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EXERCISE 20.

cubical, prismatic, or cylindric form, and the square and comAdolph, m. Adolphus; Fabel, f. fable ; Welcher, which ; passes gave a new direction to stereotomy (or stone-cutting), Amerika'nisch, adj. Gellert, m. Gellert; Zim'mermann, m. Zim- architects gave wing to their imagination, because they now American (5., Heinrich, m. Henry;

had the means of realising its creations. Symmetry was Note VII.); Rathhaus, n. city-hall, 3oll'cinnehmer, m. toll.

studied in the ground-plan of their edifices; their architraves Bild, 1. picture, council-house ; gatherer;

were raised upon pillars and columns; and experience ere image; Rossenfarben, adj. pink- Zwilling, m. twin.

long taught them the strength of every stone, and the proper Bild'hauer, m. sculptor; coloured ;

height of every part of a building. Hence arose that harmony Brief, m. letter; Tinte, f. ink;

and proportion which elevated architecture into an art. We Bud'halter, m. book. Wann, when;

shall not attempt to decide the question whether pillars and keeper ;

columns were first formed in excavations, or in separate con

structions ; but it is evident that they were the first elements Haben Sie den Gesang' ter Nach. Have you ever heard the song of a regular architecture,—that is, of the orders which consti. tigall gehört'?

of the nightingale ?

tuted the first basis of architectural harmony. To the pyra3a, sehr oft, aber nie den der Lerche. Yes, very often, but never that midal constructions of Egypt and of Asia, the erection of

of the lark.

palaces and other edifices speedily succeeded, in which square Das Licht der Sonne ist nüßlich. The light of the sun is useful. and cylindrical pillars formed a most essential part ; be. Welsen Buch ist dieses ? Whose book is this?

cause the great weight of the materials employed, required Welchem von Ihnen gehört dieses To which of you does this book that they should be supported at short distances for the Buch? belong?

formation of internal and external galleries. These single Welches Buch meinen Sie? Which book do you mean? pillars could only be connected at the top by architraves of Das neue große Buc). The new large book.

such dimensions as combined the ratio of their breadth with Welches ist denn der rechte Name? Which is then the right name? the proportions of the supporting power of the columns. Upon 1. Welchen Tisch haben Sie ? 2. Ich habe den meines Freuntes, des stones, which, by their thickness, formed a new dimension

these architraves were placed platforms or ceilings of flat Tislers. 3. Welches Papier haben Sie ? 4. Ich habe das meines above the former; and, upon these platforms were formed terFreundes, des Lehrers. 5 Welcher von diesen Knaben yat meine blaue races or flat roofs, which were surrounded by another row of Tinte? 6. Keiner von ihnen hat Ihre Tinte, aber einer von diesen Knaben stones forming a border, and having an outward projection hat Ihr schönes rosenfarbenes Papier. 7. Welcher von ihnen hat es ? 8. which preserved the façade from the effects of the rain. These

were the origin of cornices and entablatures. The column in Atolph hat es, und Heinrich, Ihr fleiner Vetter, hat Ihren hölzernen Blei preference to the square pillar became the type of architectural stift. 9. Welches von meinen Büchern ist in Ihrem Zimmer ? 10. Ihre proportion. Simple, at first, it presented nothing but a cylinHellert's Fabeln sind dort. 11. Welder von diesen zwei kleinen Knaben drical shaft, without ornament, and only expressing the purpose ist Ihr Neife? 12. Sic sind beide meine Vettern. 13. Sind fie Brüder? | for which it was originally intended. The oldest specimens in 14. Ja, sie sind Zwillinge. 15. Welche Threr amerifanischen Freunde find and Greece, with the whole of the west, follows the same track ;

Egypt are of this description; Asia presents similar specimens ; in tem Rathhause? 16. Herr 6. und Herr l. 17. Weisen Budy baben thus proving that everywhere there is an invariable similarity Sie? 18. Ich habe das Ihres Vetters. 19. Wann þat Herr Zimmer, in the origin of the arts. The simplicity, elegance, and utility manu meinen Brief gehabt? 20. Er hat ihn vorgestern gehabt und sein of the column, engaged the attention of architects, and conFreund, ter Maler, hat ihn gestern gehabt, und ich habe ihn heute. 21. centrated all the efforts of their imagination. Thus it beSat der Lehrer den Sohn des Baders oder den des Sohneiders gelobt ? 22. of the different characteristic styles of the great nations of

came their architectural type or model; and formed the nucleus Gr hat weder den des Väders, noch den des Schneiders, sondern den des antiquity. Maurers gelobt. 23. Saben Sie die Federn des Kaufmanns oder bis des The most ancient monuments of Egypt ornainented with Budjhalters ? 24. Ich habe weder die des Kaufmanns, noch die ces Wuch. columns are situated in the Heptanomis. They exhibit speciþalters, sondern ich habe die des Zolleinnehmers. 25. Wer lobt den alten of the Doric order. The monuments of India excavated in

mens of the greatest simplicity, and strongly analogous to those Gapitán? 26. Der Hauptmann lobt ihn. 27. Er lobt das ganze Volt. the rock present the same principles of these primitive orders. 28. De Wagen des Franzosen ist groß und der des Engländers schön. In these two countries, which are the cradles of architecture, Regenschirin

artists at first decorated their columns and their capitals with 1. Which umbrella have you? 2. I have that of my brother, ornaments of which the ideas were taken from the local vege

tation, to which were sometimes added others borrowed from fauften Sie the sculptor. 3. When did you buy this pink-coloured dress ? animal nature. Thus in Egypt after having set up the simple

Tuchhändler Wollen cylindrical shaft for their column, they sculptured upon it 4. I bought it yesterday from my cousin, the

draper. 5. Will branches of the lotus, meeting each other and fastened together you give this book to this man or that ? 6. I will not give it by fillets. The capital which crowned the column was at first

composed of the bud of the same flower. This first idea was Keinem

afterwards developed in the application of vegetation of every to either.

kind to the ornamentation of the columns of the temples and Questions. 1. Like what is welcher ? welche? welches ? as in- of the great public edifices. In the following examples of terrogative declined? 2. Is the genitive often used ? 3. How Egyptian capitals there is one composed of the leaves of the does der, die dag, frequently stand? 4. What is meant here palm-tree. by independently? 5. What is it then called? 6. How em

Fig. 9. ployed ? 7. From what does it differ in Declension ? 8. How is it generally emphasised ? 9. Can you repeat some examples of its use? 10. What is said of such elliptical forms as feines Bruvcrs, &c., in German ?

LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-No. III.

THE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE.

AFTER the rude style of building practised in early times had spread itself in various forms over the ancient world, true art

BO at last made its appearance. The great nations of antiquity, as they advanced in civilisation, created a national architec

Egyptian Capitals. ture, each with a feeling and expression peculiarly its own. Egypt thus adorned with orders of architecture had its naAs soon as the stones used in buildings began to assume a tional style. The numerous works upon the history and antiquities of Egypt published during the last half-century have | Carli is even on a greater scale than that now described. But made us acquainted with its archaiological treasures, such as the temples of Ellora, near Dowlatabad, of one of which fig. 10 the temples and palaces of Thebes, of the Isle of Philoe, of is a mere sketch, is reckoned the most surprising and extensive Tentyra, of Apollinopolis, and of others ; and large public monument of ancient Hindoo architecture. They consist of buildings, decorated with numerous columns, immense pillars, an entire hill excavated into a range of highly-sculptured and obelisks, and sphinxes, which give to this style a peculiar ornamented temples. The number and magnificence of these character of antiquity and grandeur, of which mere verbal subterranean edifices, the extent and the loftiness of some, the description would fail to convey any idea to the reader; but endless diversity of the sculpture of others, the variety of which have been extensively illustrated in our Lessons on the curious foliage of minute tracery, the highly-wrought pillars, Ancient History of Egypt. In India, as in Egypt, isolated rich mythological designs, sacred shrines and colossal statues,

all both astonish and distract the mind of the beholder. It
Fig. 10

appears truly wonderful that such prodigious efforts of labour
and skill should remain, from times certainly not barbarous,
without a trace to tell us the hand by which they were de-
signed, or the populous and powerful nation by which they
were produced. The courts of Indra, of Juggernaut, of Parasu
Kama, and the Doomar Leyna, or nuptial palace, are the names
given to several of these great excavations. The greatest ad.
miration has been excited by the one called Keylas, or paradise,
consisting of a conical edifice, separated from the rest, and
hewn out of the solid rock, one hundred feet high, and upwards
of three hundred feet in circumference, entirely covered with
mythological sculptures.

Besides the excavated temples of India, there are several
others of different forms which may here be noticed. First,

those composed of square or oblong enclosures. The largest Temple or Palace of Indra at Ellora.

one remaining is that of Seringham, near Tritchinopoly. The

circumference of the outward wall is said to extend nearly columns and pillars appear to have had their origin in subter- four miles. The whole edifice consists of seven square enranean excavations for architectural purposes; of these numer-closures, the walls being 350 feet distant from each other. In ous examples are seen at Ellora, in the palace or temple of the innermost spacious square are the chapels. In the middle Indra. These pillars are much shorter than those of Egypt, of each side of each enclosure wall there is a gateway under their bases and capitals occupying a considerable portion of a lofty tower ; that in the outward wall, which faces the the height of the column and the entablature or rather the south, is ornamented with pillars of precious stones, 33 feet corona is less accurately traced. In cases where the Indians long, and 5 feet in diameter. Second, the temples in the form cut out the rock for the purposes of decoration, and sculptured of a cross. The most remarkable of these is the temple of them over with various ornaments the column assumes a Benares, in the city of Casi, on the banks of the Ganges, down lighter appearance and the principles of an order of architecture to which there is a flight of steps. It has been devoted to the can be traced.

religion and science of the Hindoos from the earliest periods of The excavated temples of India are numerous and extensive; their history. The form of the temple is that of a great cross the principal ones are those of Elephanta, Salsette, and Vel with a cupola in the centre, which towards the top becomes lore, or Ellora. Elephanta is situated near Bombay on a pyramidal. At the extremity of each branch of the cross, all small island of the same name, which received this appella- of which are of equal length, there is a tower with balconies, tion from the figure of an elephant being cut out upon the to which the access is on the outside. Third, temples of the rocks on the southern shore. The grand temple is 120 feet circular form. The temple of Juggernaut, which is that of square, and is supported by four rows of pillars; along the a complete circle is considered the most ancient in India ; the side of the cavern are 50 colossal statues from 12 to 15 feet Bramins attribute its foundation to the first king on the coast high. The face of the great bust is five feet long, and the of Orissa, who lived, according to their chronology, 4,800 years breadth across the shoulders 20 feet. At the west end of this ago. The image of Juggernaut or Mahadeo, stands in the pagoda or temple, is a dark recess 20 feet square, without centre of the building, upon an elevated altar. The idol is ornament; the altar is in the centre, and there are two described as being an irregular pyramidal black stone; and gigantic statues at each of the four doors by which it is entered the temple lit up only with lamps. In the ancient Hindoo On entering Elephanta, there is a piazza extending sixty feet writings, another kind of temple is described of which now no from east to west, and having a breadth of sixteen feet; indeed vestige is to be found. The Ayeen Akberry relates that near the body of the cavern is surrounded on every side by similar to Juggernaut is the temple of the sun, in the erection of which piazzas. The caves of Kenneri on the larger island of Salsette, the whole revenue of the province of Orissa, for 12 years, was in the same vicinity, and those of Carli on the opposite shore entirely expended ; that the wall which surrounded the whole of the continent, are equally remarkable. The mountain of was 150 cubits high, and 19 cubits thick; that there were three Kenneri appears to have had a city hewn out on its rocky entrances; at the eastern gate were two elephants, each with s sides capable of containing many thousand inhabitants. The man on its trunk; on the west two figures of horsemen comfront is hewn into four stories or galleries, in which there are pletely armed; and over the northern gate two tigers sitting three hundred apartments; these have generally an interior upon two dead elephants. In front of the gate was a pillar of recess or sanctuary, and a small tank for ablution. The grand black stone, of an octagonal form, 50 cubits high; and after pagoda is forty feet high to the soflit of the arch or dome; ascending nine flights of steps there was an extensive enclosure it is eighty-four feet long, and forty-six broad. The columns with a large cupola constructed of stone, and decorated with of the portico are finely decorated with bases and capitals; and sculpture. Such are the ancient monuments of which India at the entrance are two colossal statues each twenty-seven feet can boast, long before architecture had reached that proud high. Thirty-five pillars of an octagonal form, about five feet eminence on which it stood in ancient Greece. In our next in diameter, support the arched roof of the temple; their bases lesson we shall glance at those of Persia. and capitals are composed of elephants, horses, and tigers, carved with great exactness, Round the walls are placed

QUESTIONS ON THE PRECEDING LESSON. two rows of cavities for receiving lamps. At the farther end

What gave rise to symmetry in Architecture ? What to baris an altar of a convex shape, twenty-seven feet high, and mony and

proportion ? What two modes of creating edifices were twenty feet in diameter; round this are also cavities for lamps ; column?

followed in early Architecture? What is the simplest form of the and directly over it is a large concave dome cut out of the Where are the most ancient monuments of Egypt to be found?

What is the origin of cornices and entablatures ? rock. It is said that about this grand pagoda, there are ninety Wherein does the architecture of India differ from that of Egypt? figures or idols, and not less than six hundred of these figures How did the Egyptians ornament their columns ? How their within the precincts of the excavations. The cave-temple at temples ?

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LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-No. XII.

Ir, not, as in irreparable (from the Latin through the French ;

reparare, Lat. to get again), not to be got again, not to be regained, By John R. BEARD, D.D.

or restored. DERIVATION: PREFIXES (continued).

"Nor does she this irreparable woe

To shipwreck, war, or wasting sicknese, owe; Hyper, of Greek origin (layper, upon, over, too much), found in

But her own hande, the tools of envious fate, hypercritic; that is, one who is too critical, unjustifiably critical.

Wrought the dire mischief which she mourns too late."

Lewis, " Statiwa." " The hypercriticall controuller of poets, Julius Scaliger, doth so severely censure nations, that he seemed to sit in the chaire of the In irruption (rumpo, Lat. I break), the ir has the force of inio ; scornfull."'-Canden, “ Remaines."

the opposite of irruption, a breaking into, is eruption, a breaking Hypo, of Greek origin, with the import of under, appears in out of. Compare corruption, a breaking together, a brcaking up, hypocrisy, acting under a mask, acting an assumed character, in- a crumbling. volving both simulation or pretending to something you are not, In passes into the form is in isolated (insula, Lat. an ialar:1), and dissimulation or concealing what you are. Hypo appears also derived immediately from the French isolé; isolated, or rather ... in hypotenuse (Gr. teinein, to stretch).

sulated, means standing alone like an island in the sea. Tie " The equare of the hypotenuse in a right-angled triangle is equal to French form gains prevalence, and has given rise to the verb isolate, the squares of the two other sides.” Locke, “ Human Understanding." and the noun isolation. Hypo appears also in hypothesis (Gr. thesis, a placing), which by Inter, of Latin origin (compare enter as above), signifying loits derivation signifies a placing under, as is intimated in the Latin tween, among ; as intermarry, said of families, members of which supposition (sub, under ; and ponere, to place). An hypothesis, marry one another; inter is found also in interpolate, to in'roduce. then, is a supposition, --something put under certain phenomena This is a word which has given trouble to the etymologists. Both or appearances in order to explain their cause or immediate origin. Richardson and Du Cange connect it with polire, to polish. This * Any hypothesis which possesses a susicient degree of plausibility to carries with it the idea of corruption and depravation. Interpola

view makes interpolation a sort of amendment, whereas the word account for a number of facts, helps us to digest these facts in proper tion seems to me a low Latin word, whose root is the classical Latin order, to bring new ones to light, and to make experimenta crucis (that is, decisive tests) for the sake of future inquiries." —Hartley, "On Man." pello (pulsus), I drive, so that interpolation is something thrust in, In, of Latin origin, signifying in, into, and upon, having also a

something fosted on. This is the sense in which the word is genenegative force, appears in these forms, namely, ig, il, im, in, ir, is. to manuscripts by later hands than those by which they were ori

rally used, denoting the unjustifiable additions and insertions made Ig, as in the Latin word ignoramus, denoting one who knows no- ginally composed. thing. Here in makes the statement in the verb equivalent to a negative proposition. Ignoramus properly signifies we are ignorant.

" The very distances of places, as well as numbers of the books, deAn ignoramus once in a letter to me spoke of ignorami, fancying, monstrate that there could be no collusion, no altering nor interpolating with a smattering of Latin, that the plural of mus was mi. If one copy by another, nor all by any of them."— Bentley, “ on Free

thinking." ignoramus is used in the plural it must stand as ignoramuses ; but Beaumont uses ignoramus itself as a plural.

" The larger epistles of Ignatius are generally supposed to be inter

polated."- Jortin, “ Ecclesiastical History."
* Give blockhead's beere,
Aad silly ignoramus, such as think

Inter-minable is thus printed in “Richardson's Dictionary," as
There's powder-treason in all Spanish drink."

though the word was from inter, and minor, I threaten; whereas it Ignoramus is used also as an adjective ; e. 8.,

it made up of in, not, and terminus, a limit, or boundary, and so is

equivalent to unlimited, or unbounded ; as in
"Let ignoramus juries find no traitors ;
And ignoramus poets scribble satires."

Plains immense

Lie stretch'd below, interminable meads 11, as in illegal, not legal; illegitimate, not legitimate ; the root

And vast savannahs, where the wandering eye, of both being lex, legis, a law. In illustrate (lux, Lat. light)

Unfixt, is in a verdant ocean lost." il denotes upon ; illustrate is to throw light upon a subject. In

Thomson, "Summer." illusory (ludo, Lat. I play, cheat), deceptive, the il seems to be little more than intensive.

Intra, of Latin origin, signifying within, occurs in the forms Im, into, as imbibe (bibo, I drink), imbody (embody).

intra and intro, e.g., as in the recent word intramural (murus, Lat.

the walls of a city); intramural interments; and introduce (duco, “The soul grows clotted by contagion,

Lat. I lea), to lead within; also intromit (mitto, Lat. I send), to Imbodies and imbrides, till she quite lose

send or let in, The divine property of her first being." Milton In imbitter, the im is intensive or augmentive. In immature own mind, and into that idea of beauty which I have formed in my own

“ So that I (Guido Reni) was forced to make an introspection into mine (maturus, Lat. ripe), the im is negative,-immature means unripe ; imagination." - Drdyen, “Parallel." im is negative also in immemorial (memor, Lat, mindful) ; immemorial usage, is usage time out of mind.

EXERCISES FOR PANSINO. " And though some impious wits do questions move,

July is a very hot month. In July the grass and flowers are And doubt if souls immortal be or no,

burnt. Why do you not water your garden? The children go That doubt their immortality doth prove,

under the bushes. A bee is on the honeysuckle. The bee will Because they seem immortal things to know.”

carry the honey to the hive. Look at puss! She pricks up her The root of immortal is mors (mortis in the genitive), death ; | The mice have nibbled the biscuits. February is a cold month. It

She smells the mice. Puss wants to get into the closet. whence mortal.

It freezes. The boys slide. Here is a pretty white snowIn, in, as in inclose (claudo, Lat. I close), to shut in; in, into, as, drop with a green stalk. income; in means also not, as, incognito (abridged into incog.),

EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION. a word coming to us from the Latin incognitus, unknown, through the Spanish incognito. Inconvenient is made up of in, not, cum, toith, and venio, 1 come; inconvenient, therefore, is that which

Joseph and his brethren. does not come with you, does not agree with your condition, posi. tion, or wishes. In indigent (indigeo, Lat. I want), needy, the in Form sentences having in them these words :is augmentive.

Signification; prevent; incrustation ; excommunicate; cfforese * Themistocles, the great Athenian general, being asked whether he cence ; encamp; survey; office; entertainment; cpitaplı; equivowould choose to marry his daughter to an indigent man of merit, or to a cation; despot; forbid; pardon; hieroglyphics. worthless man of an estate, replied, that he should prefer a man without Describe a May morning. Report what you know of the chief an estate, to an estate without a man."'--Spectator,

river in the neighbourhood where you live.

ears,

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HISTORICAL TIIEME,

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ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

stonemason, that the veil of the temple was a brick wall.—A COLLIER A 1. (Holme-lane, Dear Bradford); W. R.; J. H. HARRIS (Staly. 10 days. A can do twice as much as B, and B twice as much a8 C.

proposes the following query," A, B, and C can do a piece of work i bridge); S. (Newcastle) ; WESTMONASTERIENSIS ; MAGISTER (Northaw, How

long would

each man take to do it alone ?"-J. GASCOIGNE (GatesHerts); and many others, solve Learner's question correctly thus:

bead): With every wish to serve all our subscribers, we cannot promise A, B, and C do part of the work in 1 day.

to insert any particular branch until we see our way. The German or A and B

the French will be pretty available in Sweden and Denmark.—JOHN Therefore, C does - its or to

COWELL (Colchester): We recommend to him the “ French Lessons" B and C do 16

reprinted from the Working Man's Friend” on the subject of pronunciaTherefore, A does 1-1'e or to

tion.-VECTIS (Isle of Wight): His ingenious communication on the And, B does t-io or its

motion of the moon shall receive attention.-W.T. (Oldham): We

thank him for Mr. Pitman's alphabet.-R. A. (Scarbro'): Matthew Wherefore A takes 16 days, B takes 48 days, and C takes 24 days to Henry's Commentary. do the work alone.-A. E, is right; they are misprints.-S. J. J. (Dept- DAVID HORSBY (Driffield): As he has given us so much good advice, ford): A manual of Arithmetic is preparing to accompany our Euclid.- we feel that it is at present out of our power to give him any ; excepting M. C. CAREY (Dublin): Mr. Pitman thinks his system is the best.–E. this, throw Shakspeare aside, and abandon caricature drawing.-G. C. M. DEAN (Preston): Geologists now-a-days do not say that the six BURROWS (Norwich): We thank him for his interesting little Handdays of creation mean six indefinite periods of time. They admit that book ;" we shall endeavour to notice its contents soon.-W. H. they are six natural days and the serenth day was also a natural day, in. W.(Manchester): For the law, study Blackstone ; for fluency of speech, tended as a day of rest, and to be observed according to God's appoint. join a debating society.- SOME STUDENTS (Accrington): Caligraphy, ment. What they do say is, that before these natural days commenced, &c., are preparing. Astronomy can be learned without a telescope, there were indefinite periods of time during which the great geo- Geometry without Arithmetic, Music without a master, and a language logical events took place, of which traces are left in the present crust of without a grammar ; but they can all be better learned with these the earth. Your suggestions about answers to correspondents are im- helps.-G. H. TOMS (Hackney): All parts of Music will be treated of. practicable, unless you wish one page of the book to swallow up more time You may begin with French as the easiest.–J. SUTHERLAND (Portsend labour than all the rest of the pages !!-AMICA LITERARON (Laun. mouth): We very much question the propriety of making the Sacred ceston): Her exercises in the three languages are very well done indeed, Scriptures a text-book for any language. A serious individual may do and we are equally pleased with the penmanship; we like something so; but not the thoughtless many. You know the truth of the that we can read with ease in the midst of our grotesque corre sentiment, spondence.-T. B. K. (Taunton): We must have a Key to the French

* But fools rush in, where angels fear to tread." and the German too.-W. A. TOLL (Stonehouse): We shall have Me J. S. (Ayrshire) : All his solutions are correct; in the extension of the chanics in the POPULAR EDUCATOR soon. As to the Steam-Engine, 14th Prop. B. I. Euclid, there is a most extraordinary misprint, which buy Cassell's history of the same, price 7d. The letters N.B. signify will be corrected when we come to that point in our Lectures on nota bene,—that is, mark well!-A. B. C. (Pembroke Dock): We thank Euclid.-W. WALTERS (Manchester) will find the advertisements he him for his remarks on Geometry, they are very shrewd; his explanatory wishes on the covers of the P. E, and French Extracts in the same.defence of Euclid's definition of a point, -viz., " That (magnitude) which HELLTO LIBRORUM (Glasgow) has not found out the Dean's Riddle.hath no (geometrical) parts," is, however, we fear still untenable. A point is not a magnitude either in idea or in reality.-CLEMENT R. in the French Lessons, p. 201, ex. 51, sentence 24, for on read en..

ONE of our subscribers at Blackburn points out the following correction NEEDHAM (Manchester) has sent us a very ingenious system of Logo- W. (Preston): Husband and wife are the nearest relations to each other typy, Logography, and Stenography. He seems to be a rival to Mr. Pitman. Those of our readers who take an interest in these matters, get a Latin Dictionary.

in the sight both of God and man.-A. DOUGLAS (Newcastle) should will find him at the Spread Eagle Hotel, Manchester.-HENRY BEDWIN (Salisbury) requests a solution of the following question: "If a hundred yards of string were wound round a stick an inch in diameter, what

LITERARY NOTICES. distance would a person have to walk (supposing him to keep at the end We have great pleasure in directing the attention of the readers of the of the string, and the string to be kept always tight from the stick), in POPULAR EDCCATOR to the folloring announcement of the publication of order to unwind it."

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS, at One Shilling. As nothing less than the most eza LATIN.-P. 207, right-hand column, line 11 from the bottom, after tensive circulation can possibly remunerate us for the necessary outlay in Singular," add these words and in th present tense active voice.- producing stuch a work at such a price, we trust that the large body of our Dr. Beard's instructions in English will contain all that is necessary for correspondents, at those suggestions we engaged in the publication of it, will a correct and thorough acquaintance with the language. E. W. is re- noro do their part, by making it as widely known as possible among their ferred to the Latin Key. P. 255, right-hand column, line 5 from the friends and acquaintances. We have no fear, ý this be done, that the debottom, for profuga read perfuga.

mand ecill fully equal our most sanguine expectations, which, ý realised, J. G. GRIMSBY: We thank him for his letter of congratulation.-A will inspire us toith confidence to continue the series of valuable educa. SUBSCRIBER (Kendal): His suggestions in regard to corrections will be tional works, of thich this may be considered the pioneer. referred to the end of the volume.-L. C. (Accrington): No is an ad- CASSELL'S SHILLING EDITION OF EUCLID.—THE ELEMENTS OF jective in the sentences quoted, and is like the Latin nullus ; in other GEOMETRY, containing the First Six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth cases it is an adverb, and is used instead of not.-W. H. W. BOWLING Books of Euclid, from the text of Robert Simson, M.D., Emeritus (Bradford): "Whateley's Logic” is the best modern work; but there Professor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow; with Corrections, are some good things in old Watts's. It is necessary to learn the Multi- Annotations, and Exercises, by Robert Wallace, A.M., of the same plication Table at all events; we mean the first one in the P. E. You university, and Collegiate Tutor of the University of London, is now have too many things on hand, and might with great propriety leave out ready, price 1s. in stiff covers, or 18. 6d. neat cloth. phonograpby. We certainly are gratified to find that Scripture is one of THE ILLUSTRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART.-The the subjects of your study. On that it were the study of all.-J. G., First Volume of this splendidly embellished work, is now ready, and may jun. (Kelso): We regret that in his otherwise intelligent note, the gues- be had in stiff covers at 4s. 8d. ; handsomely bound, price 68. 6d., or extra tion of p. 288 happens to be done wrong. The word ualiud in p. 204, cloth gilt edges, 78. 6d. It contains upwards of Two Hundred principal line 59, is wrong, it should be aliud. In Fleet-street, London, you may Engravings and an equal number of minor Engravings, Diagrams, &c. get a second-hand German dictionary for three or four shillings.-C.T. HISTORY OF HUNGARY, WITH UPWARDS OF EIGHTY ILLUSTRATIONS. PRICE (Frenchay): Verbum sat sapientibus, drop the “ tagging" of — The First Volume of the New Series of the WORKING Man's rhymes.-W. WOOLNOUGH (Knockdown): Solution of Learner's query Friend, neatly bound in cloth, price 30. 6d., contains the completest not right.-C. CHERTSEY : Lessons relating to poetry will be included History of Hungary ever published ; also, a History of China and the in Dr. Beard's English Lessons.- IRWELL, for the customs, should learn Chinese, with

Forty-six Illustrations of the Manners, Customs, Public gauging.-T. E. and R. P. (Paisley), for the sea, “ Norie's Navigation,” Buildings, Domestic Scenes, &c., of this most remarkable people; toprice 168.-Y. R. (a working optician) should have shown more sym-gether with numerous instructive Tales and Narratives ; Biographies, pathy for Opifex; for a pair of globes even at half the price of 30 with Portraits ; Scientific and Miscellaneous Articles, &c. - The guinea s, seems to us to be monstrous ! And surely this is one hundred WORKING MAN'S FRIEND is regularly issued in weekly Numbers, id. per cent.-R. C. TYPO (Oakham) proposes the following problem, which each, and monthly Parts at 5d. or 6d., according to the number of weeks he has correctly solved, “In a given circle, to describe three equal in each month. Part IV. of Vol. II. (for Angust), price 5d. is now ready. circles, touching each other and the given circle.” He most amusingly CASSELL'S EMIGRANT'S HANDBOOK, a Guide to the various Fields adds that “an architect in York has discovered that all the

beautiful of Emigration in all Parts of the Globe, Second Edition, with consider. Gothic windows of the Cathedral were founded upon this problem; able Additions, and a Map of Australia with the Gold Regions clearly indeed all the arches from the lowest crypt to the highest tower; that merked, is now ready, price 9d. it was the foundation of the Gothic arch itself, being founded on the Athanasian Creed !!!" We never knew before that the Athanasian Printed and Published by JOHN CASSELL, La Belle Sauvage Yard, Ludgate Creed was a problem in Euclid. We may, after this, believe with the

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SIMILAR to the excavated temples of India, are the excavated the first 2 inches deep, the latter 1 foot,—whence devolves the tombs of Persepolis and Nakshi-Ioustam. At the foot of the pedestal in the form of the cup and leaves of a lotus or lily. rock of Istakr, thirty miles south of Shiraz, stand the ruins of this rests on a plinth of 8 inches, and in circumference 240 Persepolis, which, some critics think, was the ancient Pasa- feet, the whole from the cincture to the plinth being 5 feet 10 gardæ. The platform, which first strikes the eye of the inches in height. The capitals which remain, though much traveller, appears to have been surrounded by a triple wall; injured, are sufficient to show that they were surmounted by of the first two as described by ancient historians, no trace the demi-bull. The heads of the bulls forming the capitals, now remains; but the third, which still exists, is a square cut look to the various fronts of the terrace. in the mountain, and is 60 cubits high. It is defended by But it is impossible in our limited

Fig. 12. palisades of copper, with doors of the same, 20 cubits high. space to indulge in the details of these The first wall was to inspire awe, the second was for strength, extraordinary ruins; we can only and the third for the defence of the palace. To the east of this refer our readers to the works which at the distance of 400 feet, is the royal mountain containing contain fuller descriptions of them, as the tombs of the kings. Here the rock is hollowed out into those of Le Bruyn, Sir William Ouseseveral chambers ; to gain the entrance to which, the coffins ley, Sir Robert Kerr Porter, and are hoisted up by machinery; no other way of ascending them others. A few miles distant from Perexists. This sacred enclosure, connected with the platform sepolis, stands the excavated hill of below comes within the bounds of what may be called the Nakshi-Roustam. It is about 1,200 castellated palace. Fig. 11, is a sketch of one of the tombs in feet high, and presents a precipitous the Shah Kuh or Royal Mountain.

face of whitish marble, nearly the

whole of which is covered with sculp-
Fig. 11.

tured tombs. The four most elevated
are executed in a superior style and
apparently coeval with Persepolis, and
belonging to the early kings of Persia.
The lower tombs appear to belong to
the period of the Sassanian dynasty,
and therefore to a considerably later
period. The description of these re-
markable tombs will remind us of the
"new tomb" of Joseph of Ariinathea
“ which he had hewn out in the rock,''
and of the “great stone" which was
rolled to “the door of the sepulchre,
wherein was never man yet laid,” till Doric style of the
the “King of kings" himself became
the tenant of its walls. It explains
also the meaning of the passage "she stooped down and
looked into the sepulchre," which is so inaccurately trans-
lated in our version, and which ought to be simply “she
peeped into the sepulchre ;”—“to peep" is the exact transla-

tion of parakupto, and according to Johnson, signifies “ to Tomb at Persepolis.

look closely or curiously; to look through any crevice;" the

darkness of the interior of the tomb, requiring a close and On the ground above, appear several mounds and rocky

narrow look, to ascertain if its tenant the "King of Glory"

was there. heaps, presenting the appearance of three distinct lines of

Fig. 13. walls and towns. The steep faces of this rocky palace are formed of dark gray marble, cut into gigantic square blocks, exquisitely polished and without the aid of mortar, fitted to

THI Thiết Du lifi I UGDUNES Alexian. each other with such closeness and precision, that the whole platform must have appeared as part of the rock itself. On the interior faces of the walls of the platform within the portal, are sculptured two colossal bulls, symbolical of power, and suitably placed at the gate of the great king. South of the portal, appears the magnificent terrace which supports the Hall of columns. This series of columns is called Chchilminar or palace of forty columns, and is approached by a flight of steps remarkable for their grandeur and the beauty of their decoration. But the columns themselves are the most sur

The Parthenon at Athens. prising in these respects ; they are each 60 feet high, the cir. cumference of the shaft being 16 feet, and the distance from the latest monuments discovered at Khorsabad, near Nineveh,

After this short digression, we proceed to remark that the capital to the tor, 44 feet. The shaft is finely Auted in 52 having exhibited no example of a column or even of isolated divisions ; at its lower extremity, begin a cincture and a torus, pillars, no comparison can be instituted between the columą vol. 1.

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Parthenon.

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