Εικόνες σελίδας



Hyper, of Greek origin (hyper, upon, over, too much), found in hypercritic; that is, one who is too critical, unjustifiably critical.

“The hypercriticall controuller of poets, Julius Scaliger, doth so severely censure mations, that he seemed to sit in the chaire of the scornfull.”–Camden, “Remaines.”

Hypo, of Greek origin, with the import of under, appears in hypocrisy, acting under a mask, acting an assumed character, involving both simulation or pretending to something you are not, and dissimulation or concealing what you are. Hypo appears also in hypotenuse (Gr. teinein, to stretch).

"The square of the hypotenuse in a right-angled triangle is equal to the squares of the two other sides.”—Locke, “Human Understanding."

Hypo appears also in hypothesis (Gr. thesis, a placing), which by its derivation signifies a placing under, as is intimated in the Latin supposition (sub, under; and pomere, to place). An hypothesis, then, is a supposition,-something put under certain phenomena or appearances in order to explain their cause or immediate origin. "Any hypothesis which possesses a sufficient degree of plausibility to account for a number of facts, helps us to digest these facts in proper order, to bring new ones to light, and to make experimenta crucis (that is, decisive tests) for the sake of future inquiries.”—Hartley, “On Man.” In, of Latin origin, signifying in, into, and upon, having also a negative force, appears in these forms, namely, ig, il, im, in, ir, ie. Ig, as in the Latin word ignoramus, denoting one who knows nothing. Here i7 makes the statement in the verb equivalent to a negative proposition. Ignoramus properly signifies we are ignorant. An ignoramus once in a letter to me spoke of ignorami, fancying, with a smattering of Latin, that the plural of mus was mi. If ignoramus is used in the plural it must stand as ignoramuses; but Beaumont uses ignoramus itself as a plural.

* Give blockhead's beere, And silly ignoramus, such as think There's powder-treason in all Spanish drink.”

Ignoramus is used also as an adjective; e.g.,

"Let ignoramus juries find no traitors; And ignoramus poets scribble satires.”

Il, as in illegal, not legal; illegitimate, not legitimate; the root of both being lex, legis, a law. In illustrate (lux, Lat. light) the il denotes upon ; illustrate is to throw light upon a subject. In illusory (ludo, Lat. I play, cheat), deceptive, the il seems to be little more than intensive.

Im, into, as imbibe (bibo, I drink), imbody (embody).

“The soul grows clotted by contagion,
Imbodies and imbrutes, till she quite lose

The divine property of her first being.” Milton

In imbitter, the im is intensive or augmentive. In mmature (maturus, Lat, ripe), the im is negative, immature means tonripe; in is negative also in immemorial (memor, Lat. mindful); immemorial usage, is usage time out of mind.

“And though some impious wits do questions move,
And doubt if souls immortal be or no,
That doubt their immortality doth prove,
Because they seem immortal things to know.”

The root of immortal is mors (mortis in the genitive), death; whence mortal. In, in, as in inclose (claudo, Lat. I close), to shut in; in, into, as, income; in means also not, as, incognito (abridged into incog.), a word coming to us from the Latin incognitus, unknown, through the Spanish incognito. Inconvenient is made up of in, not, cum, with, and venio, I come; inconvenient, therefore, is that which does not come with you, does not agree with your condition, position, or wishes. In indigent (indigeo, Lat. I want), needy, the in is augmentive. “Themistocles, the great Athenian general, being asked whether he would choose to marry his daughter to an indigent man of merit, or to a worthless man of an estate, replied, that he should prefer a man without an estate, to an estate without a man.”—Spectator.

Ir, not, as in irreparable (from the Latin through the French; reparare, Lat. to get again), not to be got again, not to be regained, or reptored.

“Nor does she this irreparable woe
To shipwreck, war, or wasting sickness, owe;
But her own hands, the tools of envious fate,
Wrought the dire mischief which she mourns too late.”
Leopis, “Statius.”

In irruption (rumpo, Lat. I break), the ir has the force of into; the opposite of irruption, a breaking into, is eruption, a breaking out of Compare corruption, a breaking together, a breaking up, a crumbling. In passes into the form is in isolated (insula, Lat. cn island), derived immediately from the French isolé; isolated, or rather insulated, means standing alone like an island in the sea. The French form gains prevalence, and has given rise to the verb isolate, and the noun isolation. Inter, of Latin origin (compare enter as above), signifying between, among ; as intermarry, said of families, members of which marry one another; inter is found also in interpolate, to introduce. This is a word which has given trouble to the etymologists. Both Richardson and Du Cange connect it with polire, to polish. This view makes interpolation a sort of amendment, whereas the word carries with it the idea of corruption and depravation. Interpolation seems to me a low Latin word, whose root is the classical Latin pello (pulsus), I drive, so that interpolation is something thrust in, something fosted on. This is the sense in which the word is generally used, demoting the unjustifiable additions and insertions made to manuscripts by later hands than those by which they were originally composed. “The very distances of places, as well as numbers of the books, demonstrate that there could be no collusion, no altering nor interpolating one copy by another, nor all by any of them.”—Bentley, “On Freethinking." “The larger epistles of Ignatius are generally supposed to be interpolated.”—Jortin, “Ecclesiastical History."

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Wherefore A takes 16 days, B takes 48 days, and C takes 24 days, to do the work alone.—A. E. is right; they are misprints—S.J. J. (Deptford): A manual of Arithmetic is preparing to accompany our Euclid— M. C. CAREY (Dublin): Mr. Pitman thinks his system is the best—E. M. DEAN (Preston): Geologists now-a-days do not say that the six days of creation mean six indefinite periods of time. They admit that they are six natural days and the serenth day was also a natural day, intended as a day of rest, and to be observed according to God's appointment. What they do say is, that bosore these natural days commenced, there were indefinite periods of time during which the great geological events took place, of which traces are left in the present crust of the earth. Your suggestions about answers to correspondents are impracticable, unless you wish one page of the book to swallow up more time ond labour than all the rest of the pages!!—AMIca LITERARUM (Launceston): Her exercises in the three languages are very well done indeed, and we are equally pleased with the penmanship; we like something that we can read with ease in the midst of our grotesque corre. spondence-T. B. K. (Taunton): We must have a Key to the French and the German too.—W. A. Toll (Stonehouse): We shall have Mechanics in the PopULAR EDUCATom soon. As to the Steam-Engine, buy Cassell's history of the same, price 7d. The letters N.B. signify nota bene,—that is, mark well!—A. B. C. (Pembroke Dock): We thank him for his remarkson Geometry, they are very shrewd; his explanatory ‘lefence of Euclid's definition of a point, viz., “That (magnitude) which hath no (geometrical) parts,” is, however, we fear still untenable. A Point is not a magnitude either in idea or in reality.—CLEMENT R. NEEDHAM (Manchester) has sent us a very ingenious system of Logotypy, Logography, and Stenography. He seems to be a rival to Mr. Pitman. Those of our readers who take an interest in these matters, will find him at the Spread Eagle Hotel, Manchester—HENRY BEDwn (Salisbury) requests a solution of the following question: “Ifahundred yards of string were wound round a stick an inch in diameter, what distance would a person have to walk (supposing him to keep at the end of the string, and the string to be kept always tight from the stick), in order to unwind it.” LATIN.-P. 207, right-hand column, line 11 from the bottom, after “Singular," add these words—and in the present tense active voice— Dr. Beard's instructions in English will contain all that is necessary for * correct and thorough acquaintance with the language. E. W. is referred to the Latin Key. P. 255, right-hand column, line 5 from the bottom, for profuga read perfuga. J. G. Gansby: We thank him for his letter of congratulation.—A Subscruheh (Kendal): His suggestions in regard to corrections will be referred to the end of the volume—L.C. (Accrington): Nois an adjective in the sentences quoted, and is like the Latin nullus; in other cases it is an adverb, and is used instead of not.—W. H. W. Bowl ING (Bradford): “Whateley's Logic" is the best modern work; but there *some good things in old Watts's. It is necessary to learn the Moon. plication Table at all events; we mean the first one in the P.E. You have too manythings on hand, and might with great propriety leave out phonography. We certainly are gratified to find that Scripture is one of the subjects of your study. " Oh that it were the study of all.—J. G., Jun. (Kelso): We regret that in his otherwise intelligent note, the question of p. 288 happens to be done wrong. The word waliud in p. 204, line 59, is wrong, it should be aliud. In Fleet-street, London, you may got a second-hand German dictionary for three or four shillings.-c.T. PRICE (Frenchay): Werbum sat sapientibus, drop the “tagging" of rhymes—w. WoolNough (Knockdown): Solution of Learner's query not right.-C. CHERTsey : Lessons relating to poetry will be included in Dr. Beard's English Lessons.-IRwell, for the customs, should learn gauging–T. E. and R. P. (Paisley), for the sea, “Nories Navigation,” price 19s—Y. R. (a working optician) should have shown more sympathy for Opisex; for a pair of globes even at half the price of 30 guineas, seems to us to be monstrous! And surely this is one hundred Pont-R. C. Toro (Oakham) proposes the following problem, which he has correctly solved, “In a given circle, to describe three equal circles, touching each other and the given circle.” The most amushgly adds that “an architect in York has discovered that all the beautiful Gothic windows of the Cathedral were founded upon this problem; indeed all the arches from the lowest crypt to the highest tower; that it was the foundation of the Gothic arch itself, being founded on the 4*ian Crced 111" We never knew before that the Athanasian Creed was a problem in Euclid, "We may, after this, believe with the

stonemason, that the veil of the temple was a brick wall.—A Collmen

proposes the following query, “A, B, and C can do a piece of work i 10 days. A can do twice as much as B, and B twice as much as C. How long would each man take to do it alone?”—J.GAscoignE (Gateshead): With every wish to serve all our subscribers, we cannot promise to insert any particular branch until we see our way. The German or the French will be pretty available in Sweden and Denmark.-John Cowell (Colchester): We recommend to him the “French Lessons” reprinted from the “Working Man's Friend” on the subject of pronunciation.—WECTIs (Isle of Wight): His ingenious communication on the motion of the moon shall receive attention.—W. T. (Oldham) : We thank him for Mr. Pitman's alphabet.—R. A. (Scarbro') : Matthew Henry's Commentary. David HoRNEY (Driffield): Ashe has given us so much good advice, we feel that it is at present out of our power to give him any ; excepting this, throw Shakspeare aside, and abandon caricature drawing.—G. C. BURRows (Norwich): We thank him for his interesting little “Handbook:" we shall endeavour to notice its contents soon.-W. H. W. (Manchester): For the law, study Blackstone; for fluency of speech, join a debating society.—Soxie STUDENTs (Accrington): Caligraphy, &c., are preparing. Astronomy can be learned without a telescope, Geometry without Arithmetic, Music without a master, and a language without a grammar; but they can all be better learned with these helps.-G. H. Tixts (Hackney): All parts of Music will be treated of. You may begin with French as the easiest.—J. SUTHERLAND (Portsmouth): We very much question the propriety of making the Sacred Scriptures a text-book for any language. A serious individual may do so; but not the thoughtless many. You know the truth of the sentiment, *But fools rushin, where angels fear to tread."

J. S. (Ayrshire) : All his solutions are correct; in the extension of the 14th Prop. B. L. Euclid, there is a most extraordinary misprint, which will be corrected when we come to that point in our Lectures on Euclid.—W. WALTERs (Manchester) will find the advertisements he wishes on the covers of the P.E. and French Extracts in the same.— HELLuo LIBRoRUM (Glasgow) has not found out the Dean's Riddle.ONE of our subscribers at Blackburn points out the following correction in the French Lessons, p. 201, ex. 51, sentence 24, for on readen.-J. W. (Preston): Husband and wife are the nearest relations to each other in the sight both of God and man.—A. Douglas (Newcastle) should get a Latin Dictionary.

LITERARY NOTICES. We have great pleasure in directing the attention of the readers of the Porul.AR EDucaron to the fellowing announcement of the publication of EucLID's ELEMENTs, at One Shilling. As nothing less than the most ertensive circulation can possibly remunerate us for the necessary outlay in producing such a work at such a price, we trust that the large body of our correspondents, at those suggestions tre engaged in the publication qfit, will now do their part, by making it as widely known as possible among their friends and acquaintances. We have no fear, if this be done, that the demand will fully equal our most sanguine expectations, which, if realised, trill inspire us trith confidence to continue the series of valuable educational works, of which this may be considered the pioneer. CASSELL's SHILLING - Epirion of EUCLID.—THE ELEMENTs of GeoMETRY, containing the First Six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth Books of Euclid, from the text of Robert Simson, M.D., Emeritus Professor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow; with Corrections, Annotations, and Exercises, by Robert Wallace, A.M., of the same university, and Collegiate Tutor of the University of London, is now ready, price 1s. in stiff covers, or 1s. 6d. neat cloth. The ILLUSTRATED Exhnerron AND MAGAZINE of ART.-The First Wolume of this splendidly embellished work, is now ready, and may behad in stiff coversat 4s. 8d.: handsomely bound, price 6s. 8d., or extra cloth gilt edges, 7s.6d. It contains upwards of Two Hundred principal Engravings and an equal number of minor Engravings, Diagrams, &c. HIsroRY or HUNGARY, with Urwa RDs or EIGHTY ILLUSTRATIONS, —The First Volume of the New Series of the Won RING MAN's FRIENi), neatly bound in cloth, price 3s.6d., contains the completest History of Hungary ever published; also, a History of China and the Chinese, with Forty-six Illustrations of the Manners, Customs, Public Buildings, Domestic Scenes, &c., of this most remarkable people; together with numerous instructive Tales and Narratives; Biographies, with Portraits; Scientific and Miscellaneous Articles, &c.-The WoRKING MAN's FRIEND is regularly issued in weekly Numbers, 1d. each, and monthly Parts at 5d. or 6d., according to the number of weeks in each month. Part IV. of Vol. II.(for August), price 5d. is now ready. CAssELL’s EMIGRANT's HANDbook, a Guide to the Warious Fields of Emigration in all Parts of the Globe, Second Edition, with considerable Additions, and a Map of Australia, with the Gold Regions clearly marked, is now ready, price 9d.

Printed and Published by John Cassell, La Belle Sauvage Yard, Ludgatohill, London, August 21, 1852.

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SIMILAR to the excavated temples of India, are the excavated tombs of Persepolis and Nakshi-Itoustam. At the foot of the rock of Istakr, thirty miles south of Shiraz, stand the ruins of Persepolis, which, some critics think, was the ancient Pasagardae. The platform, which first strikes the eye of the traveller, appears to have been surrounded by a triple wall; of the first two as described by ancient historians, no trace now remains; but the third, which still exists, is a square cut in the mountain, and is 60 cubits high. It is defended by palisades of copper, with doors of the same, 20 cubits high.

The first wall was to inspire awe, the second was for strength,

and the third for the defence of the palace. To the east of this at the distance of 400 feet, is the royal mountain containing the tombs of the kings. Here the rock is hollowed out into several chambers; to gain the entrance to which, the coffins are hoisted up by machinery; no other way of ascending them

exists. This sacred enclosure, connected with the platform

below comes within the bounds of what may be called the castellated palace. Fig. 11, is a sketch of one of the tombs in

the Shah Kuh or IRoyal Mountain.

Fig. 11.

Tomb at Persepolis.

On the ground above, appear several mounds and rocky heaps, presenting the appearance of three distinct lines of walls and towns. The steep faces of this rocky palace are formed of dark gray marble, cut into gigantic square blocks, exquisitely polished and without the aid of mortar, fitted to each other with such closeness and precision, that the whole platform must have appeared as part of the rock itself. On the interior faces of the walls of the platform within the portal, are sculptured two colossal bulls, symbolical of power, and suitably placed at the gate of the great king. South of the portal, appears the magnificent terrace which supports the Hall of columns. This series of columns is called Chehilminar or palace of forty columns, and is approached by a flight of steps remarkable for their grandeur and the beauty of their decoration. But the columns themselves are the most surprising in these respects; they are each 60 feet high, the circumference of the shaft being 16 feet, and the distance from the capital to the tor, 44 feet. The shaft is finely fluted in 52 divisions; at its lower extremity, begin a cincture and a torus,


the first 2 inches deep, the latter 1 foot, whence devolves the pedestal in the form of the cup and leaves of a lotus or lily. This rests on a plinth of 8 inches, and in circumference 244 feet, the whole from the cincture to the plinth being 5 feet 10 inches in height. The capitals which remain, though much injured, are sufficient to show that they were surmounted by the demi-bull. The heads of the bulls forming the capitals, look to the various fronts of the terrace. But it is impossible in our limited space to indulge in the details of these extraordinary ruins ; we can only refer our readers to the works which contain fuller descriptions of them, as those of Le Bruyn, Sir William Ouse- ------ley, Sir Robert Kerr Porter, and | others. A few miles distant from Per- | sepolis, stands the excavated hill of Nakshi-Roustam. It is about 1,200 feet high, and presents a precipitous face of whitish marble, nearly the whole of which is covered with sculptured tombs. The four most elevated are executed in a superior style and apparently coeval with Persepolis, and belonging to the early kings of Persia. The lower tombs appear to belong to the period of the Sassanian dynasty, and therefore to a considerably later period. The description of these remarkable tombs will remind us of the “new tomb" of Joseph of Arimathea “which he had hewn out in the rock,” and of the “great stone” which was rolled to “the door of the sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid,” till the “King of kings” himself became the tenant of its walls. It explains

also the meaning of the passage “she stooped down and looked into à. sepulchre,” which is so inaccurately translated in our version, and which ought to be simply “she peeped into the sepulchre;”—“to peep” is the exact translation of parakupto, and according to Johnson, signifies “to look closely or curiously; to look through any crevice;” the darkness of the interior of the tomb, requiring a close and narrow look, to ascertain if its tenant the “King of Glory” was there.

Fig. 12.

Doric style of the Parthcuon.

The Parthenon at Athens.

After this short digression, we proceed to remark that the latest monuments discovered at Khorsabad, near Nineveh, having exhibited no example of a column or even of isolated pillars, no comparison can be instituted between the columz


constructed by the Assyrians, if they did erect any, and those of the other people of Asia. The nations we have named in our preceding observations, were in the height of civilisation, while the Grecian arts were in their cradle; and it is difficult to admit that the Greeks had not learned their first lessons in architecture by the study of the Asiatic or African orders which we have described. In fact, the most ancient type of the Greek orders, the Doric, particularly at its commencement, is nearly the same as that exhibited in the tombs of the tanomis, and which Champollion called Proto-Doric or imitive Doric. The genius of Greece develo this first #. enriched it with details which the Egyptians had neglected, and formed out of it the first basis of its national architecture. The principal character of the Greek Doric is the nobleness and dignity of the whole order, the severe simplicity of its details and the moderation of its ornaments. The columns have no base; the shaft is ornamented by wide and shallow flutings; the capital is composed of a large moulding in the form of a cup, or flat vase, resting upon two or three little fillets surmounted by a square tablet. }. triglyphs, the fluted ornaments at the extremity of the architraves, which are seen in the frieze and entablature, belong exclusively to this order; the square spaces or metops between the triglyphs are frequently occupied with sculptures of isolated subjects; but the polished freeze, and consequently, the continued subject, o this order very rare. o this order does not exclude all decoration; and in buildings of a common character it loses its heaviness, and becomes very elegant; the mouldings then become finer, and some are decorated with various ornaments. Bec fig. 12. According to Vitruvius, it was in the temple of Juno, at Argos, where the Doric order of architecture first rose to a marked eminence, and became the model for the magnificent edifices afterwards erected throughout Greece. It was next employed in the temple of Jupiter Nemeus, at Nemea, between Argos and Corinth ; of Jupiter Olympius, at Olympia, in Elis, in a splendid triple portico in the city of Elis; and in three temples of the name city, viz., those of Juno, Minerva, and Dindymone, or Cybele; at Eleusis, in the great temple to Ceres: in the temple of Minerva at Sunium; and in the temple of the name goddess at Athens, called the Parthenon (see fig. 18); in the entrance to the Acropolis, and in other public buildings of great magnitude and splendour at Athens. In many, of the Islands of Greece and Magna Graecia, there were also temples of the Doric style of architecture; as that of Apollo, in Delow; of Juno, in Samos; of Jupiter Panellenius, of Zigina, and of Silenus, in Sicily; and many others in places of Inferior note, Many of these temples were of great magnitude , they were universally of an oblong form; in some the rticoes were only at the end; in others they were extended quite round the interior of the building, some in single, ond others in double ranges; some were covered with roofs, others were lost partly uncovered, and some were, dio by ranges of pillara along the middle of the interior. The superstructuro was placed upon, a o composed of three stops, which surrounded the whole building, and upon which the columns were all placed without bases. The number of columns were either six along the ends, and thirteen along the sides, or eight along the endo, and seventeen along the sides. When bust upon no large a scale, with the ranges of columns no distinctly isolated, the essential o: of the Doric order produed estaou, not surpassed for simplicity and majesty; and even the imperfeo remains which have escaped the ravages of time and barbarity appear to have far exceeded the expectaums of tunnosaurs. In the earlier examples of this order the diameters of the Ionia ulumns were very considerable in opontun to their height; for instance, the column of the !". of Mianus, in Mully, was only five diameters in height; out in ourse of time, these relative dimensions were changed, and a propowo more odapted to the production of delicate of... was in unduced. The Doric style of architecture was, won very few exceptions, the only one employed in Greece or ji, o, usion colonies, in Sicily, and Italy, and in Asia Minor, no efia, the period of the Macedonian conquest. In Asia inn, and particularly in, Ionia, there speedily arose, subse

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In the following Latin exercises ascertain, write down, and imprint on your memory the parts of the several verbs; that is, the mood, tense, person, and number, together with the exact English meaning; at the same time tell the person, tense, and mood endings, as well as give the stems. This you should do very completely with each lesson in succession. You thus make a commencement in what is called parsing, that is, telling or assigning the parts (in Latin, pars, a part), Parsing applies to nouns and adjectives, as well as to verbs, indeed, to all parts of speech; it is also concerned with syntax, or the combination of words into sentences; so that you cannot o your lessons completely until they are terminated. . But you have now advanced far enough to begin parsing, and would be rewarded if every day before you attempt a new lesson, you were to take “a back lesson," and parse it carefully; that is, go over again from the first what you have done with the strictest regard to the forms and rules. I will give you an example of what I mean by parsing:Let us take the short Latin sentence— Tullia patrem amat. The first thing I have to do is to construe it, or put it into corresponding English words. On looking at it, I see that Tullia is in the nominative case. Consequently, Tullia is the subject, and with it I must begin. But, patrem comes next: am I to take patrem in the second place? This I cannot do; for patrem is in the accusative case, and consequently must be dependent on some verb. The verb is there. Amat then comes after Tullia. Putting the two together I have, Tulia amat. Tullia loves. What does Tullia love? Patrem, her father. The whole then is, Tullia loves her father. Here you see a departure in the English from the Latin idiom. With such deviations you should familiarise your mind by constant and careful observation. The departure here is this, that to make good or idiomatic English, I am obliged to add the pronoun her, “her father,” there being in the Latin no word corresponding to her. Do not hence suppose that it would be bad Latin to say Tullia amat patrem suum, her father; but it is not customary to employ the pronoun in such cases, except it is wanted for the sake of emphasis, Having translated the sentence, I must now parse it. I shall take each word in its grammatical order. Tullia, Tulliae, a noun feminine of the first declension, nominative case, the subject to the verb amat. The stem is Tullia (thus Tullia, G. Tulliae, the e of the genitive being removed, Tullia remains as the stem). After giving the parts and relations of a noun as above, you should “go through" or decline the noun. So with all nouns, pronouns, verbs, and adjectives. Amat, from amo, is a verb transitive of the first conjugation, indicative mood, present tense, third person singular, agreeing with its subject Tullia, according to the rule “a subject must agree with its verb in number and person.” The four chief parts of amo are—amo, amavi, amatum, amare. The stem of amo is am, the stem of the present tense is ama, the personendings are o, as, at, amus, atis, ant. Amao is contracted into amo. Then go through the tense uniting the stem with the person-endings. You would act wisely if, in addition, you made amat the subject of inquiry; thus, what would amat be in the subjunctive mood? In the passive voice? In the subjunctive passive By what change is amat made plural? What is the corresponding second person singular * Plural? What does amat become in the future tense? In the pluperfect indicative? Go through the imperfect of amo. Give the perfect subjunctive first person singular; third person plural. These things may seem minute and troublesome to you : they would, however, be required by any good teacher; and attention to them is, I assure you, requisite to make a sound scholar; it is also requisite for that mental discipline which the study of language may give, and which, in its perfect form, is of very high value.

Another word remains—patrem; patrem from pater, patris

an imparisyllablic noun, of the masculine gender, the third declension, consonantal stem patr, in the singular number accusative case, being the object of the transitive verb amat, by which it is governed, according to the rule, “transitive verbs require their object to be in the accusative case.” Observe, that in thus setting before you a specimen of parsing, I have given you two rules in Syntax; thusI. A subject must agree with its verb in number and person. II. Transitive verbs require their object to be in the accusative case.—Of these rules you will forthwith have need to make constant application. Commit them to memory, and repeat them memoriter whenever applied. . A verbal and exact repetition of them, and of all rules, is desirable at first; afterwards, I wish that you should give the substance rather than the words of a rule, for if you express its substance you show that you understand its import.


Compáro 1, I get together, acquire; emigro 1, I go out, quit (E. R. emigration); flo l, I blow; intro 1, I go into, enter (E. R. entrance); judicol, Ijudge; latro 1, Ibark; libero 1, I set free (E. R. liberation); numero 1, I number; observo 1, I keep under my eye, observe; occipo 1, I fall upon, take possession of (E. R. occupation); vigilo l, I watch, keep awake, guard (E. R. vigilant); ventusi, m. wind; terror, Óris, m. terror; timor, Óris, m. star (E. R. timid); narratio, önis, f. a narrative; interitus, tis, m. ruin; placidus, a, um, placid, tranquil; ingens, ingentis, very great; vehémens, vehementis, vehement, very strong; jam, adv. already; nuper, adv. lately.


Ego te laudabam, tu me vituperabas, frater judicabat; ego te laudabo, tu me vituperabis, frater judicabit; ego ambulavi, tu vigilavisti, ventus flavit; ego ambulaveram, tu vigilaveras, ventus flaverat; ego te laudavero, tu me vituperaveris, frater judicaverit.

Quum milites urbem intrabant, omnes civestimoris pleni erant; 1. in silvå ambulabamus, vehemens ventus per altas quercus

abat, dum, nos placidus somnus recreabat. Vos vigilabatis; quamdiu, eris felix, multos numerabis amicos; bonos semper laudabo, improbos semper vituperabo ; si acriter pugnabitis, o milites, patriam interitu liberabitis; si virtutem amabis, omnes bonite amabunt.

Remark that sometimes an abbreviation takes place in the fect tense, and the tenses formed from the perfect tense. hus, instead of saying in full, vigilavisti, as above, the Latins shortened the word into vigilasti, leaving out the vi. This process is called syncopation, and verbs thus contracted (drawn together) are said to be syncopated. Other syncopated forms ensue; as laudasti for laudavisti; amasti for amavisti; amasse for amavisse; also in other conjugations, as complesti for complevisti; audieram for audiveram; audierunt for audiverunt. I resume the exercises; in which instances of syncopation will be found.

Quia semper, virtutis praecepta observastis (for observavistis) magnam vobis laudem comparastis; cur per totam noctem vigilasti o Praeceptores meos "semper amavi; nonne amasti tuoso Acriter contra hostes pugnastis ; quum milites urbem intraverant, ingens terror omnium civium animos occupabat; narratio quam mihi nuper narraveras, vehementer me delectaverat; quum exercitus hostilis, urbem oppugnaverat, nos jam emigraverimus; si animum virtutibus ornaveris (ornaris) semper beatus eris; quum hostes urbis nostrae agroe devastaverint, urbem ipsam oppugnabant.


We praised thee, thou didst blame me, father was judging; thou will praise me, he will praise thee, father will judge us; thou hast walked (syncopated form), I have watched, the winds blew; I will walk abroad; thou art watching; the wind was blowing; the soldiers will enter the city; the soldiers were entering the city; the soldiers are entering the city, the soldiers have entered the sity; the soldiers had entered the city; a very strong wind blows through the house; dost thou number many soldiers? I have numbered many friends; he has liberated (set free) his country from ruin;, hast thou watched all night? Love thy preceptors; let them love their parents; O boys, love virtue." The narrative delighted my brother; the narrative delights the girls; Whe narrative will delight father and mother; thou hast acquired fame by the narrative of the ruin.

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option); pecco 1, 1 sin; rédiimo, I love again; rogo 1, I ask; sanol, I heal (E. R. sanatory); supero 1, I surpass, overcome; tracto 1, I handle, treat; evenit, it happens; conscientia, ae, f. conscience; uva, ae, f. a grape; adhibeo2, I apply; adhibere curam, to take care; medicus, i, a physician (E. R. medical); honestas, itis, f honesty, honour aegrotus, i, a sick man; immortalitas, 4tis, f deathlessness; utilitas âtis, f. titility; statio, önis, f. a station, a post; maturus, a, um, ripe mature; immaturus, a, um, unripe; religiose, conseientiously; acer rime, very bravely; wide, see thou; videne, see thou do not.

RuLE: The conjunctions ut, that, in order that, so that, so as and ne not to, so that not, to prevent, require after them the subjunctive mood.

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Non dubito quin milites nostri superaverint hostes; non dubitabam quin milites nostri hostes superavissent; quin milites nostri superavissent hostes non dubitabam; non dubito quin milites nostri hostes superaturi sint; non dubitabam quin milites nostri hostes superaturi essent; non dubitabam quin vos patrium servitute liberaturi essetis; dubium non erat quin exercitus noster omnes labóres et aerumnas facile toleraturus esset: quis dubitat quin Hannibal contra Romanos fortissime pugnavérit? non dubitabītis quin ego vos semper amaverim; quis dubitat quin bonos semper laudaverímus, malos semper vituperavelimus? non est dubium, quin semper fidem servaritis (syncop. for servaveritis) nemo dubitabat quin hostes urbem expugnavissent; nulli civium dubium erat quin pro patria libertate acerrime pugnavissetis; quum hostes urbem oppugnabant, non erat dubium quin ingens terror omnium civium animos occupavisset (sync. occupasset).

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No one doubts that you will fight bravely for the liberty of your country; no one doubts that he fought bravely; no one will doubt that he will fight bravely; no one doubted that he had fought bravely; who doubts that the soldiers will capture the city ? There is no doubt that you endeavour (studeo) to preserve honour ; I do not doubt that my father will come; who doubts that I shall conscientiously preserve the city ? - Though non dubito quin, &c., requires the subjunctive mood in Latin, the verb must be Englished by an indicative mood; as may be seen in the English examples just given. In order to make this quite plain, I will give another instance: Non dubito quin bonus sit avunculus tuus. 1 doubt not that thy uncle is good. . - Here, then, you see the verb which in Latin must be in the subjunctive mood, must stand in the indicative mood in English. Such is a by no means unusual fact. RuLE: With the imperative the negative me is used, and not the negative non, as ne crede, do not believe.

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