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Sing. Plural.


Sing. Plural,


Sing. Plural.



Sing. Plnral.

In concluding this lesson, we may remark, that Cook lifted The inf. perf. is formed by the aid of the passive infinitiv>of
the veil of darkness which' hung over the extremities of the eo, I go, as amatum iri, to go to be loved, that is, to be about to be
Pacific Ocean, and the junction of the continents of Asia and loved.
America. His last voyage, by disclosing the vast breadth of Moods, TENSES, &c. OF A REGULAR VERB OF THE FIRST
America at the latitude of Behring's Straits, made the hopes of

CONJUGATION, Passive VOICE, discovering the north-western passage darker than ever. That

Indicative. Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive. Participle. continent had, previous to the time of the English navigator, been considered as terminating to the north in a point or cape,

(tor amáris améris

amáre or ama- emari after passing which, the navigator would find himself at once

amatur amétur amátor in the south seas, and in full sail to China or Japan. But the discovery of Cook showed that there was found intervening a


[aminor space of land of nearly three thousand miles in breadth, a very

amamini amémini amámini or amlarge portion of the circumference of the globe. Hence, geo

amantur améntur amántor graphers viewing the coast running northward from Behring's

amábar amárer Straits, and Hudson's and Baffin's Bays, all enclosed by land,

ambaris amáreris received the impression, and constructed their maps accord.

amábatur amaretur ingly, that an unbroken mass of land reached onwards to the Pole, and that all these boundaries were for ever barred against

amabámur amarémur the enterprising navigator.

amabamini amarémini

amabántur amaréntur, LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. XIX.


amatum iri amábéris

amandus By John R. BEARD, D.D.



amábimini PASSIVE VOICE.

amabúntur EXAMPLE.- Amor 1, I am loved.

amatus sum amatus eim

amatum amatus Chief Parts; amor, amatus sum, amari.

amatus es amatus sis

[esse Characteristic letter, A long.


amati simus amati sumus

amati estis amati sitis Latin,

amábar amarer

amati sunt amati sint
English. I am loved I may be loved
I was loved I might be loved

amatus eram amatus essem I. FUT.

amatus eras amatus esses
Latin. amábor

amatus erat amatus esset
English. I shall be loved

amati erámus amati essémus
Latin. amatus ero
amatus sum amatus sim

amati erátis amati essétis English. I shall have been loved I have been loved I may have been loved

amati erant amati essent
SUB. Plur.


amatus ero Latin. amatus eram

amatus essem


amatus eris English. I had been loved I might have been loved to be loved

amatus erit INF. PERF.

amati erimus Latin amatum esse

amati eritis English to have been loved

amati erunt INF. FUT.

IMP. PAST. PART. Fur. Part. in dus Latin. amatum iri amare

INSTANCES :-Form according to these examples the follow.

amatus amandus English. to be about to be loved be thou loved loved ought to be loved ing verbs ; namely, honoro 1, I honour ; corono 1, 1 crown ;

and judico 1, I judge. After what has been said; the corresponding English and

VOCABULARY. Latin signs will easily be deduced by the student; thus-of Castigo 1, I chastise, punish; congrego !, I collect or gather the present, the Latin sign is or, the English, be loved ; in the together (E. R. congregation, from grex, gregis, a flock) contamisub. imp. the Latin sign is rer, the English, might be.

no 1, I defile, contaminate; crucio 1, I crucify, I torture (Lat. Compare together the forms in the active voice, and the crux, crucis, a cross); emendo 1, I amend, improve; exoro 1, I forms in the passive voice, and carefully notice how they entreat, obtain by entreaty; muto'1, I change (E. R. mutation); differ, and how the one may be changed into the other, that obscuro 1, 1 darken (B. R. obscure); recupero 1, I regain, recover; is, the active into the passive, and the passive into the active.

spero 1, í hope ; violo 1, I violate, injure; caveo 2, I avoid (E. R. Remark that the English I am loved, he is loved, &c., denotes deed; studium, i, n. desire, effort (É. R. study); splendor, oris,

caution); morbus, i, sickness, disease; flagitium, i, n. a shameful a present act, equivalent to this, they or you love me, they are m. splendour, bright, shining , judex, judicis, m, a judge; pax, loving me, loving me now ; such is the force of amor with its pacis, f. peace ; munus, eris, reward, present; aequus, a, um, several persons.

It is thus contrasted with amatus sum, equal, just; piger, gra, grum, idle, lazy ; sancte, adv. holily. which if translated literally, would seem to mean I am loved,

LATIN-ENGLISH. but which is a past tense and signifies I have been loved. Mark carefully that amatus sum (es, est, &c.) is a past tense ;. learn. bor, tu vituperaběre;t urbs oppugnabitur ; quum urbs ab hostibus

Ego laudabar, tu vituperabáre ;* urbs oppugnabatur ; ego lauda ers are apt to construe it as a present tense. The Latin verb oppugnabatur, omnium civium animi ingenti timore occupabantur; has, in strict speech, no perfect tense of the passive voice, cives vehementer ab hostibus vexati sunt; quum pugna erat atrothough it can express a perfect passive act. That expression cissima, sol nubibus obscurabatur ; malefici post mortem justis it effects by a periphrasis (a Greek word equivalent to the poenis castigabuntur ; urbs ab hostibus oppugnata est; omnium Latin circumlocution, or round about way of speaking), thus it civium animi ingenti terrore occupati sunt ; si litteras diligenter uses the passive participle and parts of the verb esse to be; for tractaversmus, a parentibus pulchris muneribus donabimur ; quum instance, amatus sum, I have been loved; amatus sim, I may urbs ab hostibus expugnata erat, omnes cives acerbissimo dolore have been loved; amatus eram, I had been loved, &c: The par industrius discipulus laudátor, piger vituperator; leges divinae ab

cruciabantur ; si liběri vestri bene a vobis educati sunt laudabamini ; ticiple amatus, of course undergoes the variation of declension, hominibus sanciae observantor exoramini, O mei parentis ! O mi Ho as to agree with the pronoun or noun connected with it thus, if the noun is plural and feminine, amatus becomes puer, delectare litterarum studio ! exorare, 'o judex! milites certa amatae; if neuter and singular, amatum; and so on.

• Another form of vituperabáris. t Another form for vituperabërie.


Sing. Plural.



die in urbem congregantor ; cives ne flagitiis contaminantor;

Seeds enclosed in a pouch, notched at the top. melior est certa pax quam sperata victoria; terra mutata non mutat mores; dolor patienter toleratus minus acerbus est; bonus The cominon shepherds-purse has a branched stem, about a vir laudandus est; boni parentes curant ut liberorum mores emen- foot high, small white flowers which may be observed during dentur; cura ut in omni re conscientia recta servetur ; tu a me the long season from March to November, and a pouca amaris ut ego a te redăiner; heri ambulabam ut tristis animus universally heart-shaped and somewhat triangular. This exhilararetur ; milites nostri acerrime pugnabant ut urbs ab in- plant grows by road-sides and in cultivated ground, and of it teritu servaretur ; vide ne a praeceptoribus vituperére ; bonus civis there are varieties which we cannot now particularise. Its liberaturus

sit; nemo dubitabat quin pax recuperata esset ; nescio fowers, is obviously derived from the little purses produced cavet ne leges a se violentur ; non dubito quin amicus meus morbo name, pleasing in its associations, like those of so many wild qua re pax turbata sit.

by the plant, resembling in shape the purses of former times. ENGLISH-LATIN. Peace has been regained; peace will be regained; peace was

SILIQUOSA, regained; I do not doubt that peace will be regained; peace has

The seeds of this order are enclosed in a long pod. been disturbed ; has peace been disturbed ? has not (nonne) peace been disturbed? peace will be disturbed; peace ought not to (must There are four species of cardamine, or wild-cress. In not) be disturbed; I shall be praised, he will be blamed; he must May and June we may observe the minute flowers of the be blamed; he has been blamed; the city has not been captured; narrow-leaved cardamine, which grows in mountainous meaO father, be entreated (overcome by entreaty) by your suppliant dows, by the sides of streams. The plant is about a foot high. daughter ! the mother was overcome by entreaty;

the sun is ob- The hairy cardamine varies from three inches to a fuot in dear son, thy mind is occupied by terror; my mind was occupied which may be noticed from March to July are small and scured by a cloud; yesterday the sun was obscured by clouds; height; the leaves are more or less hairy, and the flowers and sorrow; young men, be not contaminated with vice; I love white, growing in loose soil and shady places. The flowers of thee that I'may be loved again by thee; the father must be loved; the cuckoo.flower are, on the contrary, large; they grow in the bad boy must be chastised; let the laws of the state be con- corymbs, pale-purple, lilac, or white ; and appear during the scientiouslý observed by all citizens; the laws of God are observed month of May. The plant is found in inoist meadows and by holy men; have the precepts of virtue been observed by the watery places, and is about a foot in height. The stems of the young men (adolescens, tis) of the city ?

bitter cardamine vary in height from one to two feet; the flowers in April and May, are large and white; it grows

in wet meadows. LESSONS IN BOTANY.-No. XII.

The common wall-cress grows on walls, and on dry sandy

ground. It rises to about a foot in height; it is branched, CLASS XV.-TETRADYNAJIA.

and bears small white flowers, which it puts forth in May. Plants bearing flowers, having invariably four petals, with Six

The hairy wall-cress has stems about a foot high, erect, stiff, Stamens, of which four are longer than the other two. leafy, covered with spreading hairs. It grows on dry rocks, The difference is thus obvious between this class and the sixth, gravelly banks, and walls. To the same family belong the as in that all the six stamens are of nearly equal length,

Bristol rock-cress, the Alpine rock-cress, the fringed rock

cress, and the tower-cress, which grows on old walls, flowers Order I. SILICULOSA.

in May of a pale yellow, and has pods thickened at the The plants of this order comprise those which have a short edges. roundish pod or pouch for a seed-vessel, frequently provided

The celebrity of the water-cress is of very ancient date. It with a shaft, in some kinds as long as the pouch itself. There was thought to brighten the intellect of those that ate it, is also a natural subdivision of this order in those plants which which gave rise to the Greek proverb, " Eat cress, and learn have the pouch entire at the top, and those in which the pouch this plant; and the Romans recommended that cress should

more wit." Pliny dwells much on the medicinal virtues of is notched at the top. Seeds enclosed in a pouch entire at the top.

be eaten with vinegar, by those who were deranged. In other

countries and in nearer times, the virtues of this plant have The common whitiow-grass grows on walls and dry loose attracted much attention. The Dutch eat great quantities soil ; with leaves arranged in a star-like form on the ground, of it in the spring, as an antiscorbutic. Lord Bacon tells us, and yielding clusters of white flowers which appear in March that the water-cress is an herb, that while young, is friendly and April. Here we have a plant in miniature. So small are to life. the flower and the foliage that they might be covered by an As this plant is sometimes confounded with the creeping ordinary thumb-nail. Often are its roots protected by the low water-parsnip, which is of a pernicious quality, it is important green moss, above which it rises to reward the attention it that the difference between the two should be distinctiy per. invites. It is worth remembering too, that it grows in patches, ceived. The leaves of both plants are winged, like those of Another name borne by this plant is nail-wort, and it was re- the rose, or the ash; but the water-cress leaf is of a roundish commended by the old herbalists as a cure for whitlows, a heart-like shape, with few indentures on the edges, much painful inflammation at the ends of the fingers. There are four resembling the first leaves of the radish, The upper part of Other varieties of this remarkable grass.

the plant is of a reddish-brown colour, and of a dark green on Sea-Kale, or as the old writers called it, Sea-Colewort, is an the under side of the leaves ; whereas those of the water excellent vegetable. Gerard says, “It groweth naturally on parsnip are of a light green, ending in a point and with rethe beach and borders of the sea, where there is no earth to be gular saw-like teeth on the edges. The white flowers of the seen, but sand and rolling pebble-stones. I found it growing water-cress may be observed in June and July. Of the between Whitstable and the Isle of Thanet, near the brink of yellow-cress there are three kinds: the creeping yellow-cress the sea, and in many places near to Colchester, and elsewhere has erect stems, a foot high, numerous, small, gold-yellow by the sea-side." It grows in sand, with a large and fleshy flowers in clusters; and may be gathered in wet meadows and root, stems two feet high, branched, smooth, and spreading, watery places. with stalked, leathery leaves, and clusters of large white The treacle mustard grows in corn-fields, and flowers in flowers which are observable in May and June. In former July, with an erect, branched stem, two feet in height. The times it was only procured, as it has been stated, “with the pods are nearly erect. The seeds are used for destroying greatest danger, by boys who let themselves down by means worms in children. The garlic hedge-mustard, or Jack by the of a rope, which is lowered or shifted by others standing at the hedge, has a stem from one to three feet high; its numerous top, the very sight of which makes the most indifferent white flowers appear iu May. The plant grows among rubbish, observer tremble, while it excites the wonder of others, that so and by hedges and walls. When bruised, it emits a smell of great a risk should be ventured for so small a reward as a dish garlic, from whence it derives its name; it is bitter and acrid, of this marine vegetable." For many years past it has formed and has been used as salad. The hare's ear, another variety

profitable article with market gardeners, who have cultivated of the same plant, has a stem from one to two feet high, and a 11, and when they have forced it, have obtained for it a high loose cluster of cream-coloured flowers. It grows in fields, and price.

on rocks near the sca.


The wild wall-flower has a bushy stem, from one to two feet, and the middle toes are separated, can be determined by the high, large flowers, appearing in May and June, with rich claws being deeper, and the impression more hairy: the print yellow petals. It grows on old buildings and high walls. Of is also larger and narrower, and the ball of the foot more this plant Moir says, with enthusiasm,

prominent. Wolf-hunters commonly assert that the animal is

weak in the loins, and, when first put to speed, that his hind " The wall-dower--the wall-dower, How beautiful it blooms !

quarters seem to waver; but, when warmed, that he will run It gleams above the tower,

without halting, from the district where he has been hunted, Like sun-light over tombs :

taking a direct line for some favourite cover, perhaps forty It sheds a balo of repose

miles or more in distance. : On these occasions he will leap Around the wrecks of Time;

upon walls above eight feet high, cross rivers obliquely with the To beauty give the flaunting rose,

current, even if it be the Rhine, and never offer battle unless The wall-flower is sublime,

he be fairly turned ; then he will endeavour to cripple the In the season of the tulip-cup,

opponent by hasty snaps at the fore-legs, and resume his When blossoms clothe the trees, How sweet to throw the lattice up,

“As to attacking the wolf,” said a shepherd to Mr. Barrow, And scent thee on the breeze,

when he was in Spain ; "it is no very pleasant task ; he has The butterfly is then abroad,

both teeth and claws, and dog or man who has once felt them, The bee is on the wing,

likes not to venture a second time within his reach. These dogs And on the hawthorn by the road

of mine will seize a bear singly with considerable alacrity; The linnets sit and sing.

though he is a most powerful animal ; but I have seen them Rich is the pink, the lily gay :

run away howling from a wolf even though there were two or The rose is summer's guest;

three of us at hand to encourage them." Bland are thy charms when these decay,

Another shepherd said : “A dangerous person is the woll, Of flowers-first, last, and best;

and cunning as dangerous : who knows more than he? He There may be gaudier in the bower,

knows the vulnerable point of every animal ; see, for example, And statelier on the tree ;

how he flies at the neck of a bullock, tearing open the veins But wall-flower-loved wall-dower !

with his grim teeth and claws. But does he attack a horse in Thou art the flower for me!"

this manner? I trow not.” “Not he," said the first shepThe cabbage bore a name among the Greeks which arose herd, “he is too good a judge ; but he fastens on the haunches, from the seed resembling that of the radish, while that used and hamstrings him in a moment. Oh! the fear of the horse by the Romans, Brassica, still employed by botanists, is sup- when he comes near the dwelling of the wolf. My master was posed to be derived from præseco, because it was cut off from the other day, riding above the pass, on his fine Andalusian the stalk. Another Latin name for it was caulis, on account steed, which had cost him &ve hundred dollars : suddenly the of the goodness of its stalks, and from which the English name horse stopped, and sweated, and trembled, like a woman in cole, colwort, or colewort is derived, The word cabbage, by the act of fainting; my master could not conceive the reason, which all the varieties of this plant are now imperfectly called, but presently he heard a squealing and growling in the means the firm head or ball that is formed by the leaves turn bushes, whereupon he fired off his gun, and scared the wolves, ing close over each other; hence the saying the cole has cab- who scampered away; but he tells us that the horse has baged, the lettuce has cabbaged. The cant-word used in speak- not yet recovered from his fright.' ing of tailors, who formerly worked at private houses, inti- At one time the wolf was the plague and terror of our mates that they rolled up pieces of cloth belonging to their island. The Saxons, it is said, called January, “ wolf-monat,' customers, instead of the list and shreds which they claimed or wolf-month, because the wolves of our ancient forests, as their due.

impelled by hunger at this season, were wont to prowl and Gerard is the oldest English author who has written fully attack man himself; the inferior animals, on whom they on this useful vegetable. He mentions the white cabbage cole, usually preyed, having retired or perished from the inclemency the red cabbage cole, the curled cabbage cole ; and says the of the weather. Then, laws were made with a view to the Savoie cole is among the headed coleworts or cabbages. He destruction of this animal, retreats were built in the northern says also," the swolen colewort of all others is the strongest, districts to secure passengers from its attacks, and taxes were and which I received from a worshipfull marchant of London, paid in wolves' heads. Master Nicholas Lete, who brought the seed out of France, King Edgar, to encourage the destruction of these animals, who is greatly in love with rare and faire flowers and plants; for commuted the punishment of criminals, in many cases, into a which he doeth carefully send into Syria, having a servant there requisition of a certain number of wolves' tongues from each, at Alepo, and in many other countries ; for the which myself according to the degree of the offence. A Welsh prince who and likewise the whole lande are much bound unto.” The paid tribute to him, was oppressively ordered to produce annually, same writer adds: “Rape cole is another variety; they were instead of money, a hundred wolves' heads. Nor was this a called in Latin caulo-rapum and rapo-caulis, participating of solitary instance of rigorous enactment; for, as Somerville two plants, the coleworts and turnips, from whence they derive says, – their name. They grow in Italy, Spain, and some places in

“ Caml ria's proud kings (thouglı with reluctance) paid Germanie, from whence I have received seeds for my garden."

Their tributary wolves; head after head, This variety has long become one of our hardiest field-plants. In full account, till the woods yield no more, The German cabbage is grown to so great a size in Holland And all the ravenous race extinct, is lost." that a single head often weighs forty pounds, and remains per. Then, too, kings and chiefs adopted the name of the wolf or fectly sweet and tender.

have been recognised by it, either in consequence of their ravages, or from a desire to appear truly formidable. Such was

the case among the Saxons, and hence we read in history LESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY.-No, VII. of Æthelwolf, or noble wolf ; Berthwolf, or illustrious woll;

Eadwolf, or prosperous wolf; and other combinations of the THE WOLF.

same kind, which are similarly significant. LOrder CARNIVORA, species CANIS LUPUS.)

Though endeavours were long made to exterminate the wolf The wolf is larger, stronger, and more muscular than the dog: and

lingeri 1 &' i!l longer in the Islands of Scotland. The last

in England, it maintained its ground there for many centuries, very delicate, his hearing is acute, and his habits always wolf is sail to have fallen in Lochaber, by the hands of Sir cautious. He never carries his tail curled upwards, and his Ewen Car ron, of Lochiel. pace is inarked by hesitancy and indecision. The track of a

Thomsoa thus pictures the ravages of these creatures in other

lands :wolf is readiy distinguished from that of a dog by the two middle claws being close together ; while in the dog they are

* By witiry fainine roused from all the tract separated : the marks, however, when the wolf is at speed,

Of horrid mountains, which the shining Alps,

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And wavy Apennine, and Pyrenees

companion, who stood farther on, and was, I believe, less in Branch out stupendous into distant lands;

the demon's way than I was; she had nearly passed him, when Cruel as death, and hungry as the grave,

suddenly she turned half round, and snapped at him. I shall Burning for blood, bony, and gaunt, and grim,

never forget what followed; in a moment a dozen wolves were Assembling wolves in raging troops descend; And pouring o'er the country, bear along

upon him, tearing him limb from limb, with howlings like noKeen as the north wind sweeps the glossy snow,

thing in this world; in a few moments he was devoured, noAll is their prize. They fasten on the steed,

thing remaining but the skull and a few bones ; and then they Press him to earth, and pierce his mighty heart;

passed on in the same manner as they came. Good reason had Nor can the bull his awful front defend,

I to be grateful that my lady-wolf took less notice of me than Or shake the murdering eavages away;

my poor comrade.” Rapacious at the mother's throat they fly,

The Spanish soldier in calling the wolves demons spoke in And tear the screaming infant from her breast."

accordance with a widely-extended superstition. The old

Saxons spoke of the weir-wolf under the idea that he posThe wolf combines cowardice with ferocity, and when not sessed some evil spirit; and the peasantry of many of the impelled by hunger, conceives every object is a snare to districts of France call him still the loupe garon for the same entrap him. Thus, in Lapland, if he comes on a reindeer, reason. tied to a post to be milked, he will not venture to approach it, Wolves are still very frequently seen at Ecomoy and Marjet, lest the animal should be tied there as a decoy; yet no sooner in the department of the Sarthe, France. Not song ago, a sheis the deer set at liberty than he commences a pursuit, and wolf seized a child by the frock, and dragged it away, in the destroys it. But should the deer become irritated and stand at presence of its mother, who followed it to its den, where she bay, the wolf is instantly intimidated. Mr. Lloyd, who found her child in the midst of nine cubs, without any injury. has written on the “Field Sports in the North of Europe," The cubs were instantly killed by the neighbours, but the dam gives us a still more striking fact. A peasant, when one day escaped. in his sledge, in

Strange as it the neighbour

may seem, a hood of St. Pe

wolf, when tersburg,

taken young, is pursued by ele.

capable of being ven wolves. At

tamed. The celethis time he was

brated natural. only about two

ist, Count de miles fromhome,

Buffon, brought towards which

up several of he urged his

these animals. horse at the very

He states, that top of his speed.

when young, or At the entrance

during the first to his residence

year, they are was a gate,

very docile, and which happened

even caressing; to be closed at

and if well fed, the time, but the

will neither dishorse dashed

turb the poultry, this open, and

nor any other thus himself and

animals'; but, his master found

that at the age refuge within

of fifteen months the courtyard.

or two years, They were fol

their natural lowed, however,

ferocity begins bynineoutofthe

to appear, and eleven wolves ;


they must be but, very for

chained to prelunately, at the

vent their runinstant these had entered the enclosure, the gate swung | ning off, and doing mischief. The count brought up a wolf back on its hinges, and thus they were caught as in a trap. till it was eighteen or nineteen months old, in a courtyard, From being the most voracious of animals—now that they along with fowls, none of which it ever attacked; but, for found escape impossible—they became completely changed'; its first essay, it killed the whole in one night, without eating 80 far, indeed, from offering molestation to any one, they any of them. slunk into holes and corners, and allowed themselves to be Instances, however, are not wanting in which the effect slaughtered almost without making resistance.

of early training has continued. Not long ago, there was in “Worse than the_he-wolf,” said a soldier to Mr. Barrow, “The Garden of Plants” in Paris, a black wolf. He was " is the female. I was once travelling over the hills of brought when very young, and presented to Mademoiselle Galicia, when we heard a howl. "These are wolves,' said my Devousel, the step-daughter of the famous Baron Cuvier. This companion, 'let us get out of the way; so we stepped from the lady found him 80 tame, that she desired he might have a path, and ascended the side of a hill a little way, to a terrace, dog as a companion, and be entirely fed on broth

and cooked where grew vines, after the manner of Galicia ; presently ap. meat. Her orders were obeyed, and the animal retained all peared a large gray she-wolf, snapping and growling at a troop his gentleness and docility. He never saw her without of demons, who followed close behind, their tails uplifted, and stretching his paws through the bars to be shaken ; and when their eyes like firebrands. What

do you think the perverse she let him loose, he was accustomed to lie down before her, brute did. Instead of keeping to the path, she turned in the to lick her feet, and to show every mark of joy and affection. very direction in which we were ; there was now no remedy, The Scripture account of this animal corresponds preso we stood still. I was the first upon the terrace, and by me cisely with the description given above of his ignoble she passed so close that I felt her hair brush against

my legs ; cunning, and his rapacious nature. These are alluded to she, however, took no notice of me, but pushed on, neither in the patriarch's character of the tribe of Benjamin, in looking to the right nor left, and all the other wolves trotted Genesis xlix, 27: "Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf: in the by me without offering the slightest injury, or even as much as morning he shall derour the prey, and at night he shall divide looking at me. Would that I could say as much for my poor | the spoil.”

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The water which issues from our common springs derives its By THOMAS W. JENKYN, D.D., F.G.S., &c.

amount of warmth, either from the heat of the sun, or from

the temperature of the rocks through which it has sunk or CHAPTER I.

percolated. There are, however, many springs whose tempeON THE ACTION OF VOLCANOES ON THE EARTH'S CRUST. rature cannot be ascribed to the sun and atmosphere, for their SECTION VI.

temperature, varies from that of the surrounding air to that ON HOT WELLS, OR THERMAL SPRINGS.

of boiling water. The mention which I made, in the last lesson, of water and Two theories have been applied to the explanation of mud in connexion with

thermal springs. Acvolcanoes, is likely to

Fig. 22.

cording to one, their have prepared you to

water is supposed to expect that something

rise from very, great should be said about

depths; depths at the hot wells, or springs

which the rocks are inof hot water, which are

tensely heated by subfound to prevail so ex

terranean fire. The tensively over the globe.

other supposes that the I ought, however, to

heat of these deeplyexplain to you the rea

seated rocks is comson why thermal springs

municated upward are introduced here, and

through fissures, until not reserved till we come

it meets and heats that to our next chapter

water which has perco. which will be concern

lated from the surface, ing the action of WATER

and causes it to ascend upon the earth's crust.

in another direction. It is well known, that

The illustrious chewhenever


mist, BERZELIUS, asquake takes place in

cribes the origin of volcanic regions, new

thermal springs to the springs burst forth in

waters of the atmos. several spots; or, for

phere percolating mer wells have their

through the soil and volume of water much

the underlying rocks, increased, and others

and descending downhave the temperature

wards until they reach of their water greatly

volcanic heat, and that raised. It is on this

then they are forced account that these hot

upward charged with wells are considered

the various substances under the head of vol.

with which they have canic action; for it is

combined in the strata evident that such

below. Another great springs are of a mixed

chemist, VON HOFF, character, partly igneThe Geyser, in Iceland.

supposes, on the conous, and partly aqueous.

trary, that the heat As thermal springs play an important part in the formation which influences their waters is not from volcanic action, of the crust of the earth, a knowledge of their phenomena is I but from those fiery processes which are deeper in the interior of great use in geo

of the earth, and which logical investigations.

Fig. 23,

are themselves the Modern chemistry has

causes of volcanoes and shown that all mineral

earthquakes. springs, whether they


What do you think? issue forth from the a

Is the high temperature surface of the earth, or

of these thermal springs bubble up in the “dark

owing to this deep subunfathomed caves of

terranean heat or not? ocean," contribute es

One would think that sentially to the benefit

it is ; for they are found of vegetable and animal

in almost all situations, life. By their heat, they

not only in districts contribute to the de

where volcanoes are velopment of aquatic

now active, but in the animals in the sea; and

regions of extinct vol. by the elementary sub

canoes, as in central stances which they

France, and also even bring up from the

in spots which are very bowels of the earth to

far removed from all the surface-soil, they

- Α

volcanic points.

As, are subservient to the

also, they are found in nutrition, both of plants

ranges of mountains and animals. The know

which have evidently ledge of this fact will be

been upheaved by the useful to you when you

force of subterranean come to study the fos

heat pressing upward, sil plants and animals,

it is a fair inference that ealled the flora and

the heat of the springs fauna, of the older se

which issue at the sides dimentary rocks. Representing the supposed Reservoir and Pipe of a Geyser in Iceland.

of such mountains is

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