomy (from dia and temno, Gr. I cut), a twofold division, or class.

"All things reported are reducible to this dichotomie: 1, the fountain of invention; 2, the channell of relation."-Fuller, "Worthies."

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