Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

ness.

D

cussion so violent from below, that the men were thrown up propagated in cross or transverse directions from the different a foot and a half perpendicularly from the deck.

points or foci of the earthquake shocks. In the HOKIZONTAL movement of earthquakes, the shock is There are some instances in which these earthquake undulapropagated in a linear direction by undulations, or by an action tions seem to have opened a permanent way for themselves, which produces waves in the surface of the earth, not unlike through which they pass without seriously disturbing the inimmense waves of the sea in appearance. The sight of these habitants above. The earthquake power seems to have cleared earthy billows produce a swimming in the head like sca-sick- away the obstacles in the course which it took, and then, the

In using the word "wave" or billow," it is not to be way being opened, it always afterwards propagated its shocks supposed that the earthy soil always changes place as the in that direction. This clearance of the course would be the watery wave does. The undulatory appearances of the earth result of some one earthquake of great violence. Of this I are probably the effects of vibrations which radiate upward will give two instances. After the destruction of Cumana, from a deeply-seated point, each of which on reaching the the capital of New Andalusia, South America, in 1797, every surface lifts up the ground and allows it to sink again.

shock that has been felt on the south coast, which consists of These shocks of undulation, in a linear direction, must be calcareous rocks, extends itself to the mica slate rocks in the conceived to move, not like an electric spark, 'but in waves of peninsula of Araya. Before that date the shocks were never great breadth as well as length... The earthquake which de- felt in that peninsula. Also in North America, during the vasted Syria in 1837, was felt in a line five hundred miles long, earthquakes of 1811, 1812, 1813, the undulations which began and ninety miles wide.

in the south were propagated northward through the immense It is a general law in mechanics that vibrations, which are alluvial valleys of the Mississippi, in the Arkansas (pronounced transmitted through elastic bodies, have a tendency to burst, Ar-kan-sáws), and the Ohio. or snap asunder the superficies of such bodies. This law is It has been lately ascertained that the propagation of earthfound true in the undulations of earthquake power. The quake shocks does not depend on the nature of the rocks which magnitude of the waves propagated in the earth's crust is in- they meet in their course. The shocks have been felt in the creased the nearer they are to the surface, and, consequently, loose soil and mud of Holland and Flushing, and mountains of they crack the superficial soil and strata. In the earthquakes granite and mica slate, as well as limestone and sandstone rocks, of South Carolina, to which I have alreacy referred, between have been shaken. Hence it is evident that the undulations New Madrid and Little Prairie, the surface-earth rose in great or shocks are governed, not by the chemical constituents of undulations. When these terrible surface-waves reached a rocks, but by their mechanical structure and position, considerable height, the soil burst, and through the softened There are many instances in which earthquake undulations surface volumes of water and sand, and masses of pit-coal, have intersected and passed athwart or across several chains of were hurled up as high as the tops of the trees.

hills at right angles. In South America they are known to When these horizontal

have passed across the shocks proceed onward un.

Fig. 25.

two chains of Venezuela resisted, they are not con

and Sierra Parime. In sidered dangerous. The

India also a shock was most dangerous earth

propagated in 1832 froin quakcs are those which

Lahore to the foot of the occur where there are two

Himalayas. sources or foci of earthT

Neverthless, it is well quake action, which send

known in volcanic disforth their shocks in semi

tricts, that there are rocks circular or transverse di

which modify and regurections. In these cases,

late the direction of the one earthquake

earthquake wave. It is meets the course of ano

found that the undulather, and strikes iton the

tions proceed in a linear side. When the actions

course along a coast, and from these two surfaces or

at the foot of a mountain foci are simultaneous, and

ridge, and in the direction come athwart each other,

of that ridge, without enthey produce, in the sur

tering the chain of hills. face of the earth, the

.
Star

As proofs of the limitaeffects which are seen in

tion and interruption of the surface of the sea, Showing the transmission and interruption of earthquake shocks. earthquake waves,

I

may when one wave dashes

mention two very remarkagainst the side of another, without either of them being able facts. Shocks have been felt in strata near the surface displaced. You can easily imagine that a town, built on the which have not been known in the mines in a rock at much greater ground at such a point of the carth, would be affected much depth. Shocks, also, have passed onward at greater depths be Cike a loose raft happening to be at such a junction of two low, without being felt in the rocks and strata near the surface. mighty billows.

The inhabitants of Peru call such rocks “bridges," unler These statements are not so imaginary as the metaphors which the earthquake wave passes along. Instances of this which I have used to explain them. Their truth is amply veri. kind have happened in Saxony. At the beginning of this fied by the observation and experience of the inhabitants of century, earthquake shocks were felt in the deep silver-mines South America. The city of Quito is situated at the foot of a of Marienberg, which drove all the miners in terror to the volcano called Rucu Pichincha. The elevation of the city surface, where they discovered nothing of the kind had been above the level of the sea is 9,539 feet, about twice the height experienced. On the contrary, in 1823, in the neighbourhood of Ben Nevis or Snowdon. 'I keep these British mountains of the mines of Falun and Persberg, the workmen in the mines before your mind that you may always have a known scale of felt no movement whatever, whilst above their heads a violent height in view. The houses of Quito are large, massive, and shock of earthquake had alarmed all the inhabitants. The several stories high. Its churches are high-roofed, and adorned manner in which these facts might take place is represented with magnificent cupolas. Here earthquakes of great violence in fig. 25. Adjoining the granite , is the metalliferous rock B, are frequent, but they very rarely injure the buildings. The covered by the curved strata a b c d. An earthquake wave supposed reason of this is that the horizontal undulations of passing along a a would pass under the rock D Anfelt, and at the earthquake shocks are propagated undisturbed along the c it would be unknown. Another wave passing along cc rocks beneath. On the contrary, at a lower elevation on the would be felt at x, but be unknown at c E. FG is a silver plains of Peru, humble dwellings built of reeds and mud mine. To the miners at G, the earthquake waves in a a and co suffer exceedingly from what would be called gentle shocks. would be unfelt; and the earthquake wave which came from The reason of this is, the alternation of movements, which are u to G would be unknown to the inhabitants on the surface,

E

wave

[ocr errors]

+

[ocr errors]

The theory concerning the undulations of this invisible power Loch Lomond, in Scotland-in the great lakes of Canada in earthquake shocks, will perhaps be made more intelligible and in the islands of the West Indies. to you by a few hints on the propagation of subterranean I conclude, by mentioning that this earthquake power is in sounds, in rocks and strata that are convulsed.

perpetual activity at some point or other of the earth's crust. Some earthquakes take place without any subterranean There are some regions of the globe where tremblings of the sounds whatever, The awful shock which destroyed Rio- earth are felt every hour for months together. If our intelli. bamba was not attended by any noise. On that terrible gence about earthquakes were as extensively communicated as occasion deep detonations were heard at Quito and Ibarra, but that about meteorology, it is probable that we should find that not until twenty minutes after the catastrophe which had the surface of the earth is always being shaken at some one destroyed thirty thousand persons. Yet at Tacunga and point. This fact announces a great geological principle, which Humbato, places much nearer the focus of the earthquake, implies that the outward crust of the globe is incessantly the sound was not heard at all. In the earthquake of Lima, affected by the agencies of the subterranean depths below. in 1746, a sudden noise, like a subterranean thunderclap, was heard so far as Truxillo, a quarter of an hour later, but it was

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. XI. not accompanied with any trembling. When the volcano of St. Vincent, on a small island in the West Indies, made an

SECTION XXI. irruption of prodigious masses of lava, noises resembling thunder were heard far to the south-west, on the plains of The possessive pronouns mein, sein, &c., as already seen (Sect. South America, over many thousands of square miles, yet 15), are rendered absolute possessives by means of the chawithout any shaking of the ground.

racteristic endings er and es ($ 58. 4.) There have been instances in which uninterrupted subter- I. The possessive pronouns are likewise converted into abso. ranean noises have been heard, unaccompanied by any trace lute possessives by prefixing to them the definite article, and of an earthquake. The city of Guanaxuato, in Mexico, is suffixing the terminations e or ige. Ex : Mein jut ist weiß und der situated far from any active volcano; in January, 1784, the tein-e ist stwarz ; my hat is white and thine is black. Ihr Band inhabitants heard deep noises like roaring thunders. This ist roty und das icin-ige ist blau; her ribbon is red and his is blue. noise began at midnight of January 9, and lasted more than a The termination ige is the more common.* month. From the 13th to the 16th it sounded as if there were Observe, that the absolute possessives mein-er, &c., are inheavy storm clouds underground, in which there was slow flected like an adjective of rolling thunder, frequently interrupted by a short thunderclap.

THE OLD DECLENSION ; AS, It commenced gradually, and ceased as gradually. It was

Masculine. Feminine. Neuter. confined to a very limited space. A few miles off the city

Nom.
Mein-er ;
meint;

mein-es, mine; there was a district of basalt, where the sound was not heard

Qen. Miein-es;

mein-er;

mein-es, of mine; at all. In this case, not only was there no trembling of the

Dat. Mein-em;

mein-er;

mein-em, to, for mine; earth at the surface, but miners who were working in a mine five

Acc. Mein-en;

mein-e;

mein-es, mine. hundred yards deep felt no shaking. Nothing of the kind had ever been known in the mountains of Mexico before, nor, ever

Note, also, that those preceded by the definite article, are, in since that, has the phenomenon been repeated. This seems to respect to terminational inflection, varied like adjectives (Sect. intimate that by the action of earthquake power deep channels 10. II.) in the same situation ; that is, according to in the interior of the earth close or open, so as that the waves

THE NEW DECLENSION; AS, of sound are arrested in their course, or are propagated till Masculine. Feminine. Neuter. they reach the ear.

N. Der mein-ige ; die mein-ige; das mein-ige, mine; At the commencement of this lesson, it was said that the

G. Des mein-igen; der mein-igen; des mein-igen, of mine; earthquake wave moves in three directions. I have considered

D. Dem mcin-igen; der inein-igen; tem mcin-igen, to, for mine ; the vertical and the horizontal; we are now to have a sentence

A. Den mein-igen; die mein-ige; tað mein-ige, mine. or two on the ciRCULAR, or gyratory movement. This means that the earthquake power moves in a circuit. This circuit may be small or very large. The circular movements, on a small scale, are the most rare, and they are always most dan- After the Old Declension. Afler the New Declension. gerous, as was verified at Quito in 1797, and in Calabria in

Mein-e;

bie mein-igen, inine; 1783. In those instances it was found that walls which had

Mein-er;

ter mein-igen, of mine ; served for hedges in fields had completely changed their Dat. Mein-en;

ten mein-igen, to, for mine; direction, without being overthrown, and with the masonry

Mein-e;

tie mein-igen, mine. undisturbed. Also rows of trees, straight and parallel, had II. When the absolute possessive pronouns do not relate to been inflected. One of the most remarkable phenomena of some noun previously mentioned, they refer, in the plural, to these circular earthquakes was, that whole fields, which had one's relatives or family,t and in the neuter singular, to one's two sorts of grain growing in them, exchanged places and crops. This is difficult to account for, or to say whether the Deine or ons Deinige, thy property; das Seine or taš Seinige, his

property. Ex.: Das Meine or das Meinige, my property ; tas change was effected by a movement of translation, or by property ; ta: Ihre or das Zhrige, her property, your property, or mutual penetration of the different soils. Perhaps a statement of Captain Fitzroy may assist us to understand this. He says that Deinen or tie Deinigen, thy family, &c.; die Seinen or die Seinigent,

their property

Die Meinen or tie Vicinigen, my family, &c.; bic at Conception, in Chili, during the earthquake of February, his family, &c. 1835, the loose earth of the valley of the river Biobio was every

EXERCISE 21. where parted from the solid rock which bounded the plain. A circular earthquake would have moved this soil round. Allmäch'tig, adj. al. Gemd, n. shirt; Sowohl als, as well Humboldt tells us that, at Riobamba, he was shown a place

mighty;

Kutscher, m.coachman; as; among the rains, where the whole furniture of one house was Ei'genheit

, f. peculia. Nehmen, to take; Stempel, m, stamp; found under the ruins of another. In this case the soil of the rity;

Db'late, f. wafer; Wajöfrau, of washerfoundations must have moved in a wave of surface, as in a Fehler, m. mistake, Scicjal, n. fate, desstream with a direction first downward, then horizontal, and error ;

tiny;

Weltmeer, n. ocean ; again upward. That this is a fact is evident, from the legal General', m. general; Schlosser, m. lock- Wieje, f. meadow; disputes between the different owners of property which had | Gott, m. God;

smith;

Ziviichen, between. been carried many hundred yards round, and by the awards and, f. hand; Solusi, m. key; of the courts of justice which settled the claims. This circular movement is sometimes upon an immense scale.

* In the same way are treated Deiner, Deine, Deines, thine ; and Take a map of the world in your hand, and read any account Seiner, Seine, Seines, his. of the earthquake which destroyed Lisbon in November, 1775. † They may likewise refer (when the connexion makes the That earthquake was felt in Spain-in North America--in the application evident) to dependents, as servants, soldiers, subAlps-in Thuringia-in north of Germany—in Sweden-in jects, &c.

ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES AS INFLECTED IN ALL GENDERS OF

THE PLURAL.

No m. len

Acc.

woman;

Welsen Uhr hat Ihre Mutter ? Whose watch has your mother? in the nominative, as when in an oblique case. Ex.: Das Buch Sie hat die ih'rige.

She has hers (or her own). welches ich habe; the book which I have. Das Buch, welches hier ist; Haben Sie meine Brille oder die Have you my spectacles or the book that here is (is here). In compound tenses the main Ihrige?

yours ?

verb immediately precedes the auxiliary. Ex.: Das Buch, welches Jo vabe die mei'nige.

I have mine (or my own). ich gehabt habe; the book that I had have (have had). Das Bucy, Jedermann schißt dad Sein'ige. Every man prizes his own (pro- welches ich haben werde; the book that I have shall (shall have).

perty).

The same position of the verb is required, when the second Riebt auch Jedermann die Sci'nigen? Does every man likewise love of two connected clauses is introduced by a conjunction or an

his family?

adverb. Ex.: Ich kaufte es, weil es wohlseil ist ; I bought it because 1. Hat der Capitän sein oder des Generals Schwerdt? 2. Er hat das it is cheap. Gr wohnt noch, wo er gewohnt hat; he still resides.

where he has resided. Seinige. 3. Haben Sie meine Scheere ? 4. Nein, ich Habe die meinige. come if he is not sick (he comes, if he is not sick).

ir fommt, wenn er nicht frant ist; he will 5. Wer þat meinen Stod ? 6. Herr S. hat ihn. 7. Hat meine Schwester

1. Derjenige (that or the one) always points to something Ihren Regenschirmn ? 8. Nein, fie hat den ihrigen. 9. Hat der Schlosser specified by a relative in a succeeding clause. It is compounded of meinen Solüssel? 10. Nein, er hat den reinigen 11. Hat die Wasd the substantive pronoun der, die, daß and je ner with change of frau die Hemden meines Vrubers und meiner Freunte? 12. Sie hat jouw termination. It is frequently used instead of ber, die, or "da's wohl die seinigen, als die ihrigen. 13. Ale Menschen þaben iøre Fehler for the sake of greater emphasis. Ex.: Gr liebt nur dasjenige (in.

stead of tas), wag (Sect. 70. II.) er achtet; he loves only that und Gigen\citen—ich habe die meinigen, Sie haben sie Ihrigen und er vat which he esteems. tie seinigen. 14. Gott ist allmächtig; die Schidsale des Menschen sind in Derjenige is inflected like der meinige (Sect. 21.), that is, kiner Hand, auch das meinige und das deinige. 15. Das Weltmeer ist its first component is declined like the definite article and its last zwischen mir und den Meinigen. 16. Hat Herr A. Ihr Papier over tas like an adjective of the New Declension. meinige? 17 Er hat tas srinige. 18. Mein Vruder Hat mein Buch und DECLENSION OF derjenige, SINGULAR AND PLURAL. ich habe das seinige. 19. Hat er Ihre Oblaten und Stempel oder die leis

Singular. nigen ? 20. Er hat die meinigen. 21. Wessen Wagen yat 3hr guter

Masculine. Feminine. Neuter. Freund, Herr V. 22. Er hat den seines Dheims. 23. Und wessen Pferde

N. Derjenige, diejenige, dažjenige, that (the one);

6. Dečjenigen, berjenigen, beejenigen, of that; þat er? 24. &r hat die meinigen 25. Messen Kutscher vat er? 26.

D. Demjenigen, derjenigen, demjenigen, to that; Gr hat der seinigen. 27. Wessen Schaafe sind diese in der Wieso? 28.

શ. Denjenigen, tiejenige, dasjenige, that. Sie sind die unsrigen. 29. Haben diese Deutschen ihre Pferte und ihre

Plural, all genders. Wagen, oder die unsrigen? 30. Sie haben tie unsrigen. 31. Wessen

diejenigen, those; Bücher haben biese Schüler ? 32. Sie ḥaben die ihrigen. 33. Nehmen

derjenigen, of those ; Sie immer das 3hrige? 34. Ja, Jedermann nimmt das Scine. 35.

denjenigen, to those; Vann haben Sie die Ihrigen geschen? 36. Ich habe sie vorgestern ge.

ricjenigen, those. fehen. 37. Haben Sie mich und die Meinigen gestern Abend in dem Con, II. Welover (relative) usually adopts the genitive of the subcert gesehen? 38. 3a, ich habe Sie und die Ihrigen gesehen. 39. Der stontive pronoun „Der" ($ 65. 1. 2.) Felthurt lobte die Seinigen.

The genitive of „Welcher" is only used interrogatively in the

masculine and neuter singular, and is „Wessen" whose, of whom, tes Grafen

or which. 1. The coachman of Count B. has my spectacles, but not

DECLENSION OF THE RELATIVT welcher.
Töchter
franfen
ftolzer
Singular,

Piural. yours. 2. The daughters of the infirm general are more proud

Masc. Fem. Neut.

All genders. verloren Brief. Siempel

N. Welcher, than mine. 3. I have lost my letter-stamp, but here is yours (9. Dessen,

welche, welches, welche, who, which, that ;

beren, dessen, , deren, whose, of whom, &c.; Wem gehören

D. Welchem, welcher, welchem, welchen, to whom, &c.; and his. 4. To whom belong these beautiful meadows, are A. Welchen, welche, welches, welche, whom, which, that.

bas they yours? 5. No, they are not (the) mine; they are the Examples of welcher (interrogative and relative) and derjenige. Eigenthum

Welcher Mann ist frant?

Which man is sick ? property of my friend the coachman. 6. Have you his key or Derjenige, welcher im Hause ist. The one who is in the house.

derjenigen
Welche Feder haben Sie?

Which pen have you? mine? 7. I have neither his nor my own, but that of my wife. Id habe diejenige, welche Sie gehabt I have the one that you have enttedten Dich an dem weld)es

haben.

had. 8. They discovered the thief by the shirt which he wore, and Wessen Buch haben Sie?

Whose book have you ?
Wann

Ich habe das de Mannes, desien I have that of the man whose which was not bis own 9. When did you see your (friends)? Stod Sie haben.

stick you have. seit jüngsten

Welchen Knaben haben Sie das

To which boys have you given 10. I have not seen them since last summer. 11. He loves too Geld gegeben ?

the money ? sehr

Ich habe es denjenigen gegeben, I have given it to those to whom much his (property). 12. Have you seen me and mine, and welden Sie Vrod gaben.

you have given bread. gestern Abend

Uhr

III. For both derjenige and the relative welcher, the proHenry and his, last night between seven and eight o'clock in the

noun der may be substituted. Ex.: Der Mann der frank ist; the Allse

man that (who) is sick. Weld)es Buch ḥaben Sie? which book avenue ?

have you? Jd habe das (bač jenige), da 8 (welches) Sie gehabt haben; QUESTIONS. 1. Can you name the different forms of abso- I have that (the one) that (which) you have had. lute possessive pronouns? 2. What distinguishes both classes Der, when substituted for derjenige, is in the genitive plural in form and declension ? 3. What do absolute possessive pro- derer (instead of deren). Er.: Hart ist tad Saidsalderer nouns refer to in the plural, when they do not relate to a pre. (derjenigen), tie sich nicht ernähren können; hard is the fate of those, ceding noun ?

4. To what in the neuter singular? 5. Can you who cannot support themselves. give examples ? 6. What is the substance of the note?

The use of berjenige often corresponds to that of our perSection XXII.

8onal pronoun, as well in the singular as in the plural. Ex.: Dec.

jenige den Sie suchen, ist nicht hier; he that (whom) you seek is not In compound sentences, connected by a relative, the verb here. Diejenigen die Sie suchen, sind nicht dier ; they (those) whom stands at the end of the last clause, as well when the relative is you seek are not here.

trug

ber

348

EXERCISE 22.

Amtmann, m. magis- Hülfes, helpless;
trate;
Karel'te, f chapel;
Arbeiter, m. labourer, Kaufen, to buy;
workman;
Lasterhaft, vicious;
Einsiedler, m. hermit; Leßt, last;
Fricte, m. peace, tran- Lehn, m. reward;
quillity;
Narbe, f. scar;
Herz, n. heart; Scheune, f. shed, barn;
Wir lieben Diejenigen, die (welche)

uns heben.

Ich habe den Hut, den ich gestern gehabt habe.

Sie haben die Acrfel, die reif sint, und ich habe diejenigen, tie grün find.

Der'jenige, den ich suche, ist nicht hier.
Der'jenige, dessen Stock ich habe, ist

frank.

THE POPULAR EDUCATOR.

Diejenige, zu der die Mutter geht,

ist krank. Die'jenigen, die stolz sind, sind auch närrisch.

Stirn, f. forehead;
Verlassen, forsaken,
left;
Weinberg,*
yard;
Wohnhaus, n. dwell-
ing.

m. vine

We love those, who (that) love

:s.

I have the hat, that I (have)
had yesterday.

You have the apples, that are
ripe, and I have those that
are green.

LESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY.-No. VIII.

THE FOX.

[Order CARNIVORA, species CANIS VULPES.] THOUGH the habits of the fox are generally known, an acquaintance with his structure is less common. He is larger and stronger when found in hilly, than in flat, districts. The average length of the head and body is two feet four inches; of the tail, or "brush," as sportsmen call it, one foot four inches. His general colour is the tawny, usually termed

2.

1. Welches Kind liebt der Dheim? Er liebt dasjenige, welches er
lebt. 3. Welches Kind liebt den Oheim? 4. Dasjenige, welches er liebt,
liebt ihn. 5. Welchen Hut haben Sie? 6. Ich habe denjenigen, welchen
Ihr Herr (Sect 17. V.) Bruder gehabt hat. 7. Welchen Knaben liebt
ter Vater? 8. Er liebt denjenigen, welchen die Mutter lobt. 9. Welcher
Knabe liebt die Mutter? 10. Derjenige, welchen der Vater lebt. 11.
Welches Pferd hat Ihr Bruder gekauft? 12. Er hat dasjenige gekauft,
welches Sie gestern gehabt haben (Sect. 18. VIII.) 13. Welchen Mann
leben Sie? 14. Ich loke denjenigen, deffen Schn Sie lieben. 15. Welche
Bücher haben Sie gekauft? 16. Ich habe diejenigen gekauft, welche mein
Bruter in den (Sect. 17. III.) Hänten gehabt hat. 17. Wessen Bücher
Haben Sie?
18. Ich habe die Bücher derjenigen Knaben, deren Hüte Sie
haben. 19. Diejenigen, welche lasterhaft sind, haben keinen Grieten tes
Herzens. 20. Derjenige, welcher die Narbe an der Stirne hat, ist der alte
Amtmann. 21. Dasjenige ist gut, was (§ 65. 5.) nüßlich ist. 22. Diese
Männer sind dieselben, deren Scheunen, Ställe urs Wohnhäuser Sie gestern
gesehen haben. 23. Der Arbeiter in dem Weinberge desjenigen, welcher den
lehten Lehn gibt, sind wenige. 24. Der Einsietler jener Kapelle ist ein
Freund derer (III.), die hülfles und verlassen sind. 25. Der (III) ist
meile, ver tusenthast ist.
Wessen
1. The friend whom I have is faithful. 2. Whose key have

fulvous, with a combination of white and black distributed in
different proportions, over various parts of the body. The
shoulders are reddish-gray; the throat and chest are gray; the
belly, the inner surface of the limbs, the cheeks, the upper
lip, and the tip of the tail are white; a black mark runs
along from the eye to the mouth; while the anterior part of
the limbs, and the back of the ears, are black. His offensive
smell comes from the secretion of a gland under the tail. The
fox is remarkable for the brilliancy and expression of his eye,
which evinces much intelligence. His senses of hearing and
of smell are exquisitely perfect. In winter his fur is fuller
and deeper than in summer, the fulvous becoming grizzled.
A grizzled tone pervades the whole, when the fox, escaping
from the dangers to which he is generally exposed, is permitted
to reach old age. He is not confined to particular districts,
but is an inhabitant of almost every temperate country on the
sometimes applied to man-"Crafty as a fox."
face of the globe, and everywhere maintains his character

Of his cunning he gives evidence in the choice of a dwelling-place. Not unfrequently he appropriates to himself the burrow of a badger, or a rabbit, easily enlarging it for his own convenience. At other times he excavates a burrow in some secluded place, generally on the edge of a forest or copse, but

treu

teren

fennen

you? 3. I have that of the woman whose daughter you know.

geben dieses

zuerst +

Mo

always in a situation abounding with his favourite food. Accordingly he displays his strong preference for the neighbourespecially if his concealment be favoured by tangled brushhood of a warren, a preserve of game, or a farm-yard; wood, with rough and broken ground. Often he dwells in a 4. I shall give this book to that (man), who will be first here. place where we should not commonly expect he would be 5. Have you seen my book? 6. No, I have not seen the one found. We have heard of a stock of poultry being sadly erwähnen Freude thinned by a fox, and of search being made for its burrow in which you mention. 7. The joy which I shall have. 8. I came, vain, till it was accidentally discovered, not at some conversprochen wohnen siderable distance from the dwelling-house, but actually in a because I had promised it to him. 9. Where do you live? part of the garden appropriated to pea-sticks, and various besuchten kinds of rubbish. Thus he lived, quite unmolested, in the 10. I live in the same house in which I lived when you called very centre of the area of his depredations. Damien upon me. 11. Which of these ladies is your wife? 12. The spricht Herrn one who is talking with the old gentleman. 13. The friend gekauft whom I have lost was very dear to me. 14. I have bought that sahen Fenster Schneiters. Ginyfehlen coat which you saw in the window of my tailor. 15. Remember Sie höflich ne to that gentleman who is so very polite.

He, whom I seek, is not here.
He, whose stick I have, is sick.

She, to whom the mother is
going, is sick.
They (or those) that are proud,
are likewise foolish.

QUESTIONS. 1. In compound sentences connected with relative, where does the verb stand? 2. Is the verb, in English, when used with a relative in the nominative, placed as in German? 3. When is it so placed? 4. In compound sentences what is the position of the main verb? 5. What of the auxiliary? 6. Examples? 7. What is the position of the verb when the second of the two connected clauses is introduced by a conjunction or an adverb? 8. To what does terjenige always point? 9. Of what compounded and how declined? 10. Like what is 11. What is ter in the the genitive of welcher as a relative? genitive plural, when substituted for berjenige? 12. To what does the use of derjenige often correspond? 13. Examples?

theuer

Rock

In his burrow, often called his "earth," the fox usually secludes himself during the day. But when dusk is coming on, he leaves his dwelling-place with an appearance strikingly expressive of his actual disposition. His sharp ears and muzzle, his oblique eye with a linear pupil adapted to his nocturnal habits, his peculiar curl of the upper lip, showing the canine teeth, and especially obvious when he is excited and ready to snap at his prey; all indicate his cunning, vigilance, and ferocity. Warily does he examine the limits of the farm-yard, and become acquainted with its sheds and buildings. Does he reach a high wall? Over this he instantly bounds. Are palings in his way? Under these he stealthily creeps. With noiseless tread he enters the poultry-house, often seizing on his victim without disturbing the rest, but sometimes putting all to death, as he provides for his future, as well as for his present, appetite.

Literally "Wine-mountain ;" so called because most vineyards in Germany are upon hills or smaller mountains; the sunny sides of these being much more favourable to the growth of the vine.

† Translate, “Because I it to him had promised.”

For poultry the fox, has, indeed, a strong liking: Not | lining it with dry leavès, moss, and hay. For her young she many years ago, a mischievous person unchained, during the strongly manifests her maternal anxiety, employing every artinight, a tame fox that was confined in a courtyard belonging fice to conceal them from discovery, defending them with into Mr. Wilcox, at Hatfield, in Hertfordshire. Reynard, find domitable courage, and, if she suspects her retreat to be known, ing himself at liberty, was not long in making his way out of carrying them away, one by one, to a place of safety. the premises, and proceeding but a short distance, he dis- Some years ago, a fox was fairly hallooed from its hiding. covered a hen-roost, and destroyed thirteen fine fowls, which place, amidst a ledge of rocks, high, secluded, and apparently he dragged to his box. The crafty thief, not being contented inaccessible, yet, withal, conveniently situated for those nightly with such an enormous booty, went a little farther, and found forays, by which he had laid half the henroosts of the a quantity of fine ducks, seven of which he killed ; and leaving district under repeated contribution. As the hounds were at six of them heaped up together, he brought the other home, hand, the fox bounded away through bush and brake, and so and was detected entering the courtyard with his prey. far distanced his pursuers, that they had the prospect of a long

Rabbits, too, are a favourite food with the fox; and, failing continued chase. But it was gradually found that violent ex. these, he is quite content to regale himself on pheasants and ertions were exhausting his energy, and the increased yelling partridges. For want of better food he will destroy serpents, of the pack showed that it was every moment gaining on the lizards, toads, moles, frogs, rats, and mice; and when greatly enemy. At this juncture, a gentleman who rode foremost in pressed by hunger, he will feed on roots, or other vegetable the chase, observed the animal pause, look round, and then substances, as a last resource. On the continent he finds even bound away with seemingly fresh vigour, and at a greatly greater luxuries than in England ; there he visits the vine- increased speed. Struck by this circumstance, he rode up to yards when the fruit is ripe, its sweetness being, no doubt, the spot, and there found a very young cub, which the affec. very grateful to his nice palate, and commits the most serious tionate mother had carried at least two miles in her teeth, and ravages. He is also said, by Buffon, to be fond of honey, I only abandoned at the very last extremity. Situated as they and will boldly

were, the party attack hives and

had no means wild bees' nests,

of restoring the frequently rob

cub, but as a bing them of

reward for the their stores, but

fidelity. of the not always with

mother the impunity; for,

whipper.in was issuing from

immediately ortheir castles, the

dered to call off enraged insects

the dogs, and fasten on the

recommence the invader, and

sports of the compel him to

day in a totally retire. When

different quarthey stick to

ter. his back, he

The cubs of takes his re

the fox are very venge by rolling

playful. Like on the ground

the puppies and and crushing

kittens we have them to death ;

often seen, they then, returning

are fond of en. to the charge,

deavouring to he devours the

catch their own wax as well as

tails, turning the honey.

round and Not only is it

round in the atsaid that the fox

tempt. At about will eat shrimps,

the age of four crabs, and other shell-fish, but that he will resort to a singular | months they leave the mother's protection, and look after device to obtain some of the finny tribes. Observing an otter themselves. If a fox be taken at the earliest age, and brought enter the water to fish, he will place himself behind a bush up in confinement, with every kindness, it will still retain its or a stone, and there lie concealed till he sees the otter safely suspicious character, and though it may, perhaps, show some on shore. Instantly he makes a violent spring at the booty, familiarity with the person who attends it, it will never which surprises and frightens the otter so much, that he rushes manifest ihe attachment or gratitude of the dog, and will into the water, leaving the fish behind.

either conceal itself on the approach of strangers, or repel His cunning, however, like that of human beings, is often any advances with a bite. A fox is, in fact, a wild animal, and void of success. We mention one of many instances. A not to be domesticated. So dear to him is liberty that if one farmer in Essex having suffered much from the depredations of of his legs be caught in a trap, he will bite it off to effect his a fox, determined to lay wait for him. Well-knowing his track, deliverance. he took his stand on a fine moonlight night, and soon espied him padding along a clover-field, with a young goose which he had just stolen, slung across his neck. At the moment the

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—No. XIII. gun was levelled Reynard caught sight of a hare, feeding a

By John R. BEARD, D.D. Litile on one side, and nearer to the farmer. Dropping, therefore, the goose, he began some curious gambols, rolling over

DERIVATION: PREFIXES (continued). and over on the ground, and jumping up into the air, but In the preceding prefixes and quotations, we may find a species of gradually getting nearer to poor puss, who was totally uncon indirect history. The facts I have set forth in connexion with scious that so wily an enemy was just at hand. At length the them, show us how much ours is a composite language, a language crisis came : with one enormous spring he captured the hare; that is, like the composite order in architecture, made up of ele. but the moment of his triumph was his last; the farmer shot ments derived from different sources. The facts also inform us the fox, and then carried home his double prize, not forgetting that the English nation has been closely connected with the French, the goose.

: and so is much indebted to the ancient Latins. To the corrupt On the female devolves all the labour of rearing the cubs, | Latin of the middle ages, we are also obviously indebted; and from for which she prepares a nest at the bottom of her burrow, the Greek tongue we have derived words and parts of words. Nor

[graphic]

THE POX.

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »