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after verbs denoting motion; the second supine, that in u, is used after certain adjectives.
Remark: The supines are supposed to have been nouns of the fourth declension, that in um, a noun in the accusative case; that in u, a noun in the dative case (u for ui). LATIN-ENGLISH.
Parentes mei in urbem migraverunt habitatum; exercitus hostilis adventavit agros nostros devastatum; uva immatura est acerba gustatu; aerumnae sunt durae toleratu; sitis difficillima est toleratu; pira sunt dulcia gustatu; luscinia cantans animos nostros delectat; hostes adventant expugnaturi urbem; non est dubitandum de immortalitate animarum; obtemperandum est praeceptis virtutis.
The soldiers approach to deliver (supine in um) the king; the hos fle army approaches to capture the city; ripe grapes are sweet to the taste (supine in u), unripe grapes are difficult to be endured; they come to seize (fut. perf. act. of occupo) the fields; birds by singing (gerund) delight the mind; we must fight bravely for our native land (patria), the soldiers have approached to fight for their homes and their wives.
The factors which, being multiplied together, produce a composite number, are sometimes called the component parts of the number. The process of finding the factors of which a given number is composed, is called resolving the number into factors.
1. Resolve 9, 10, 14, 22, into their factors.
2. What are the factors of 35, 54, 56, 63?
3. What are the factors of 45, 72, 64, 81, 96?
Some numbers may be resolved into more than two factors; and also into different sets of factors. Thus, 12 2x2x3; also 124x3=6×2.
CASE I.-When the multiplier is a composite number. EXAMPLE 1.-What will 27 bureaus cost, at 31 crowns apiece? Analysis. Since 27 is three times as much as 9; that is, 27= 9X3, it is manifest that 27 bureaus will cost three times as much as 9 bureaus.
factor, and so on till you have multiplied by all the factors. The last product will be the answer required.
The factors into which a number may be resolved, must not e confounded with the parts into which it may be separated. Ta former have reference to multiplication, the latter to addition: that is, factors must be multiplied together, but parts must be added together to produce the given number. Thus, 56 may b resolved into two factors, 8 and 7; it may be separated into in parts, 5 tens or 50, and 6. Now, 8x7=56, and 50+6=56. EXERCISES.
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-No. XV.
CONTRACTIONS IN MULTIPLICATION.
ALTHOUGH the general rules previously given be adequate to the solution of all examples that occur in multiplication, yet in many Instances, by the exercise of judgment in applying the preceding principles, the operation may be very much abridged.
DEFINITION.-Any number which may be produced by multiplying two or more numbers together, is called a Composite Number. Thus, 4, 15, 21, are composite numbers; for 4-2X2; 15=15000, and is the same as 15 X 1000, &c. 5X3; 21=7x3.
Having resolved 27 into the factors 9 and 3, we find the cost Crowns 279 cost of 9 bureaus. of 9 bureaus, then multiplying that by 3, we have the cost of 27 bureaus.
CASE II. When the multiplier is 1 with ciphers annered to It is a fundamental principle of notation, that each removal f figure one place towards the left, increases its value ten times; sequently, annexing a cipher to a number will increase its vale times, or multiply it by 10; annexing two ciphers will increase ciphers will increase it a thousand times, or multiply it by value a hundred times, or multiply it by 100; annexing &c. Thus, 15 with a cipher annexed, becomes 150, and s is the same as 15X100; 15 with three ciphers annexed, berant same as 15x10; 15 with two ciphers annexed, becomes 1500,
4. What are the different factors and sets of factors of 8, 16, 18, 20, 24?
5. What are the different factors and sets of factors of 27, 32, 36, 40, 48?
We have seen that the product of any two numbers is the same, whichever factor is taken for the multiplier, and that the product of any three or more factors will be the same, in whatever order they are multiplied. For, the product of two factors may be considered as one number, and this may be taken either for the multiCASE III.-When the multiplier has ciphers on the right a plicand, or the multiplier. Again, the product of three factors EXAMPLE.-What will 30 wagons cost at 45 crowns apiece? may be considered as one number, and be taken for the multipli- Any number of ciphers on its right hand, is obviously cand, or the multiplier, &c. Thus, 24=3X2X2X2=6X2X2=site number; the significant figure or figures being one factur 12x2=6x4 4x2x3=8X3. 1, with the given ciphers annexed to it, the other factor. Thus, may be resolved into the factors 3 and 10. We may first multiply by 3 and then by 10, by annexing a cipher Solution.- Here 45 × 3 = 135, and 135 x 10 =
therefor 28 abo
To multiply by 10, 100, 1000, &c. Rule:
in the multiplier, and the number thus formed will be the protal Annex as many ciphers to the multiplicand as there are c required.
To annex means to place after, or at the right hand,
1. What will 10 boxes of lemons cost, at 63 shillings per br Ans. 630 shillings.
2. How many bushels of corn will 465 acres of land produc at 100 bushels per acre?
3. Allowing 365 days for a year, how many days are then 1000 years?
4. Multiply 153486 by 10000.
5. Multiply 3120467 by 100000.
6. Multiply 52690078 by 1000000.
7. Multiply 689063457 by 10000000.
8. Multiply 4946030506 by 100000000.
9. Multiply 87831206507 by 1000000000. 10. Multiply 67856005109 by 10000000000.
EXAMPLE.-How many acres of land are there in 3000 farms each farm contains 475 acres?
Operation 475 X 3=1425; and adding three First, 3000 = 3 x 1000. Now Multiplicand 475 Multiplier ciphers to this product, multiplies it Product
on the right of the multiplier.
Resolve the multiplier into two or more factors; multiply the nume It will be perceived that this case combines the principles of the multiplican by one of these factors, and this product by another and one of its factors is 1 with ciphers annexed to it.
To multiply when there are ciphers on the right hand of the multiplier. Rule:
Multiply the multiplicand by the significant figures of the
tiplier, and to this product annex as many ciphers, as are found
To multiply by 21, 31, 41, &c., or by 1 with either of the other 1. How much will 50 hogs weigh, at 375 pounds apiece? significant figures prefixed to it. Rule: 2. If i barrel of flour weighs 192 pounds, how much will 500
Multiply by the tens' figure of the multiplier, and write the first barrels weigh?
figure oj ihe partial product in the tens' place ; finally add this 3. Multiply 14376 by 25000.
partial product to the multiplicand, and the result will be the 4. Multiply 350634 by 410000.
answer required. 5. Multiply 4630425 by 6200000.
The reason of this method of contraction is similar to that of the CASE IV.- When the multiplicand has ciphers on the right preceding. hand.
1. Multiply 4275 by 31.
3. Multiply 7504 by 41. Example 1.---What will 37 ships cost, at 29000 crowns apiece ? 2. Multiply 38256 by 61.
4. Multiply 70267 by 81. Analysis.
Operation. First, 29000=29 X 1000. But Crowns 29000 multiplicand CASE VII.- When the multiplier is a decimal numberless unity. the product of two or more factors
EXAMPLE.-How much will 99 carriages cost, at 235 crowns is the same in whatever order they
apiece? are multiplied. We therefore mul.
Operation. tiply 29 by 37, and this product by
Crns. 1073000 product.
Since one carriage costs 235 33500 cost of 100 carriages 1000 by adding three ciphers to it.
crowns, 100 carriages will cost 100 235 cost of l carriage To multiply when there are ciphers on the right band of the times as much, which is 23500 23265 cost of 99 carriages. multiplicand. Rule :
But we wished to find the Multiply the significant figures of the multiplicand by the mul- cost of 99 carriages only. Now 99 is one less than 100; theretiplier, and to the product annex as many ciphers as are found on fore, if we subtract the price of 1 carriage from the price of 100, the right hand of the multiplicand.
it will give the price of 99 carriages. Hence, EXERCISES.
To multiply by 9, 99, 999, or a number composed of any num1. Multiply 2370000 by 52.
ber of 9's. Rule : 2. Multiply 48120000 by 48.
Annex as many ciphers to the multiplicand as there are 9's 3. Multiply 356300000 by 74.
in the multiplier; from the result subtract the given multiplicand, 4. Multiply 1623000000 by 89.
and the remainder will be the answer required. EXAMPLE 2.-Multiply 540000 by 700.
The reason of this method is obvious from the fact that annexing Analysis.
Operation. as many ciphers to the multiplicand as there are 9's in the multiplier, 540000=54 x 10000, and 700= 540000 multiplicand multiplies it by a number one more than is required; consequently, 7x 100; we therefore multiply the
700 multiplier subtracting the multiplicand from the number thus produced, must significant figures, or the factors
378000000 product. give the true answer. 54 and 7 together, and to this product
1. Multiply 4791 by 99.
3. Multiply 6034 by 999. annex six ciphers.
2. Multiply 7301 by 999.
4. Multiply 463 by 9999. When both the multiplier and multiplicand have ciphers on the
CASE VIII.- When the multiplier is composed of a digit and right, multiply the significant figures together as if there were no ciphers, and to their product annex as many ciphers as are found
its multiples. on the right of both factors.
EXAMPLE.—What is the product of 867 multiplied by 84? EXERCISES.
Operation. 1. Multiply 1563800 by 20000.
We first multiply by 4 in the usual way. 867 multiplic ind 2. Multiply 31230000 by 120000.
Now, since 8=4X2, it is plain, if the par. 84 multiplier 3. Multiply 5310200 by 3400000
tial product of 4 is multiplied by 2, it will
3168X2 4. Multiply 82065000 by 8100000.
give the partial product of 8. But as 8 de
6936 5, Multiply 210909000 by 5100000.
notes tens, the first figure of its product There are other methods of contracting the operations in multi- will also be tens. The sum of the two par
72828 product. plication, which, in certain cases, may be resorted to with advan- tial products will be the answer required. iage. Some of the most useful are the following :
For the sake of convenience in multiplying, the factor 2 is placed Case V.-When the multiplier is any digit preceded by unity. at the right of the partial product of 4, with the sign X between
Example.—How many gallons of water will a hydrant discharge them. in 13 hours, if it discharges 2325 gallons per hour ?
What is the product of 987 by 186 ?
Multiplicand 987 Since 48–6X8, we multiply the
Multiplier 486 partial product of 6 by 8, and set the Product 30225 gallons. the right of the multiplicand. Now,
5922 X 8
first product figure in tens' place as since multiplying by 1 is taking the mul
before. tiplicand once, we add together the multiplicand and the partial pro. duct already obtained, and the result 30225 gallons is the answer. Product 479682 To multiply by 13, 14, 15, &c., or by 1, with either of the other
To multiply when part of the multiplier is a composite number digits annered to it. Rule:
of which the other figure is a factor. Rule : Multiply by the units' figure of the mulliplier, and write each
First multiply by the figure that is a factor; then multiply this figure of the partial product one place to the right of that from partial product by the oilier factor, or factors, taking care to write which it arises; finally, add the partial product to the multiplicand, the first figure oj" each partial product in its proper order, and and the result will be the answer required.
their sum will be the answer required. This method is the same, in effect, as if we actually multiplied by When the figure in thousands, ten thousands, or any other the one ten, and placed the first figure of the partial product under column, is a factor of the other part, or parts of the multiplier, care the figure by which we multiply.
must be taken to place the first figure of its product under the 1. Multiply 3251 by 14.
3. Multiply 4028 by 17. factor itself, and the first figure of each of the other partial pro. 2. Multiply 25039 by 16.
4. Multiply 50389 by 18. ducts in its own order. Case VI.-When the multiplier is any digit followed by unity.
EXAMPLE 2. EXAMPLE, If 21 men can do a job of work in 365 days, how 2378 multiplicand
256841 multiplicand long will it take 1 man to do it?
85632 multiplier Operation. Explanation. 21402 X 4
8218912 Product 7665 days. adding this partial product to the multiplicand, we bave 7665 days for the answer.
13. 42304 x 999.
27. 5234 X 2435, 1. Multiply 665 by 82. 4. Multiply 783 by 93.
14. 50421 x 9999.
28. 48743000 x 637.
15. 67243 X 99999. 5. Multiply 69412 by 95436.
29, 31890420 X 85672. 2. Multiply 876 by 396. 3. 324325 X 54426. 6. 256721 X 85632.
16. 78563 X 93.
30, 80460000 X 2763. EXAMPLE.- What is the product of 63 multiplied by 45?
17. 34054 X 639.
31. 2364793 X 8485672. 18. 52156 x 756.
32. 1256702 X 999999. By multiplying the figures which produce the same order, and
19. 41907 x 54486.
33, 6840005 X 91 x 61. adding the results mentally, we may obtain the answer without
20, 26397 X 24648.
34. 45067034 x 17 x 51, setting down the partial products, Operation, Explanation.
21. 12900 X 14000.
35. 788031245 X 81x16.
22. 64172X42432. First, multiply the units into units, we set down
36. 61800000 X 23000. 63
37. 12563000 X 4800000. 45
23. 26815678X81. the result and carry as usual. Now, since the 6
24, 85 X 85. tens into 5 units, and 3 units into 4 tens will pro
38. 91300203 X 1000000, 2835 Ans. duce the same order, viz. teps, we multiply them
25. 256 X 256.
39. 680040000 x 1000000. 26. 322 X 325.
40. 4000000000 x 1000000. and add their products mentally. Thus, 6X5= 30, and 3X4=12; now 30+12=42, and 1 (to carry) makes 43. Finally, 6x4=24, and 4 (to carry) make 28. To multiply any two numbers together without setting down the
LESSONS IN FRENCH.—No. XXI. partial products. Rule : First multiply the units together ; then multiply the figures
By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D. which produce lens, and adding the products mentally, set down the result and carry as usual. Next multiply the figures which
Section XLIV, produce hundreds, and add the products, déc., as before. In like
(Sce Section 35.) wanner, perform the multiplications which produce thousands, ten thousands, dc., adding the products of cach order as you proceed, and thus continue the operation until all the figures are multiplied. auxiliary ($ 46]:
1. The reflective or pronominal verb always takes être as its ExamPLE.-What is the product of 23456789 into 54321 ?
Votre cousin s'est promené. Your cousin has taken a walk.
Nos amis se sont flattés. Our friends have flattered themselves.
2. Although the past participle of a reflective verb, be con1
jugated with être, it agrees with its direct regimen, when that 2x 13X14X 15x16x17X18X119X1 regimen precedes it, and is invariable when the regimen fol2X 2 3X2 4X25X26X27X28X29X2
lows it. The student should be careful to see, if the reflective 2X33X34X35X36X37X38X39X3
pronoun be a direct or an indirect regimen :135] :2X43X4 4X45X46X47X48X49X4
Vous vous êtres flattées, Mesde. You have flattered yourselves, young 2 x 53 x 5 4 X55X56X5|7x58X59X5
ladies. 12 7 4 1 9 6 2 3 5
Elles se sont donné la main. They have given (to) cach other the Explanation.—Having multiplied by the first two figures of the
hand. multiplier, as in the last example, we perceive that there are three It will be easily perceived that se in the first sentence is a multiplications which will produce hundreds, viz., 7X1,8 X 2, direct regimen, and that the same word in the second repreand 9 X 3; we therefore perform these multiplications, add their sents an indirect object. products mentally, and proceed to the next order. Again, there 3. Verbs essentially unipersonal, i. e., verbs which cannot be are four multiplications which will produce thousands, viz., 6 x 1, conjugated otherwise, take avoir as an auxiliary :7X2, 8 X 3, and 9 X 4. We perform these multiplications as before, and proceed in a similar manner through all the remaining
Il a plu, il a neigé, il a gelé. It rained, it snowed, it froze. orders. Ans. 1274196235269.
4. Verbs occasionally unipersonal, take être as an auxiliary :In the solution above, the multiplications of the different figures
Il lui est arrivé un malheur. A misfortune has happened to him. are arranged in separate columns, that the various combinations which produce the same order, may be seen at a glance. In prac. take the auxiliary avoir :
5. Faire [4 ir.] used unipersonally, and Y avoir, to be there, tice it is unnecessary to denote these multiplications. The principle being understood, the process of multiplying and adding may A-t-il fait beau temps le mois passé ? Was it fine weather last month.1 easily be carried on in the mind, wbile the final product only is set Y a-t-il eu beaucoup de monde ? Were there many people there! down. When the factors contain but two or three figures each, this able [§ 135 (6)]:
6. The participle past of a unipersonal verb is always in varimethod is very simple and expeditious. A little practice will enable the student to apply it with facility when the factors con:
Les pluies qu'il y a eu cet été. The rains which we have had this tain six or eight figures each, and its application will afford an excellent discipline to the mind. It has sometimes been used when the factors contain twenty-four figures each ; but the attempt
Résumé of EXAMPLES. to extend it so far is not profitable.
Les Italiennes se sont elles pro- Did the Italian laclics acalk:1
Oui, Monsieur, elles se sont pro- Yes, Sir, they have taken a walk. 1. Multiply 25 x 25. 5. Multiply 54 X 54.
menées. 2. Multiply 81X64. 6. Multiply 45 X 92.
Nous nous sommes aperçus de We perceived that, or we took notice 3. Multiply 194 X 144. 7. Multiply 1234X 125.
of that. 4. Multiply 4825X2352. 8. Multiply 6521x5312. Votre mère s'est elle bien portée ? Has
mother been well:: By suitable attention, the critical student will discover various Vos souirs se sont elles assises ? Did your sisters sit dolor! other methods of abbreviating the processes of multiplication, Cette marchandise s'est elle bien Did that merchandise sell well ?
vendue ? Exercises.
Vos enfants se sont ils appliqués Did your children apply to study : Solve the following examples, contracting the operations when à l'étude ? practicable, and prove them by the general rule, or by other Il s'y sont appliqués.
They applied to it. wethods.
Nous nous sommes donné de la }} ( jute (to) ou. At-tes Pich toiba 1. 12634 x 63.
7. 4300450 X 19.
peine (5 135 11)] 2.0, 15 56.
8. 9803401 X41.
Quei temps a-t-il fut ce matin ? Il'ht. wcuuther wus it this norning? 3. 7216X1000.
9. 6710015 x 71.
Nr til pas fait beau temps ? as it lot fine weather! 4. 42000 x 40300.
10. 3456710 x 18.
Quel malheur vous est il arrivé ? 11% at waisfurtune hus kappened to 5, 80000 x 25000.
11. 7000541x91. 6. 2567345 X 17.
Vous est il arrivé quelque chose? 12, 4102034 X 99.
Has anything kappened to you? Il ne n'est rien arrivé.
Nothing has happened to me.
On dit que cela est ainsi [Sect. 34 It is said that it is so.
On nous a dit cela [Sect. 34, R. 2]. We have been told that. apply ;
Neig-er, 1. peo. to Se tromp-er, 1. ref. to 4. In an answer to a question (see Sect. 23, R. 12), the proS'apero-evoir, 3. ref, to Snow;
be mistaken ; noun le corresponds in signification with the English word so, perceive;
Peine, f. trouble ; Se sery.ir, 2 ir, ref, to or it, expressed or understood. Le refers then to a noun not S'asseoir, 3 ir, ref. to Plu, from pleuvoir, use ;
determined (not preceded by an article or a possessive adjecsit down;
Se vend-re, 4. ref. to tive), to an adjective, to a verb or even to a whole sentence :S'ennuy-er, 1. peo. S Plume, f. pen;
Ces enfants sont ils aimés ?
Are those children loved? 49), to grow weary ;
Ils ne le sont pas.
They are not (80). 1. A qui vos scurs se sont elles adressées ? 2. Elles se sont
Ces demoiselles sont elles soeurs ? Are those young ladies sisters ! adressées à moi. 3. Ne se sont elles pas trompées ? (Sect. 37. Elles ne le sont pas.
They are not. 1.] 4. Elles se sont trompées. 5. Vous êtes vous aperçu de 5. When le refers to a determined noun, it often correvotre erreur. 6. Je ne m'en suis pas aperçu. 7. Vous êtes sponds in signification to the pronoun he, she, or they, which vous ennuyés à la campagne ? 8. Nous nous y sommes ennuyés may or may not be expressed in the English sentence. Le [Sect. 37. 4). 9. Ces demoiselles se sont elles ennuyées chez must then assume the gender and number of the noun to vous ? 10. Elles s'y sont ennuyées. 11. De quoi vous êtes which it refers. vous servie pour écrire, Mademoiselle? [Sect. 38. 2] 12. Je
Etes vous la scur de mon ami ? Are you the sister of my friend I me suis servie d'une plume d'or. 13. Ces écolières ne se sont
Je la suis.
I am (she). elles pas servies de plumes d'acier? 14. Elles se sont servies de plumes d'argent. 15. La Hollandaise s'est elle assise ? 16.
Résumé of EXAMPLES. Elle ne s'est point assise. 17. Lui est il arrivé un malheur? Leur conduite est elle approuvée ? Is their conduct approved I 18. Il ne lui est rien arrivé, elle ne se porte pas bien. 19. Ne Elle n'est approuvée de personne. It is approved by nobody. s'est elle pas donné [§ 135 (1)] de la peine pour rien ? 20. Cette dame est elle estimée et re- Is that lady esteemed and respected! Cette soie ne s'est elle pas bien vendue ? 21. Elle s'est très speetée ? bien vendue. 22. N'a-t-il pas fait beau temps toute la jour- Elle n'est ni estimée ni respectée. She is neither esteemed nor respected. née ? 23. Non, Monsieur, il a plu, il a neigé et il a grêlé. 24. Ces marchandises sont à vendre. Those goods are to be sold (for sale). N'est-il rien arrivé aux deux dames que nous avons vues ce
Ces enfants sont bien à plaindre. Those children are to be pitied.
A-t-on dit quelque chose à mon matin? 25. Non, Madame, il ne leur est rien arrivé.
Has anything been said to my brofrère ?
ther EXERCISE 88.
On ne lui a rien dit.
Nothing has been said to him. 1. Has it rained to-day? 2. It has not rained, but it has Savez vous comment cela s'appelle? Do you know how that is called i hailed and snowed. 3. Has anything happened to your little Madame, étes vous maitresse ici ? Madam, are you mistress here: boy? 4. Nothing has happened to him, but he is sick to-day: Etes vous la maîtresse de la mai- Are you the mistress of the house !
I am not (so), Sir. 5. Did your sister sit down at your house? 6. She did not sit down, she was sick. 7. Did that cloth sell well? 8. It sold
Je la suis.
I am (she). very well, we have sold it all.. 9. Did you perceive your error (erreur)? 10. We perceived it. 11. Were not your sisters
EXERCISE 89. mistaken in this affair? 12. They were not mistaken. 13. S'appel-er, 1. pec. to be Ecolier, m. scholar ; Pan-ir, 2. to punish; Were not your cousins weary of being in the country? 14.
called [$ 49 (4)); Jardin, m. garden; Rarement, seldom;
Lou-er, 1. to let, to They were weary of being at my brother's. 15. What have Auteur, m. author;
Relieur, m. bookbinder; you used to write your exercises ? 16. I used a gold pen,
Blâm-er, 1. to blame; praise;
Souvent, often; and my brother used a silver pen, 17. Have you used my conduite, f. conduct;
Us er, 1. to wear out ;
Paresseux, se, idle, Ven-dre, 4. to sell, penknife (canif)? 18. I have used it. 19. What has hap- Croi-re, 4 ir. to believe; pened to you. 20. Nothing has happened to me. 21. Has
1. Votre mère est elle aimée de sa sœur? 2. Elle est ai. your mother been well? 22. She has not been well
. .23. Dia mée de son frère et de sa sąur. 3. Les Italiens sont ils aimés your brothers apply to their studies, at school? 24. They ap: des Français ? 4. Vos écoliers ne sont ils pas blâmés 5. Ils plied to their studies and have finished their lessons. What weather was it this morning? 26. It was very fine sont blâmés quelquefois. 6. Sont ils souvent punis: 7. Ils weather. 27. Has your sister taken much trouble in this sont rarement punis. 8. Par qui êtes vous puni quand vous affair. 28. She has taken much trouble for nothing. 29. Did êtes paresseux ? 9. Je ne suis jamais puni. 10. Sa conduite the Dutch ladies walk? 30. They walked this morning. 31. a-t-elle été approuvée ?11. Elle a été approuvée de tout le
13. Cet How far did they walk ? 32. They walked as far as your auteur est il estimé? 14. Il est estimé de tout le monde. 15. brother's. 33. Have you given each other the hand ? 34. We Le jardin du relieur est il à vendre ou à louer ? 16. On dit shook hands. 35. Those ladies flattered themselves very much qu'il est à louer. 17. Le menuisier a-t-il fait faire un habit? (beaucoup). SECTION XLV.
18. Il en a fait faire deux. 19. Les habits que vous aves
achetés sont ils usés (worn out): 20. Ils sont usés, j'en ai fait THE PASSIVE VERB ($ 54).
faire d'autres. 21, Dit-on que nos amis sont aimés de tout le 1. The passive verb is conjugated by adding to the verb être monde ? 22. On ne le dit pas, car on ne le croit pas. 23. Les in all its tenses, the past participle of an active verb. See dames que nous avons vues à l'église hier au soir, sont elles model, y 54.
seurs 24. Elles ne le sont pas, on dit qu'elles sont cousines. 2. This participle must agree in gender and number with 25. On dit que l'officier qui vient d'arriver s'appelle S. the subject ($ 134 (2). Sect. 41, R. 6) :
1. Are you blamed or praised ? 2. I am neither blamed nor monde.
praised. 3. Is not your cousin esteemed by everybody? 4.
She is esteemed by nobody. 6. What has been said of my 3. The genius of the French language seems to prefer the brother? 6. Nothing has been said of him. 7. Do you know active to the passive voice. Many expressions which are in if your brother's house is to be let? 8. I have been told the passive in English, are accordingly, rendered into French Con m'a dit) that it is to be sold. 9. Is not an idle person to be by the active or reflective (f 128 (5), § 113 (1)]:
pitied? 10. The idle man is to be pitied. 11. Is your son Cette maison est à louer ou à That house is to be let or sold, sometimes punished at school? 12. He is always punished vendre.
when he is idle. 13. Are your scholars praised when they are Ma scur est à plaindre.
My sister is to be pitied. Cet homme est à craindre.
That man is to be feared.
diligent (diligent)? 14. They are praised when they are diliCet homme s'appelle H. (Sect. 35, That man is called H.
gent, and they are blamed when they are idle. 15. Is that lady
esteemed and respected; 16. She is loved, esteemed, and reR. 2). Cet homme se trompe (Sect. 87, That man is mistaken.
The propositions de and par are used indifferently after many passivo R. 2).
spected by everybody. 17. What has been told you ? 18. We opened in the earth, at a place called Costa, into which the have been told that your brother is respected by everybody. river Tunza immediately began to flow, quitting its former 19. Madam, are you Mr. S.'s sister ? 20. No, Sir, I am not. bed. This explains a circumstance which the geologist con21. Madam, are you pleased with your son's conduct ? 22. No, stantly meets with ; viz., he finds the ancient gravel bed of a Sir, I am not, for he is blamed by everybody. 23. How is river deserted, and a new one formed at a lower level. that large (gros) man called ? 24. It is said that he is called The action of earthquakes, or the movements of the earthH. 25. What is your brother's name? 26. He is called quake power, is threefold. It is vertical, from the deep interior James. 27. Have you been told that my brother is arrived of the earth up to its surface. It is horizontal, following the 28. We have been told so. 29. Are the goods which your course of certain rocks and strata, whether level or curved. brother has bought, for sale! 30. They are not for sale. 31. It is also circular or gyratory, as if it went round certain points Has the bookbinder had a coat made? 32. He has had a coat | in its course. In most earthquakes, the vertical and the hori. made. 33. Is his other coat worn out? 34. The coat which zontal movements have taken place together. he bought last year is worn out.
The VERTICAL action is a movement from below upwards, like the explosion of a mine in a stone-quarry. This motion
produces cracks and fissures in the earth, like those repreLESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-No. XI.
sented in fig. 2 of a former lesson. In many instances the
earth opens and closes rapidly ; in others portions of the crust By THOMAS W. JENKYN, D.D., F.G.S., &c.
slip down and disappear for ever. It was by an earthquake CHAPTER I.
movement of this description that the city of Messina, in Sicily, ON THE ACTION OF VOLCANOES ON THE EARTH'S CRUST.
was destroyed in the year 1783.
This vertical action of earthquakes has produced some very SECTION VII.
remarkable results. During a late earthquake in Italy, a great GEOLOGICAL PHENOMENA CONNECTED WITH EARTHQUAKES. part of the pavement-stones of some towns were hurled up into The changes which are produced in the globe by earth- the air, which, after descending, were found with their lower quakes are almost innumerable. It is by them that landslips / sides uppermost. This singular movement upward was in.
The Earthquake at Messina, Sicily, 1783. most frequently occur on the sides of mountains; new lakes stanced in the terrific earthquake which destroyed Riobamba, are formed in plains, and old ones disappear; new islands rise South America, in 1797. The corpses of the inhabitants who in the sea, and others are swallowed up; parts of continents had perished, and which were lying on the ground, were subside and sink, and others are elevated; the relative posi- thrown up to the height of many hundred feet on the hill of tions of sea and land are changed; and rivers quit their former La Cullca, and beyond the small river Lican. courses. During the earthquake which, in 1811, convulsed These vertical movements are felt, not on land only, but also the district of New Madrid, South Carolina, new lakes were at sea. During the celebrated earthquake of Lisbon, in 1755, formed and others dried up. When that district was visited the shock was felt in different parts of the sea. The captain seven years after, there was found, near Little Prairie, a tract of a ship, when off St. Lucar, felt his vessel violently shaken, of land many miles in extent that had become covered with as if she had struck the ground. On taking soundings, he water, three or four feet deep. When that water disappeared, found a great depth of water. Another captain, with his ship a stratum of sand was left in its place. On the same occasion, far higher north than Lisbon, had his vessel so shaken and and in the same district, large lakes of twenty miles in extent strained, as if she had struck upon a rock, so that the seams of were formed in one hour, and others were completely drained. the deck were opened, and the compass was overturned in the By the earthquake of Bogota, South America, in 1827, a fissure binnacle. Another ship, far out in the Atlantic, felt a con