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XXIII. Sections XLVIII., XLIX., Idioms .............. 375
XXIV. Sections L., LI., The Past Definite, Changes in the
Stem of some Verbs ............. ............ 390
XXV. Sections LII., LIII., the Imperfect .............. 402

FRENCII Exth Acts.

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.

LESSONS IN MUSIC.
I. Introduction; First Principles of Music ............
II. Musical Scale: Exercises ...... --------------------
III. Tetrachords; ¥odulator, Exercises, Troubadour, &c.
IV. Metronome, Measures, Notations of the Length of

Notes, Standard Scale, Exercises, Griffin, &c.;..... 123
W. Management of the Voice, Exercises, Leyburn, &c. ... 162
VI. Effect of Notes, Exercises, Blacksmith, &c........... 198
VII. Leading Notes, Exercises, Mendelssohn's Song, &c... 244
VIII. Consonance, Melody, &c. .......................... 32!
IX. Glass Harmonicon, I Love to Linger, &c............. 872
LESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY.

04|I. Mammalia, Carnivora, Feline Tribe, the Lion at Home
and Abroad ...................... .............. 87
II. The Tiger and the Leopard, Anecdotes,.........;.... 125

III. The Wild Cat, the Domestic Cat, and the Lynx, Anec-
dotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 151

IV. The Dog Tribe, the Esquimaux, the Hare-Indian, th

Dhole, the Thibet, and other Dogs ................ 183

W. The Dogs of Turkey, and of the Coasts of the Polar
Sea, the Greyhound.............................. 231

WI. The Spaniels, Anecdotes................... ... 264

VII. Tribe Lupus; The Wolf, Anecdotes ... ... 327

VIII. Tribe Vulpes; The Fox, Anecdotes ....... - ... 348

IX. Tribe Ursus; The White and Brown Bears, Anecdotes 380

LESSONS IN PHYSIOLOGY.

I. Introduction, Man, Bones............ ..... 19

II. Man; Blood-vessels, Muscles ... 45

III. The Heart, Wessels, and Lungs ..... 67

IV. The Teeth, Liver, Stomach, and other 108

M. The Blood, Lungs, &c. ............... 133

VI. Respiration, Secretion, &c. ........... 179

VII. The Kidneys, Intestines, &c.............. ... 241

VIII. The Nervous System ... ....... ------------ ... 292

IX. The Brain, the Ear, the Eye............. . . . . . . . . . . . .333

X. Animal Heat, Life, &c. ............ . . . . . . . . ... ..... 888

MISCELLANEA,

| Address to the Reader .......... ------------------------ 9

Mathematics ...... ------------------- ------- ............ 11

The Influence of Morality and Immorality on the Countenance 33

Female Education -------------------------------------- 65

Education of the People .. - . . . . . . . . 97

Qo-instruction Societies ...........................-------, 283

9lossary.................................... . . . . . . . . . . 78, 138

Imaginary Quantities..., , , , , , .. .. ... . . . . . . . . 158

Problems and Suezes, ....................:” 32, 80, 111, 223

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L ES SONS IN ANCIENT HISTORY..—No. 1.

History, in its narrowest sense, is the recital of past events, In its wider and higher meaning, it not merely relates bygone occurrences, but inquires into their causes and consequences. These descriptions will hold good at whatever branch of it we look. There is Natural History, which has for its subjects the various natural occurrences which have taken place in the world and the different orders of animal and vegetable life which inhabit it; there is Life History, or biography, which records the sayings and doings of individual men; and lastly, there is the History of Nations, which tells of the various changes and revolutions which have occurred in human society, with the causes which led to them and the results by which they have been followed. It is to this last

mitters of great crimes, unless we have a thorough acquaintance with all the details of the act, whatever it may have been, to which those motives have led. By it, as by their fruit, we judge of them; and thus form our opinions of the characters of those men who have acted a great part in the history of individual nations, or of the world at larize. As

man's actions are the truest clue to his character, so it is only from the actions of Alexander, Julius Caesar, Cromwell, Washington, and Napoleon, that, bearing in mind the outward circumstances which pressed upon each of them, we can form an intelligent and just opinion of the characters of these men. Nor is the making us acquainted with great actions, and thus with their authors, the only or chief advantage

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class of subjects that the general term History is usually applied. Now as all the changes which have taken place in the internal or external circumstances of nations, from the earliest ages up to the present time, have appeared only the visible results of the workings of individual minds, it follows that history, in its most exalted province, becomes a record of the human mind in the successive developments which it has undergone, and of the progress which it has made from age to age. But this is, as we have said, the highest department of historical science; and before attempting the study of it, an intimate familiarity with the facts of history is ne... We cannot properly put a value upon the motives

which a knowledge of history brings with it. Presenting human nature, as it does, in so many different lights, it spreads out, as in a map, the varied experience of ages, for the instruction and self-guidance of him who reflects while he reads. And from this he learns that the chief elements of human character are the same in all; that the same mental system, however undeveloped in some, and highly cultivated in others, belongs to the whole human family; and thus the wholesome and warning lesson is taught him, that, in all ages of the world, and under every variety of circumstances, whether it refer to men as individuals, or men collectively as nations, the maxim holds good, that “vice is its own punisher, and virtue its own rewarder." How great, them,

which have influenced the achievers of great actions or the com- is the advantage of the man who is well versed in history, ove

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those of his fellows who are not He possesses a rich and varied store of experience, ampler than the longest lifetime could give him. is acquaintance with the o of human action is more intimate and correct than could be gained from the most extensive personal intercourse with society. But then, be it ;: it is not from a mere vague and disjointed knowledge of the main facts of history, a mechanical remembrance of events and their dates, that these advantages need be expected. Such an amount of , historical knowledge may be sufficient, if cleverly used, to gloss over a man's ignorance, but it will not stren then his un erstanding or improve his judgment. To reap from it this advantage; history must be studied. The facts stated must be considered rather as elements for thought, than as forming in themselves the sole end of historical reading. As a necessary accompaniment to the study of history, an acquaintance § two allied branches of knowledge is indispensable; we mean GoogRAPHY and CHRONology, which Dr. Hales calls “the joint, handmaids of history." Geography gives the student a clear idea of the places in which the events he reads of occurred; whilst Chronology teaches him the relation in which they stood towards each other in point of time. To the former of these important subjects, a special department of the Populah Educaton will be devoted; whilst it will be our object to combine all necessary instruction in the latter, with the main subject of these papers, so far as they extend. It is hoped that the student will thus be furnished with such an epitome of geographical and historical knowledge as shall not altogether imperfectly supply the lace of costly and discursive works upon these important branches. Endeavouring to attain the medium between a mere dry detail of facts, and diffuse reflection upon them– the first being insufficient, and the last unnecessary, for the purposes of popular education—we shall aim at giving the É. as interesting and connected a sketch of the history of the ancient world, as the best sources of information will furnish, and as the nature of the subject itself will permit. We insert on the opposite page an ethnographic table, showing the descent of the various nations of the earth from the families of the sons of Noah; it will go a great way to supply the want of the early history of nations, being founded on the account given in the tenth chapter of Genesis, which is the most ancient and most valuable historical document in the world. In the construction of this table, very considerable use has been made of two similar tables of great value, recently published ; the one, by Dr. Rosenmuller, to be found in his “Biblical Geography;” and the other, by the late reverend and learned Dr. J. Pye Smith, inserted in the “Biblical Cyclopaedia.” Ancient History, in its widest sense, extends from the creation of the world to the overthrow of the Roman Empire in the West, about the year 476 of the Christian era. The knowledge which we possess of the earliest ages through which it carries us, is necessarily scanty and obscure. Darkness all but impenetrable everywhere surrounds our path. Our only sources of trustworthy information are the Mosaic records. These go back to a period long before the formation of regular states or communities, and, being long prior to the authentic annals of the profane nations, are therefore our only lights on those distant and dark ages of the infancy of the uman race. By them, we are told of the creation of the world “in the beginning;" of the creation and fall of man; of the flood, and of the subsequent settlement of Noah and his family in the plain of Shinar, where they built the tower of Babel, and where the coufusion of their language took place, which caused their dispersion into the different regions of the carth. The sacred records afterwards confine themselves to the history of the Israelitish people, and refer to the annals of the other nations which, in process of time, had risen into existence after the scattering of the tribes at Babel, only so far as hey are connected with those of the chosen people. Their annals will form no part of this summary of ancient history; being recorded in the sacred writings they ought to be sc well known as not to require it. Passing then from the Israelities, we find at the point where profane history may be said to begin, three principal nations, an account of which, and of some other secondary Asiatic communities, will embrace all, or nearly all, the points of interest or importance in the history of antiquity. These three nations are the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and the

Persians. . Which is the most ancient? This question has been much discussed, but the weight of authority assigns the alm of antiquity to the first. Adopting this opinion, which is by far the most general, we shall begin our brief sketches of the profane history of the ancient world with an account of the inhabitants of “the land of Egypt.”

History of Egypt.

The earliest tribes which peopled Egypt, probably came from Abyssinia or Sennaar. . The stream of population appears to have descended along the banks of the Nile, and to have gra. dually overspread the valley fertilised by its floods. The date of this first migration, however, cannot be fixed. These remote settlers in Egypt were nomadic, that is, moved about from place to place for convenience of pasturage, and had not more fixed habitations than the Bedouin Arabs of the [. day. . After ages spent in the pastoral state, they egan to apply themselves to oi. and to erect permanent villages to dwell in. During these ages they were governed by priests, who pretended to have received the laws which they enforced, immediately from the gods. This form of government, which is called a theocracy, afforded the widest opportunity for the exercise of priestly injustice and oppression, and for a very long period retarded the progress of civilisation. It had divi o the nation into three distinct classes or castes ; first the priests, then the military, and, lastly, the people. The people, alone laboured, and all the fruit of their toils was devoured by the avarice of the priests, who paid the military for keeping the rest of the population in check. A time at length arrived, however, when the mili themselves became weary of yielding a blind obedience to their priestly masters, and a revolution took place which entirely and forever changed the form of government. Theocracy was exchanged for monarchy, or, government by a king Menes was the leader of the revolution, and the first king of Egypt. Different chronologers give different dates for this very remote event, but that deduced from recent discoveries fixes its occurrence about the year 2782 B.C. Josephus says that Menes lived many years before Abraham, and that he governed Egypt more than 1300 years before Solomon. All that is known of his reign has been conveyed to us through the obscure and uncertain channel of tradition. This tells us that he diverted the course of the Nile, which before his time had washed the base of the sandy ridge, near the borders of the Libyan desert, and thus protected from the overflowings of the river, the ground on which Memphis, the future capital of the kingdom was afterwards erected. He also acquired glory in war; but his best renown consists in having liberated and improved his country, and instructed his subjects in the useful arts of life. The royal power was handed down to his descendants in the direct line, under whom it became gradually still milder and more enlightened. Thebes, “the city of the hundred gates,” which had been built long before the overthrow of the priestly power, was the sole capital of the country, till Memphis, whose foundations had been laid by Menes, at a short distance from the Nile, was completed by his son, and made a second capital of the rapidly flourishing Egyptian kingdom. Of the succeeding kings who jorto the dynasty founded by Menes, even tradition tells us almost nothing. The last of them was Timaus, who was driven from his throne by the invasion of the Hycsos, or Shepherd-kings, which took place about 2400 years before the birth of Christ. Accompanied by a fierce people, they poured into Egypt from the east, and under their rule, which lasted for more than two centuries and a half, the progress of civilisation was completely suspended. . They were at length daiven from the country by Amosis, a chief of Upper Egypt, whose father had prepared the way for complete expulsion of the invaders, which his son effected. . According to Manetho, , a celebrated , Egyptian writer, who lived in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, the vanquished shepherds crossed the desert, and entered Syria; but fearing the Assyrians, who were then very powerful, the entered what was afterwards called the land of Judea, an settling there, built Jebus or Jerusalem. On the expulsion of the Shepherd kings, Amenoph, the son of Amosis, was raised to the throne, and founded the eighteenth dynasty of Egyptian kings, His entire reign, and those

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his three successors, Thothmosis I, Thothmosis II., and Moeris or Thothmosis III., were devoted to the object of re-establishing a regular government, and raising up the nation, which had been crushed by so many years of servitude under a foreign yoke. At the time of their invasion, they had burned the cities, thrown down the temples of the gods, put the inhabitants in large numbers to death, and spread ruin all over the land. On their expulsion, therefore, everything had to be re-constructed. Amenoph and his successors gradually re-established order throughout the wholekingdom. The canals, which had been neglected or destroyed, were repaired or re-formed; whilst agriculture and the arts, encouraged and protected by the sovereigns, soon brought back abundance, and at once increased and perpetuated the resources of government. In a little time the towns were re-built; edifices consecrated to religion appeared on all sides, and several of the monuments which even yet excite the admiration of the traweller on the banks of the Nile, belong to this interesting

power to the borders of the Red Sea, and threatened encroachment upon the Egyptian territory. Moeris and his successors were thus drawn into wars, which resulted in constant advantages to the Egyptian nation. Amenoph II., the son of Moeris, rendered tributary Syria and the ancient kingdom of Babylon; Thothmosis #. invaded Abyssinia and Sennaar; whilst Amenoph III. made equally successful expeditions into other parts of Asia. It was the latter king who built the temple of Sohleb, in Upper Nubia, the magnificent palace of Luxor, and all that part south of the grand palace of Carnac at Thebes. It is conjectured that it was under one of the $. of this dynasty, 1864 B.C., that Joseph the son of acob became prime minister of Egypt, and afterwards brought thither the family of his father, which thus became the source of the Israelitish nation. In the history of the eighteenth dynasty, we meet with nothing of interest or importance, till we come to the reign of Rameses the Great. This prince, who is known also in history by the name of Besostris, was

The GRAND count OF THE PALACE OF CARNAC.

epoch of the restoration of Egypt by the wisdom and energy of its kings. Of this number are the monuments of Semneh and Amada in Nubia, and several of those of Carnac and Medinet-Abou, which are the works of Thothmosis I., or of Moeris, Thothmosis III. This latter king, under whom the two obelisks of Alexandria were erected, is the Pharaoh who achieved the greatest undertakings; it is to him that Egypt owes the existence of the great lake Fayoum. By immense works which he executed, and by means of canals and sluices, this lake became a reservoir, which served to maintain, in the lower country, a perpetual balance between the overflowings of the Nile; to supply water when these were insuffieient, or to withdraw it when they were excessive. Formerly it went by the name of its constructor, being called Lake Moeris; it now bears the Arabic name Birket-el-Karoun. Whilst pt was thus advancing in civilisation and internal prosperity, several nations of Asia had extended their

the first mighty warrior whose conquests are recorded with any degree of clearness. The date of his reign, which is the most extraordinary portion of Egyptian history, has been variously, fixed. Some chronologers are of opinion that he is the Shishak who plundered Jerusalem in the reign of Rehoboam 986 b.c.; others contend that he was the Pharaoh who pursued the Israelites, and was drowned in the Red Sea 1639 B.c.; whilst by others, with more probability, the commencement of his reign is fixed about the beginning of the thirteenth century before Christ. His whole history seems largely tinged with fable and romance; it deserves, however, a more lengthened notice than has been given to any of his predecessors. His father was told in a dream, by the god Ptha (so goes the story), that his son, then newly born, should be lord of the whole earth. Upon the credit of this vision, he collected all themales of Egypt who were born on the same day with

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