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will go.

eu, had.

() pré, meadow; allé, gone ; donné, given ; passé, passée, past; élevé, raised; armée, army.

36. un lundi, Monday ; brun, brown; alun, alum ; emprunter, (e) très, very ; après, after; achète, buy; mère, mother; to borrow; importun, importunate ; un, one. espère, hope ; lève, raise ; chère, fare; chèvre, goat.

EXERCISE 3.—THE CONSONANTS. (@) même, same; carême, Lent; arrêt, arrest; tempête,

(b) baum, balsam; blessure, wound; brun, broun; absolu. tempest; tête, head; bête, beast. (i) lit, bed; dit, said ; dire, to say; lire, to read ; lime,

tion, absolution ; abstrait, abstract ; abbaye, abbey ; Jacob,

Jacob. file ; cire, war ;

rite, rite. (i) dîner, to dine ; ile, isle; dîme, tithe ; abîme, aby88 ;

(c) cacher, to conceal; coin, corner ; décuple, decuple ; cire,

wax; cinq, fire; chercher, to seek; je cache, 1 conccal; építre, epistle ; gîte, lodging. (o) mot, word; cachot, dungeon ; repos, rest; trot, trot;

patriarche, patriarch ; patriarchat, patriarchate; cham

bre, chamber; arche, arch; changer, to change ; orchestre, globe, globe; carrosse, coach.

orchestra; charbon, coal; sac, bag; suc, juice; elerc, (ô) tôt, soon ; plutôt, rather ; rôti, roast meat; dépôt,

clerk; banc, bench; flanc, flank; second, second; fécund, deposit; prévôt, provost.

fruitful; façon, fashion; reçu, received. (u) bu, drank ; cru, believed; du, of the ; elu, elected ;

(d) daim, deer; don, gift ; admirer, to admire ; bord, border ; menu, minute ; prévu, foreseen; ecu, crown.

nord, north ; sud, south ; Obed, Obed ; Talmud, Talmud; (ů) chûte, fall; brûlot, fireship; mûr, ripe; dûment, duly;

grand âge, advanced age ; rend-il, does he render? il fût, he might be; nous fûmes, we were.

prend-il,

does he take! THE DIPHTHONGS.

(1) foin, hay; faim, hunger; froid, cold; bref, short; soif, (ai) je donnai, I gave ; je parlerai, I will speak ; j'allai, I thirst; suif, tallow; clef, key; chef, chief ; chef-d'auvre, went; je cherchai, I sought ; je menai, I led , j'irai, I

master-piece; puf, cgg ; æufs, eggs; æuf frais, fresh egg;

bæuf, ox, beef; bæuis, oxen ; neuf maisons, nine houses; (ais) je donnais, I wos givini ; je parlerais, I would speak;

neuf chevaux, nine horses ; neuf amis, nine friends. j'allais, I was going ; je cherchais, I was seeking ; je (g) gager, to bet ; gosier, throat; gibier, game; guide, guide; menais, I was leading ; j'irais, I would go.

ligue, league ; il ligua, he leagued ; nous liguons, ice (au, eau) maux, evils; chameau, camel; chevaux, horses ; league ; aiguille, needle ; aguillon, goad; ciguë, hemlock; bé u, handsome ; nouveau, new ; troupeau, flock.

digne, worthy ; règne, reign ; Espagne, Spain; Pologne, (ei) neige, snow; veine, vein ; reine, queen ; Seine, Seine ; je

Poland; brugnon, nectarine ; soignant, taking care; peigne, I comb; sein, bosom.

joignant, joining; stagnant, stagnant; rang honourable,

honourable rank. (eu) peu, little ; peur, fear; leur, their; il meurt, he dies ; sour, sister ; æuf, egg; lueur, light.

(h) hâte, haste; honte, shame; haut, high; herbe, herbage ; (eu) like u. J'eus, I had ; tu eus, thou hadst ; il eut, he had ;

almanach, almanac.

(j) jujube, jujube ; jeune, young ; juger, to judge ; jurer, to (ia) liant, binding ; il lia, he bound; partial, partial ; il cria, sucear; joindre, to join ; jonc, rush; déjeûner, to breakfast he cried ; il nia, he denicd ; il pria, he prayed.

Juif, Jew; jeu, play. (ie) garantie, guarantee ; il prie, he prays; il lie, he binds ; il

(1) lame, blade ; loi, law; illégal, illegal; illicite, unlawful rie, he way laugh ; il nie, he denies.

paille, straw ; soleil, sun ; pareil, similar; bail, lease ; (oi) loi, law ; moi, me; il voit, he sees ; il boit, he drinks ; roi,

railler, to rail ; souiller, to soil; caille, quail; canaille, king; droit, right; il croit, he believes.

rabble ; ville, town ; village, village ; mille, mile, thousand; (ou) bout, end; il coud, he sews ; il moud, he grinds ; loup, péril, peril; pointilleux, punctilious ; baril, barrel ; fusil, uolf ; coup, blow; croute, crust.

gun; gentilhomme, nobleman ; gentilshommes, noblemen ; (ua) nuage, cloud; nuance, shade ; il salua, he saluted; il bouteille, bottle. rcmua, he moved ; il contribua, he contributed.

EXERCISE 4.—THE CONSONANTS CONTINUED. (ue) nie, naked; lue, 'f. read; reçue, f. received ; il salue, he (mn) mon, my; marge, margin ; nom, name ; champ, field; salutes ; il remue, he moves.

moine, monk ; prompt, quick; condamner, to condemn ; (ui) lui, him; luisant, shining ; cuire, to bake ; cuit, baked; faim, hunger ; son argent, his money ; bon appétit, good nuire, to injure; produire, to produce.

appetite; lien étroit, close connexion. (y) thyrse, thyrsus ; type, type ; style, style; yeux, eyes;

(p) partir, to go away; coup, blow; temps, weather; drap, Yvetot, Yretot; payer, to pay; envoyer, to send ;

cloth ; sept, seven ; baptême, baptism; cap, cape ; Alep, abbaye, aboey ; essayer, to try; pays, country ; paysage,

Aleppo. landscape ; paysan, peasant.

(a) quérir, to fetch ; quitter, to leare; musique, music; logique,

logic; quarante, forty ; quoi, what; aquatique, aquatie, EXERCISE 2.--The NASAL SOUNDS.

Quintilién, Quintilian; cinq, five ; cinq livres, five books.

(r) ranger, to arrange ; errer, to err; arriver, to arrive, 30. Innocent, innocent; inutile, useless ; dîner, dinner ; im

verser, to pour; je courrai, I will run ; je courais, I was mortel, immortal; une, one ; lune, moon; dunes, downs.

running ; jouir, to enjoy ; car, for ; plaisir, pleasure ; amer, 31. am ambre, amber; chambre, chamber ; Adam, Adam : ram

bitter ; parler, to speak; changer, to change ; fer, iron; per, to creep ; ample, ample; lampe, lamp.

hiver, winter. an tante, aunt; manteau, cloak; plan, plan; plancher,

(s) silence, silence ; soin, care ; sans, without; base, base; floor ; rang, rank; sang, blood; enfant, child.

rose, rose; chose, thing ; observer, to observe; rasoir, em remplir, to fill; temple, temple ; temps, weather; assemblée, assembly; trembler, to tremble ; membre, limb.

razor ; parasol, parasol ; science, science ; schisme, schism;

scie, saw ; schème, scheme ; gras, fat; pas, step; lambris, en sentir, to feel; tente, tent; pente, declivity ; je rends,

wainscot; Barras, Barras ; Romulus; Samos ; vous avez, render; je prends, I take ; je sens, I feel.

you have ; nous aimons, we love. 32. en amen, amen ; specimen, specimen ; examen, examination.

(t) tiers, third; tiare, tiara ; tort, wrong; portion," portion; 33. en ils donnent, they give ; ils parlent, they speak; ils écrivent,

sanction, sanction ; essentiel, essential ; partialité, partithey write ; ils cherchent, they seek.

ality; sectiori, section; question, question; bastion. 34. im simple, simple ; timbre, stamp; daim, deer ; faim, hun

bastion ; observation, observation; minutie, minutia · ger; imposteur, imposter ; important, important.

démocratie, democracy; amitié, friendship; initiation, in fin, fine; pain, bread; demain, to-morrow; crin, horse

initiation; mot, word; lot, lot; sept, seven ; sept livres, hair; vin, wine ; bain, bath ; teindre, to dye ; peindre, to

seven books ; et, and ; vingt livres, twenty books. paint.

(v) voir, to see; va, go; lève, raise; lever, to raise ; visage, 25. om sombre, dark; nom, name; ombre, shadow ; tombe,

face ; vive, f. lively. tomb; nombre, number ; comble, height.

(w) Westphalie, Wiemar, Worms, Wurtemberg. on pont, bridge; honte, shame ; montre, watch; raison,

reason ; maison, house ; fondre, to melt; non, no. 36. um humble, humble ; parfum, perfume ; humblement, hum- this letter is pronounced like e in cedar, has generally the sound of sh, as lo

• T, in the English words corresponding to the French words, in which bhe.

motion, partial, &o.

See

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Il a, Elle 2,

(2) xylon, cotton plant; Xénophon; exiler, to exile ; excuser, Non, Madame, vous avez seulement le vinaigre et la viande.

to excuse ; luxe, luxury; Alexandre, Alexander ; maxime, 19. Avez vous la table ! 20. Oui, Madame, j'ai la table. maxim; soixantième, sixtieth ; six, six ; sixième, sixth;

EXERCISE 6. six livres, six books ; Bruxelles, Brussels ; Aix-la-Cha

TO BE TRANSLATED INTO FRENCH. pelle; -dix, ten ; Phénix ; Ajax; deux hommes, two men ; dix amis, ten friends.

1. Have you the wheat? 2. Yes, Sir, I have the wheat. (z) zèle, zeal; zone, zone; zoologie, zoology ; vous lisez, you 3. Who has the meat? 4. The butcher has the meat and the

read; nez, nose ; Metz; allez-y, go there ; venez ici, salt. 5. Has he the oats? 6. No, Madam, the horse has the come here.

oats. 7. Have we the wheat ? 8. You have the wheat and SECTION II.

the flour. 9. Who has the salt? 10. I have the salt and the

meat. 1. In French the article [$ 13, (2.))* has, in the singular, a 12. No, Sir, the brother has the vinegar. 13. Who has the

11. Have we the vinegar, the tea, and the coffee? distinct form for each gender, Ex.

horse? 14. The baker has the horse. 15. Have we the book Le fils, the son.

La fille, the daughter, the girl. and the pen? 16. No, Miss, the girl has the pen, and the Le frère, the brother.

La seur, the sister,

miller has the book. 17. Have you the table, Sir? 18. No, 2. Before a word commencing with a vowel or an h mute Sir, I have only the book. 19. Who has the table? 20. We (Section I., 11 h), the article is the same for both genders have the table, the pen, and the book. [$ 13, (7)]. Ex.

SECTION III.
L'aïeul, the grandfather.

L'aïeule, the grandmother.
L'hôte, the landlord.
L'hôtesse, the landlady.

1. The article le, with the preposition de preceding, must be
8. There are in French only two genders, the masculine contracted into du, when it comes before a word in the mascu-
and the feminine ($ 4]. Every noun, whether denoting an line singular, commencing with a consonant or an h aspirated
animate or inanimate object, belongs to one of these two (Sect. I. 11 h, § 13, (8) (9)].
genders.

Du frère, of the brother.

Du château, of the castle. Masc. L'homme, the man.

Le lion, the lion.

Du héros, of the hero.

Du chemin, of the way.
Le livre, the book.
Le papier, the paper.

2. Before feminine words, and before masculine words
L'arbre, the tree.
Le bois, the 100od.

commencing with a vowel, or an h mute, the article is not FEM. La femme, the woman.

La lionne, the lioness.

blended with the preposition.
La table, the table.
La feuille, the leaf.
De la dame, f, of the lady.

De l'amie, f. of the female friend.
La plume, the pen.
La porte, the door.

De l'argent, m. of the money. De l'honneur, m, of the honour.
4. Avoir, TO HAVE, IN THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE, 3. In French, the name of the possessor follows the name of
Affirmatively.

Interrogatively.

the object possessed [$ 76, (10)].
J'ai,
I have.
Ai-je ?
Have II
La maison du médecin,

The physician's house.
Tu as [$ 33(1)(2)]Thou hast. As-tu ?

Hast thout
L'arbre du jardin,

The tree of the garden.
He has.
A-t-il ?
Has het
La lettre de la seur,

The sister's letter.
She has.
A-t-elle ?
Has she I

4. The name of the material of which an object is composed
Nous avons,
We have.
Avons nous ? Have we

follows always the name of the object; the two words being
Vous avez,
You have.
Avez vous ? Have you?

connected by the preposition de [$ 76, (11)].
Ils ont, m. They have. Ont ils ? m. Have they!
Elles ont, f.
They have. Ont elles ? f.
Have they!

The cloth coat.
L'habit de drap,
La robe de soie,

The silk dress. 5. The e of the pronoun je is elided when that pronoun La montre d'or,

The gold watch. comes before a vowel or an h mute [$ 146). 6. In interrogative sentences, when the third person singular

RESUME OF EXAMPLES. of a verb ends with a vowel, and is immediately followed by a Le tailleur a l'habit de drap du The tailor has the physician's cloth pronoun, a t, called euphonic, must be placed between the verb médecin.

coat. and the pronoun.

Vous avez la lettre de la seur du You have the baker's sister's letter,
A-t-il ?
Has het
A-t-elle ? Has she?
boulanger.

(the letter o) the sister of the baker).
A-t-il le livre de la dame.

Has he the lady's book.
RESUME OF EXAMPLES.

EXERCISE 7.
Le père a la viande, vous avez le The father has the meat, you have the Argent, m. silver, mo. Couteau, m. knife. Porte-crayon, m. pencil
café, et j'ai l'eau.
coffee, and I have the water.

ney.

Cuir, m. leather. L'homme a le pain, l'enfant a le The man has the bread, the child has Bas, m. stocking. Dame, f. Indy.

Robe, f. dress sel, et nous avons le poivre. the salt, and we have the pepper.

Bois, m. wood.
Drap, m. cloth.

Satin, m. satin.
EXERCISE 5.
Chapeau, m. hat. Foin, m. hay.

Sæur, f. sister.
Avoine, f. oats.
Madame, Madam. Qui, who.

Charpentier, m. car. Habit, m. cont. Soie, f. silk.
Blé, m. whent.
Mademoiselle, Miss.

penter.

Laine, f. wool.
Sel, m. salt.

Soulier, m. shoe.
Boucher, m. brutcher. Meunier, m, miller. Seulement, only.

Cordonnier, m., shoe- Médecin, m. physician. Table, f. table.

maker. Boulanger, m. baker. Monsieur, Mr., Sir. Table, f. table.

Montre, f. watch. Tailleur, m. tailor. Cheval, m, horse. Non, no.

Thé, m. tea.

Coton, m. cotton. Or, m. gold. Et, and.

Viande, f, meat.

TO BE TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH.
Farine, f. flour. Pain, m. bread. Vin, m. wine.
Frère, m, brother.
Plume, f. pen.

1. Avez vous à montre d'or
Viniagre, m. vinegar.

2. Oui, Madame, j'ai la Livre, m. book,

montre d'or et le chinand de soie. 3. Monsieur, avez vous le

livre du tailleur ? 4. Non, Monsieur, j'ai le livre du médecin. TO BE TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH,

5. Ont ils le pain du boulanger? 6. Ils ont le pain du boulan1. Qui a le pain ? Le boulanger a le pain. 3. A-t-il la ger et la farine du meunier. 7. Avez vous le porte-crayon farine? 4. Oui, Monsieur, il a la farine. 6. Avons nous la d'argent? 8. Oui, Monsieur, nous avons le porte-crayon viande? 6. Oui, Monsieur, vous avez la viande et le pain. d'argent. 9. Avons nous l'avoine du cheval? 10. Vous avez 7. Le meunier a la farine. 8. Le boulanger a la farine et le l'avoine et le foin du cheval. 11. Qui a l'habit de drap du blé. 9. Avons nous le livre et la plume 10. Oui, Made- charpentier! 12. Le cordonnier a le chapeau de soie du tailmoiselle, vous avez le livre et la plume. 11. Le boucher a la teur.

13. Lo tailleur a le soulier de cuir du cordonnier. viande. 12. Le meunier a la viande et j'ai le café. 13. Avez 14. Avez vous la table de bois ? 15. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai la vous l'eau et le sel ? 14. Oui, Monsieur, nous avons l'eau, le table de bois du charpentier. 16. Ont ils le couteau d'argent ? sel, et l'avoine. 15. Avons nous le thé? 16. Non, Monsieur, 17. Ils ont le couteau d'argent. 18. Le frère du médecin a la la fille a le thé, le vinaigre, et le sel. 17. Ai-je le vin? 18. montre d'argent. 19. La seur du cordonnier a la robe de

soie. 20. A-t-elle le soulier de cuir? 21. Non, Madame, elle • Once for all, references of this kind are made to the Second PART OF THIS

a le soulier de satin. 22, Avons nous le bas de laine 1' 23, COURSE, of the commencement of which duei ntimation shall be given. Non, Monsieur, vous avez le bas de soie du tailleur. 24. Qui

case.

Oui, yes.

case.

A man,
A woman.

a le bas de coton? 25. Le médecin a le bas de coton. 26. La a-t-elle une montre d'or? 8. Elle a une montre d'or et un de dame a le soulier de satin de la seur du boulanger.

d'argent. 9. Le boulanger a-t-il du vin ou de la bière? 10. EXERCISE 8.

Le boulanger a du thé et du café. 11. Votre frère a-t-il du

fromage? 12. Il a du fromage et du beurre. 13. La dame TO BE TRANSLATED INTO FRENCH.

a-t-elle une cuiller d'argent. 14. La dame a une cuiller et 1. Have you the tailor's book? 2. No, Sir, I have the une fourchette d'argent. 12. Le boucher a-t-il de la viande physician's watch: 3. Who has the gold watch? 4. The lady aujourd'hui? 16. Oui, Monsieur, il a un morceau de bæuf. has the gold watch and the silver pencil-case. 5. Have you 17. Le charpentier a-t-il une table? 18. Oui, Monsieur, il a the tailor's shoe? 6. I have the tailor's cloth shoe. 7. Have une table d'acajou. 19. Avez vous le livre du médecin 20. we the wooden table: 8. Yes, Sir, you have the wooden table. Non, Madame, mais j'ai le livre de votre seur. 21. Qui a du 9. Have they the silver knife ? 10. They have the silver café et du sucre? 22. L'épicier a du café et du sucre. 23. La knife. 11. The lady has the silver knife and the gold pencil-sæur du libraire a-t-elle un gant? 24. Non, Monsieur, mais

12. Has she the satin dress? 13. The physician's elle a un livre. 25. A-t-elle une plume d'acier? 26. Non, sister has the satin dress. 14. Who sias the wood? 15. The Monsieur, elle a une plume d'or. 27. Vous avez le portecarpenter's brother has the wood. 16. Have you the woollen crayon du médecin. stockings ? 17. No, Si-, but I have the cotton stockings. 18.

EXERCISE 10. Who has the baker's tread ? 19. We have the baker's bread and the miller's flour. 20. Have we the horse's hay? 21. 1. Have you any tea? 2. Yes, Madam, I have a pound of You have the horse's oats. 22. Have we the tailor's silk hat: tea. 3. Who has bread? 4. The baker has bread, butter, 23. Yes, Sir, you have the tailor's silk hat and the shoemaker's and cheese. 5. Has the tailor cloth: 6. The tailor has a leather shoe. 24. Have you the cloth shoe of the physician's piece of cloth. 7. Has the physician gold? 8. Yes, Sir, the sister? 25. No, M dam, I have the lady's silk dress, physician has gold and silver. 9. Has the lady a silver watch?

10. Yes, Miss, the lady has a silver watch and a gold pen. Section IV.

11. Has your sister silk 12. Yes, Sir, she has silk and cotton. 1. The article, preceded by or contracted with the prepo. 13. Have you a knife: 14. Yes, Sir, I have a steel knife and sition de, accordirg to rules 1 and 2 of Section III., is placed a silver fork. 15. Have you meat to-day, Siri 16. Yes, Sir, in French before words used in a partitive sense. Such words I have a piece of beef. 17. Has your carpenter a mahogany may generally be known in English when some or any is or table? 18. Yes, Sir, he has a mahogany table. 19. Has your may be prefixed to them ($13, (10), $ 78, (1)].

sister a glove? 20. Yes, Sir, my sister has a silk glove. 21. Du pain,

Bread, or some bread,

Has the bookseller's son a gold pencil-case ? 22. Yes, Sir, he De la viande,

Meat, or some meat.

has a gold pencil-case and a steel pen. 23. Who has your De l'argent, Money, or some money.

sister's watch ? 24. Your brother has the gold watch and the 2. The French numeral adjeztive. un, m., une, f., answers to silk bat. 25. We have gold, silver, and steel (See Rule 5). the English indefinite article, a or an ($ 13, (4), (11)].

Un homme,
Une femme,

PROBLEMS AND QUERIES. 3. The e of the preposition de is elided before un and une As some of our young readers may be already acquainted with L$146).

arithmetic and geometry, we propose the following problems D'un livre, m.

Of or from a book.

and queries for exercise :D'une maison, f. Of or from a house.

1. How could the first nine letters of any alphabet be made to 4. When the nominative or subject of an interrogative represent numbers to any extent, say millions, without making sentence is a noun, it should be placed before the verb; and their values dependent on their position ? immediately after the verb in simple tenses, and after the

2. In such a system of notation as we have supposed in the preauxiliary in compound tenses, a pronoun must be paced, ceding question, what would be the use of the cipher? agreeing with the nominative in gender, number, and person greater than one

expressed by fire figures, although the latter is [ $ 76, (4) (6)].

composed of large digits, and ihe former of small ones? Le médecin a-t-il de l'argent? Has the physician money!

NB. The nine characters or figures employed in arithmetic are Le boucher a-t-il de la viande ? Has the butcher meat

called digits, because men were, and still are, accustomed to count Le libraire a-t-il du papier ; Has the bookseller paper 1

by the digiti or fingers. Of course, 9 is the largest digit, and 1 is La dame a-t-elle de la soie ? Hast he lady silk 1

the smallest. Résuve op EXAMPLES.

4. Express by figures the number twelve thousand twelve hun

dred and twelve. Avez vous du pain ? Have you bread!

5. Arrange three points, so that they shall be equally distant Vous avez du pain, du beurre, et You have bread, butter, and cheese. from each other. du fromage.

6. Arrange four points so that they shall be equally distant Votre frère a-t-il une livre de Has your brother a pound of butter from each other.

7. Construct an isosceles triangle such, that each of its legs shall Arer vous le livre d'un libraire ? Hare you a bookseller's book ? be double the base or third side. Non, j'ai le livre d'une dame. No, I hare a lady's book.

8. The celebrated theorem of Pythagoras, which now forms the La scur du médecin a-t-elle du Has the physician's sister paper and 47th proposition of the 1st book of Euclid's Elements of Geopapier et de l'encre,

ink!

metry is, that “in any right-angled triangle the square described 5. It will be seen, by some of the above examples, that the on the hypotenuse (see fig. 11, Lessons in Geometry, No. 1.) is article must be repeated before every noun used in a partitive equal to the sum of the squares described on the other sides.". In

one of the latest and best editions of Euclid, it is asserted that "it EXERCISE 9,

is not indifferent on which sides of the lines which form the sides

of the triangle the squares are described. If they were described Acajou, m, mahogany. Encre, f. ink.

Livre, f. pormd.

upon the inner instead of the outer sides of the lines, the construcAcier, m. steel. Epicier, m. grocer. Morceau, m. piece.

tion would be found to fail.” Is this true? Aujourd'hui, to-day. Fils, m. son,

Papier, m. paper. Beurre, m. butter. Fourchette, f. fork.

Plume, f. pen.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
Bière, f.beer.

Fromage, m. checse. Sucre, m. susar.
Bæuf, m. beef.
Gant, m. glove. Vin, m. wine,

G. P.-We are greatly obliged by his kind offer.
Café, m. coffee.
Libraire, m. booksclier. Votre, your.

R. W. L.-- We do not belong to the school he supposes.
Cuiller, f. spoon. Livre, m. book. Thé, m. tea.

M. N.- We inform him that the " Series of Lessons in French," re. Dé, m. thimble.

printed from the Working Man's Friend, will, "by special permis

sion of her Majesty's Postmaster-General," te transmitted free to any 1. Avez vous de la viande ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai une person's address on the receipt of Seven Pense Stamps, at this ollice. ivre de viande. 3. Votre fils a-t-il un morceau de pain? 4. Oui, Madame, il a un morceau de pain. 5. Le libraire a-t-il Printed and Published by Jous CASSELL, 335, Strand, and Ludgate-bil, un livre? 6. Il a de l'encre et du papier. 7. Votre søur

London.-April 10, 182.

beurre ?

THE INFLUENCE OF MORALITY OR IMMORALITY ON THE COUNTENANCE.

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We have taken the above engraving from a popular French evil would otherwise rear her temple of darkness and impurity. publication, as it exhibits to the life what it was meant to Look at the eye, nose, and mouth of the boy as he is at school, illustrate. But what need have we to go to a literary institu- or as he is located in one of the faubourgs of Paris, and who tion or a French faubourg, * to become acquainted with the does not perceive, from the very contour of the countenance, growth and development of humanity? We have only to look that his destiny will very much depend on the influences by around us to discover that everywhere man is the same. which he may be surrounded? In the one case, you see him Much has been said of the gcience of phrenology; but without pass into the higher and more polite circles of the educated depreciating the facts on which it is professedly based, we classes, yielding himself to all the softening, subduing, reconfess that we have a more profound faith in the doctrine of fining elements of pure female society; and in the other, physiognomy. No one can deny that the “human face divine" you see him trained and educated in a rebellious and revohas in it something expressive of that which enters into and lutionary faubourg, rushing into the scenes of dissipation, constitutes the character of the man. It may come out in the and surrendering himself to all the worst agencies of a eye, or the lip, or the nose, or the general contour of the coun- wicked world. In the one instance, you see him choosing tenance; but there it is, and no one can give himself to the his profession, and contemplating a settlement in life:closer and deeper study of this subject without being able, wedding himself to a virtuous, loving, and devoted woman, more or less correctly, to read the mysterious symbols of and in course of time becoming surrounded by a lovely human character and destiny.

and growing family, over which his presence sheds a warm Carefully examine the above engraving. Look at the head and sunny cheerfulness ;—in the other instance, you see and face of the child represented in the first figure. Who can the man emerging from the scenes of brutal intoxication to divine what that young intelligence will become in the future plunge into deeper, darker vices, till his conscience is burof his life? Is there anything in his features to indicate dened with guilt and misery, and life becomes a burden, that he will act a conspicuous part on the great wide stage of from which he perhaps seeks relief in suicide ; or it may this world? Or is he to sink in the scale of intelligent being, be, that his conduct renders him obnoxious to law, and till he takes on the mere animal nature, or, what is still worse, he comes to a premature death. If he be spared this tretill he become the very personification of vice and sin ? Even mendous fate, he comes to beggary, and goes down to the in the outlines of the infant countenance there may be the grave unlamented and unwept. How different this from the index of the future man. These outlines will become more career of the man whose happiest days are spent in the bosom marked and definite in the boy amid the studies and pur- of his loving family, and who grows old amid the most genial suits of the school. The period of boyhood is one of wondrous influences, honoured, revered, beloved :—who his development; and if this were but carefully watched, the children's children under the third or the fourth generafoundation might in many cases be laid for the erection of a tion, and who goes down to his last resting-place amid true manly nobility; and that undermined, on which moral the prayers and tears of those he loved, and whose dying

moments are cheered by the prospect of a happy reunion + The low suburbs of a city, such as Paris,

in a world where life is perfect, and joy complete. VOL. I.

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LESSONS IN LATIN.--No. II.

Now curro, of which I have spoken before, is of the third

conjugation. The person-endings in it will not therefore be By John R. BEARD, D.D.

the same as they are in the verb amo, I love. The personPRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS IN THE VERBS. endings in amo are o, as, at; amus, atis, ant. In the tables or In the former lesson I had to employ the worì curro, and in paradigms (patterns), which I am about to give, the person

endings are printed in italics, as amo, amas, amat; you will doing so I used particularly the form curr. This form is called therefore easily recognise them, and ought in all cases to repeat the stem of the word. The stem of a word is that which con. them until you have imprinted them on your memory. tains its essential letters, or the letters which are necessary to make it what it is. Thus, curr is found in every form into

FIRST CONJUGATION. which the verb curro passes. Observe that the second ris

ACTIVE VOICE

PASSIVE VOICE added merely to strengthen the word, or give force in pro

PRESENT INDICATIVE.

PRESENT INDICATIVE. PERSON-ENDINGS.

PERSOX-ENDINGS. nunciation. You find this stem, cur or curs, for instance, in

Singular. Plural.

Singular. Plural. the English words current, ineur, concourse, concurrence, disObserve again, that many of our Latin words have

thou -atis,

aris, thou -amini, ye come to us through the French. They have, therefore, entered

ut, he

they

-atur, he -antur, they the English in the form which they had received in the

EXAMPLE.- Amare, to love ; stem, am. French. This is exemplified in concourse and discourse, where an o has been introduced by the French pronunciation, as PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE. PRESENT PASSIVE INDICTATIVE. these words come to us immediately from the French concours

Singular.

Singular. and discours.

1st per. Amo, I love.

1st per. Amor, I am loved The stem of a word is found generally by cutting off the

Amas, thou lovest and . Amaris, thou art loved 3rd Amat, he loves

3rd Amatur, he is loved final vowel or syllable. In curro you obtain the stem curr by

Piural.

Plural. taking away theo. The in reality is the sign of the first

1st per. Amamus, toe love 1st per. Amdmur, we are loved person singular, or I. The word for I is not prefixed in Latin,

2nd
Amatis, you love

Amamini, you are loved except when it is required for emphasis, because the termina

3rd

Amant, they love 3rd Amaiur, they are loved tions of the verb show clearly what person is meant—that is, whether it is the first person, 1, or the second person, thou, or Observe then that in order to form any person, you must first the third person, he. In the English there is a necessity for get the stem, by cutting off the last syllable. Then to the stem the constant use of the personal pronoun, because the endingsthus obtained, add the proper person-ending. Suppose you of the verb are not so different from each other as in the have to deal with the verb laudo, I praise: and suppose you Latin. Thus, in English, we say, I run, thou runnest, he runs, want to express in Latin, the English they praise ; the way to we run, you run, they run. Here, out of six persons,' the verb proceed is-throw away the o in laudo; by so doing, you get has the same termination for four, namely, I run, we run, you laud ; now, they praise is in the third person plural; the personrun, they run. But for the pronouns 1, we, you, they, the reader ending of the third person plural is ant, as shown above; subor auditor would not be aware from the use of the verb which join ant to laud, and you have laudant, which means they praise. person was intended. In the Latin, however, the verb has a table you find that its termination, namely, as, is the person

Or if you have to put laudas into English, by looking at the peculiar ending for every person. will call these terminations person-endings. These person- ending of the second person singular, and consequently laudas endings vary with the tense and the voice. That is, they are means thou praisest. I have entered into this full and minute different in the past tense from what they are in the present explanation once for all. If you take pains to make yourself tense; and they are different in the passive voice from what master of it, you will not require its repetition. But take care they are in the active voice. At present we will confine our not merely to consult the tables I give; you must commit selves to the present tense and the active voice. In curro, the them to memory; and never pass on until you have made them person-endings of the present tense, indicative mood, active in each case your own. Having learnt the form or example, voice, are as follow:

learn the vocabulary, and then put the Latin exercise into

English, and the English exercise into Latin. Do this also PERSON-ENDINGS.

from memory; but after you have done it, compare your transSingular.

Plural. 1st person

lation with the table or example, and correct it accordingly. 1st person -imus, we 2nd -is,

-itis, ye

Discover and write down the English representatives of the 3rd

3rd
unt, they

Latin words here used ; that is to say, the English words Adding the person-endings to the stem, we have the follow- derived from these Latin words. For instance, from delecto, ing example :

I delight, we have delight, delightful, delightfully; from orno, ACTIVE VOICE.-INDICATIVE MOOD.

I adorn, we have ornament, ornamentally, adorn, adornment; PRESENT TENSE of the verb curro, I run.

from educo (which properly means I draw out), we have to edu

cate, educator, education. Do the same after every separate 1st person

curro, I run
curris, thou runnest

currl'is,

exercise. 3rd currit, he runs

currunt, they run

What I have called “the characteristic" of the verb, may be These person-endings vary also in another way, which I called the sign of the conjugations. Thus, of the first conjuproceed to explain. Latin verbs are commonly divided into gation a long is the sign, and r is the sign of the third. These four classes, which bear the technical name of conjugations.

are Latin signs. Of the corresponding part of the English This division may not be the best, but it is that which is cus- verb, to is the sign; that is, the preposition to is in general the tomary, and therefore I retain it. These four classes or conju- English sign of the infinitive mood. gations are determined or characterised by the vowel which

VOCABULARY. precedes the termination re in the infinitive mood; thus :- Délecto, 1 Id: light Ornn, 1 I adorn Vrxo, 1 I griete The first conjugation ends in āre, as amare, to love.

Eddeo, 1 Ieducate Sulto, 1 I dance Vírurero, 1 I blame The second conjugation * ēre, as docere, to teach.

Laudo, 1 I praise Tento, 1 I try Vúluěro, 1 l wound The third conjugation ere, as regʻre, to rule,

EXERCISES -Latin-ENGLISH, The fourth conjugation ire, as audire, lo hear. We say then that the first conjugation is known by having a tentat; tentar a táre; vunneráris;, : xá'ur; laudámur; 11:28

Laudo; vituperas; or' at; elucámus; "sávis; vulnerant; long before re of the infinitive; the second hy having e long; educantur; rexáris; vulnerámici; delecto; delectas; delectat; the third by having e short; the fourth by having ilong. The delcctamus; del ctá'is ; delectu1.2 ; dclector; dtk etáris ; delectá ut; same fact may be put before you in a different way; thus, a delectánur ; welectímini; deliciúntur. long is characteristic of the first conjugation; e long, of the

ENGLISH-LATIN. second; e short, of the third ; i long, of the fourth. In general

I praise; thou praise t; he praises; we praise; you praise ; it may be remarked, that in the first conjugation a long pre- they praise; I am nraise 1'; thu art praised; he is praised; we vails; in the second, e long prevails ; in the third, e short are praised'; you art praised; they are praised; they deligbt; prevails; and in the fourth, i long prevails.

thou adornest'; you are grieved; they are educated; he danees;

I
thou
he

2nd

99

1st person

2nd

2nd
3rd

currimus, 1re run

you run

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