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have Italy and Spain failed to contribute to the enrichment of our And therefore to our weaker view language. In historical or genealogical relations, we Englishmen O'erlaid with black, staid Wisdom's hue." of this day are connected with the Norman baron as well as the Milton, "Il Penseroso." Saxon churl; with the monk and the schoolmen, no less than with Meta, of Greek origin, signifying after, and denoting change, the conquerors of the world; and may fancy the line of our re-transference, is found in metaphor (phero, Gr. I bear), a figure of lationship to stretch from the Thames to the Rhine, and from the speech in which there is a transference of the literal meaning of the Rhine even to the Indus and the Ganges. If every sentence that word. Words originally represented objects of sense. It is only has been written to convey to the world a history of England had by accommodation or transference that the word which set forth totally perished, still scholars out of the fossil remains of the nation some sensible objects has come to denote a state of mind or feeling. discoverable in its words, would, after the manner of the geologists, Thus acute, which now describes a shrewd, clever mind, properly be able to reproduce the great outlines of our English life. Even signifies sharp, piercing-from the Latin acu, a needle. In this single words are full of the elements of history. Those elements view, all words now applied to mental or moral phenomena, conare often beneath the surface; at least they are not obvious to the tain metaphors. Instances may be given in reflect (re, Lat. back; common eye. I give you, however, an instance, the historical and ficcto, I bend); abstract (ab, Lat. from; and traho, I draw), value of which is clear to all. When, in the early part of the reign conceive (cum with, and capio, Lat. I take); and of course their of Charles the First, the Puritan party began to rise against the corresponding nouns: also, in hard (hard-heart), open (open disroyal authority, the more demure members of the party wore their position), light (light-hearted). The term metaphor, however, is hair cropt so close and short, as, in contrast with the full and flow- specially given to more marked and striking, not to say artificial ing locks of the courtiers, to give their heads the appearance of so instances of transference, on the ground of some real or supposed many bowls. Queen Henrietta Maria, the spouse of Charles, resemblance between the material and the mental objects. Thus, observing this marked peculiarity graphically as well as wittily, the sun is termed the king of day; and the moon, the queen of termed them roundheads. The particular occasion was the fol-night. lowing:-"Samuel Barnadiston, a noted republican, was, in his "An horn is the hieroglyphick of authority, power, and dignity, and youth, the leader of a deputation of London apprentices, for the in this metaphor is often used in Scripture."-Brown, "Vulgar Errors." purpose of communicating to parliament their notions regarding civil and religious government. The queen, who saw this possé meta ta physica, after the physics). The force of the word will be Meta forms the two first syllables of metaphysics (in Greek, arrive at Whitehall, then first noticed the extraordinary roundness learnt in these quotations:of their closely-clipped heads, and saw at the same time that Samuel was a personable apprentice; upon which she exclaimed, La! what a handsome young roundhead!' The exactness of the descriptive appellation fixed it at once as a party name; roundheads they were called from that moment, and roundheads they will remain while history endures."* You thus see that the term 'Roundhead" contains a history. It also paints a picture. In roundhead we possess an historical picture; and the picture which it paints all can appreciate. Why? Because the word consists of Saxon terms, nursery terms. Translate the Saxon into Latin, rotunda capita, and so far from painting a picture, the term does not convey any meaning to the mere English scholar. If, then, you would be understood by the people, use words of Saxon origin. But if you would be well acquainted with the English language, study its Latin, and generally its foreign elements, as these are they with which you do not become familiar in the nursery, and which consequently present difficulties, and obstruct the pathway to knowledge. These remarks suggest reasons why we are entering so fully into the composition of English words. Magn, of Latin origin (magnus, great), in the forms magna, and magni, enters into the composition of the following words: magnanimity (animus, Lat. mind), greatness of mind; magnify (facio, Lat. I make), to make great, extol; magniloquence (loquor, Lat. I speak), great talk. Magnify is connected with the words magnificence, magnificent, magnifier. From magnus, great, comes also magnitude.

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Mal, or male, of Latin origin (malum, evil), forms a set of words
the opposites of words containing bene; as, malevolence, benevo-
lence; malediction, benediction. Male is found in mal-administra-
tion, and maltreat; malefactions (facio, Lat. I do), are misdeeds.
I have heard

That guilty creatures sitting at a play,
Have, by the very cunning of the scene,
Been struck so to the soul, that presently
They have proclaim'd their malefactions."

Shakspeare," Hamlet." Melan, of Greek origin (melas, black), to disorder, presents itself in melancholy (literally, black bile), whence it was thought came babitual sadness.

"But hail, thou goddess, sage and holy,

Hail divinest melancholy,
Whose saintly visage is too bright
To hit the sense of human sight;

"Lives of the Queens of England, by Agnes Strickland," vol. viii.

p. 92.

66

"The one part which is physic (physics, relating to matter) inquireth and handleth the material and efficient causes; and the other, which is metaphysie (metaphysics, the plural is now generally used) handleth the formal and final causes.-Bacon, "Advancement of Learning." From this part of Aristotle's logic, there is an easy transition to what has been called his metaphysics; a name unknown to the author himself, and given to his most abstract philosophical works by his editors, from an opinion that these books ought to be studied immediately after his physics, or treatises on natural philosophy."-Gillies, "Analysis of Aristotle's Works."

Meta also enters into the Greek word metempsychosis (em, in, and psyche, the soul), the passage of the soul from one body to

another.

"The souls of usurers after their death, Lucan affirms to be metempsychosed, or translated into the bodies of asses, and there remain certain years, for poor men to take their pennyworth out of their bones."

-Peacham.

Meter, metro, a mother, of Greek origin, enters as the first two syllables into the word metropolis (polis, Gr. a city), a mothercity, the capital of a country, the chief city of a province.

"By consent of all churches, the precedency in each province was

assigned to the bishop of the metropolis, who was called the first bishop,

the metropolitan.”—Barrow.

Micro, of Greek origin (mikros, Gr. little) is seen in microcosm (kosmos, Gr. the world),—that is, a little world.

"Because in the little frame of man's body there is a representation of the universal, and (by allusion) a kind of participation of all the parts there, therefore was man called microcosmos, or the little world." -Raleigh," History of the World."

Micro appears also in microscope (skopeo, Gr. I look at, see). "The works of art do not bear a nice microscopical inspection; but the more helps are used, and the more nicely you pry into natural produotions, the more do you discover of the fine mechanism of nature." -Berkeley, "Siris."

Mid, of Saxon origin (compare middle), halfway, makes a part of several English words, as midland, midnight, midday, midship, midsummer; the meaning of which is very plain. Midriff (rif, rib, Sax. division) is the diaphragm, the skin or membrane which separates the heart and lungs from the lower belly.

Mid, though belonging to the Saxon, is an Indo-Germanic word. It appears in the Greek, in mesos, middle; meta, in the midst of, among; in the Latin, in medius, middle; medium, the middle, the half, the means or medium; in the German mitte, mit, with; in the Sanscrit, madhya.

The term midwife is given, by Richardson, as "med-wife, a woman hired for meed or reward." But how does the meed distinguish the midwife? Are not all servants hired for meed or reward? And do not all professions receive a meed or reward?

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BONHEUR.

Il en est du bonheur comme des montres: les moins compliquées sont celles qui se dérangent le moins.-Chamfort.

Il y aurait de quoi faire bien des heureux avec tout le bonheur qui se perd en ce monde.-Levis.

N'entretenez pas de votre bonheur un homme moins heureux que vous-Pythagore.

On n'est jamais si heureux ni si malheureux qu'on s'imagine. La Rochefoucauld.

A mesurer le bonheur des hommes seulement par le nombre et la vivacité des plaisirs qu'ils ont dans le cours de leur vie, peut-être y a-t-il un assez grand nombre de conditions assez égales, quoique fort différentes. Celui qui a le moins de plaisirs les sent plus vivement, il en sent une infinité que les autres ne sentent plus ou n'ont jamais sentis, et à cet égard la nature fait assez son devoir de mère commune.-Fontenelle.

CAPRICIEUX.

Il se multiplie autant de fois qu'il a de nouveaux goûts et de manières différentes, il est à chaque moment ce qu'il n'était point, et il va être bientôt ce qu'il n'a jamais été; il se succède à luimême. Ne demandez pas de quelle complexion il est, mais quelles sont ses complexions; ni de quelle humeur, mais combien il a de sortes d'humeurs.-La Bruyère.

CARACTERE.

Quiconque n'a pas de caractère n'est pas un homme, c'est une chose.-Chamfort.

Diseur de bons mots, mauvais caractère.-Pascal.

CHARITE.

Celui-là est vraiment grand qui a une grande charité.-Thomas a-Kempis.

Faites part de votre pain à celui qui a faim, et faites entrer en Votre maison les pauvres qui ne savent où se se retirer: lorsque vous verrez un homme nu, revêtez-le, et ne méprisez point voire propre chair.-Isaie.

pères et aux pédants de fouetter les enfants et les châtier, étant en colère? Ce n'est plus correction, c'est vengeance. Le châtiment tient lieu de médecine aux enfants, et souffritions-nous un médecin qui fût animé et courroucé contre son patient?-Montaigne.

Quand Socrate était en colère, c'était alors qu'il parlait et plus rarement et plus doucement: on voyait bien qu'il était ému; mais on voyait aussi qu'il se rendait maître de sa passion.-Plutarque. Les effets de la colère ressemblent à la chute dune maison qui en tombant sur une autre, se brise elle-même.-Sénèque.

La colère commence par la folie et finit par le repentir.-Maximes des Orientaux.

Si l'on vouloit n'être qu'heureux, cela serait bientôt fait; mais on veut être plus heureux que les autres; et cela est presque tou-frère; et votre inférieur, comme votre fils.-Ali. jours difficile, parce que nous croyons les autres plus heureux qu'ils ne sont.-Montesquieu.

La force ne consiste pas à renverser un ennemi par terre, mais à dompter sa colère.-Ibidem.

COEUR.

Les grandes pensées viennent du cœur.-Vauvenargues.

La pire de toutes les mésalliances est celle du cœur.-Chamfort. L'on n'est estimable que par le cœur, et l'on n'est heureux que par lui; car notre bonheur ne dépend que de la manière de sentir. Pascal.

COMMERCE.

Il n'y a pas de membres plus utiles à la société que les commer. çants; ils unissent les hommes par un trafic mutuel; ils distribuent les dons de la nature; ils occupent les pauvres, et remplissent les désirs des riches.-Raynal.

COLERE.

Il n'est passion qui nuise plus au raisonnement que la colère. Aucun ne ferait doute de punir de mort un juge qui, par colère, aurait condamné son criminel. Pourquoi est-il plus permis aux

Ce sont les gains légers qui rendent la bourse pesante; car les petits gains reviennent souvent, au lieu que les grands arrivent rarement.-Bacon.

LITERARY NOTICES.

THE SCIENCE OF BOTANY beautifully Illustrated by upwards of Three Hundred Engravings from Drawings from Nature.-In THE ILLUSTRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART, for September 4th, will be commenced a series of chapters on the instructive science of Botany. Each chapter will be profusely illustrated with engravings, carefully executed. These chapters on Botany will not interfere with the general character of the work, which contains first-class engravings, including portraits and specimens of the works of the great masters, in painting, sculpture, and architecture; portraits of eminent characters; views of cities, palaces, and public buildings; natural history; manufacturing processes; machinery and inventions; scientific, including the elements of design, perspective, hydraulics, the stereoscope, &c.; ornaN'attristez point le cœur du pauvre, qui est déjà accablé de mental sculpture, needlework, &c.; with original literary articles, includdouleur, et ne différez point de donner à celui qui souffre.-ing biographies, descriptions of works of art, details of manufacturing Ecclésiastique. Lorsque vous faites l'aumône, que votre main gauche ne sache point ce que fait votre main droite.-Evangile.

Celui qui ferme l'oreille au cri du pauvre criera lui-même, et il ne sera point écouté.-Salomon.

The ILLUS

Ayez pitié même des pauvres qui se laissent aller à l'impatience et à la colère. Pensez que c'est une chose bien dure pour le malheureux de souffrir toutes les misères dans un taudis ou dans un chemin, tandis qu'à quelques pas de lui passent des hommes parfaitement vêtus et nourris.-Silvio Pellico.

processes and machinery, papers on natural history and other branches
of science; and much interesting fragmentary matter.
TRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART is published in weekly
Numbers, twopence each, or in monthly Parts, 9d. or 11d. each, accord-
ing to the number of weeks in each month.

La charité, c'est tout le christianisme.-Bossuet.

COMPLAISANCE.

La complaisance est une monnaie à l'aide de laquelle tout le la société. On vous en tient toujours compte.-Voltaire. monde peut, au défaut de moyens essentiels, payer son écot dans

Si vous voulez vous acquérir de l'autorité sans peine, soyez complaisant.-Maximes des Orientaux.

CONDUITE.

L'âme n'a point de secret que la conduite ne révèle.-Pensée Chinoise.

Mes enfants, ne méprisez jamais personne; regarcez celui qui est au-dessus de vous comme votre père; votre égal, comme votre

CONFIANCE.

La confiance fournit plus à la conversation que l'esprit.-La Rochefoucauld.

L'envie d'être plaint ou d'être admiré fait souvent la plus grande partie de notre confiance.-Idem.

CASSELL'S SHILLING EDITION OF EUCLID.-THE ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY, Containing the First Six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth Books of Euclid, from the text of Robert Simson, M.D., Emeritus Professor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow; with Corrections,

CLEMENCE.

Si votre ennemi a faim, donnez-lui à manger; s'il a soif, donnez- Annotations, and Exercises, by Robert Wallace, A.M., of the same

lui à boire.-Salomon.

university, and Collegiate Tutor of the University of London, is now ready, price 18. in stiff covers, or 1s. 6d. neat cloth.

CASSELL'S EMIGRANT'S HANDBOOK, a Guide to the Various Fields of Emigration in all Parts of the Globe, Second Edition, with considerable Additions, and a Map of Australia, with the Gold Regions clearly marked, is now ready, price 9d.

SCRIPTURE LIBRARY FOR THE YOUNG, in Shilling Volumes -The first two volumes of this instructive series of works, "The LIFE OF JOSEPH," illustrated with sixteen choice engravings and maps, and The TABERNACLE, its PRIESTS, and SERVICES," with twelve engrav ings, are now ready. The "LIFE OF MOSES" will shortly appear.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

Our readers will please to put last month for yesterday, p. 307, col. 2, line 28; and add s to nephew, line 48.

J. FAULKNER (Smethwick): Man and mankind are general terms including every individual of the human race; male and female, young and old, servant and master, king and subject, negro and negro-driver. J. J. NEWTON (Bridgewater): His solutions to the queries in No. 14, are nearly correct.-A. LEARNER (Greenock): His observations ou Geometry are good: let him read our answer to J. S. (Ayrshire). His demonstration of the 47th B. I. contrary to his own maxim, depends on "Euc. B. I., 46, Cor. 2," by his own citation. This cor. is not Euclid's, but Dr. Thomson's, and even he refers to "Euc. B. I., 84, Cor. 2," for its demonstration; neither is the latter Euclid's, but Dr. Thomson's again, for he has added a demonstration. Euclid's demonstration is, therefore, on Learner's own showing, not complete. Neither is it on another ground; for, whichever of the six ways of constructing the diagram, a student happens to take, the demonstration ought to apply to that way; a thing which has not yet been satisfactorily made out on Euclid's principles, of the 47th.-A. SKERRIT (Holbrook): His solutions are correct, and very ingenious.-D. M. F. (Bradford) wishes us to put the following query: "How many acres of the earth's surface may be seen from the top of a steeple 400 feet high, the earth being perfectly spherical, and its diameter 7,920 miles."-LUPUS is right on the education of females of the middle class; it is preposterous.

myself alone, but to be an example of perseverance and industry to my children and grandchildren." What a noble and praiseworthy feeling! It cannot, it will not, lose its reward.-PETER HAY (West Allerdean): E. FINIGAN (Manchester): Correct.-M. W. DICKSON (Dublin): Yes.-A WELL-WISHER, rates us soundly for using the subjunctive mood after the particle if-NOVI YELSOM (Manchester) makes the extraordinary request of us, to send him songs, "lively songs with choruses," in about 50 different languages, and he will discharge the debt in postage stamps!-G. H. CHELTENHAM, is right, Strabo was a Roman writer of Greek Geography.-W. H. B. should study Cassell's Euclid, and the lectures in the P. E. together. Zumpt's Latin Grammar can be obtained of any respectable bookseller.-E. EVANS (Abergele): We cannot condescend to copy other people's plans in the management of our correspondence. Our earnest desire is to do ALL THE GOOD we can to EVERY INDIVIDUAL, believing that by so doing we shall benefit the mass in the long run; "a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump."-THOMAS KNOTT (Gateshead) is right; our religious readers should get "The Pathway;" therefore we send him to its editor for an answer to his religious question.-J. B. (Long Benton) should pronounce Montague thus: Mont-a-gue, with the emphasis on Mont, with the a short, the u long, and the e silent.-H. A. (Liverpool): In the French lessons, m. means masculine, and f. feminine.-MOLESTUS (Liverpool): The names of the cases in Latin shall be explained.-AN ASPIRANT to the profession of civil engineers, will ascertain how a person becomes a M. I. C. E. by calling at the institution, Great George-street, Westminster, and getting a copy of its rules and regulations.-C. F. P. (Dunmanway): we are obliged by his interesting communication. and shall keep it in view for the benefit of our readers. His solutions are correct.-A. ScorsMAN is too wide an appellation; never mind the arrangement of the You will see in . First, put unity under the dividend to make a fraction of it; Latin words at present, if your translation be correct. the KEY, that the same sentence is arranged two or three different ways. -E. A. B. (Bellington): His solutions to the queries, p. 223, are very then invert the divisor, and multiply the two fractions together; the result good. No. 4. is a geometrical query.-J. M. L. (Edinburgh) wishes a

by

A. W. (Edinburgh) wishes us to assist him in dividing x2+2+

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a (x2+2+),

2x2-2x+1

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This may be easily done by observing that the part of the numerator in parenthesis, is the square of the denominator; hence, dividing both terms

which can be reduced to its lowest terms. Bring the fractions to a common denominator by multiplying the terms of the first by x. Subtract its numerator, then, from that of the minu end, and the result is

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(x-1) (x-1) x-1 by cancelling like terms and x (x-1) dividing.-H. E. his question has been answered.-AMICUS VERITAS multiplying both numerator and denominator by 2, and removing the Dictionary serve his purpose for a time.-H. B. (London): Spier's (Glasgow), who should have put VERITATIS, will find Entick's Latin

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French Dictionary is a very good one.-G. (Liverpool): correct.-J. H. (Shelton): Brande's Chemistry or Graham's.-ARITHMOS (Plymouth): the brick 9 inches long, 4 broad, and 2 thick, contains 1014 cubic inches; for 9X44X21=1044-GEORGE AUGUSTUS (Temple): the subject he proposes of inquiry into the meaning of proper names of persons, is both legitimate and interesting; but we doubt whether at the present stage of our progress, it would be acceptable to the majority of our readers, who seem more bent on the acquisition of positively useful 7 years knowledge, than upon that of the merely ingenious, entertaining and 19 years agreeable. In an old and valuable book, called Cruden's “ Concordance 108 days. to the Holy Scriptures," you will find an explanation of the meaning of But if the all Scripture names, such as Michael; which by the way, is one of the names of the Lord Jesus Christ, he being the only archangel, or prince, chief, and ruler of angels. In some editions of Ainsworth's Latin Dic tionary, you will find an explanation of non-scriptural names, such as Robert, &c. On the subject of surnames, there are also some books extant; the only one we remember at present is Buchanan on "Scottish Surnames;" and the Lowland Scots boast of a similar origin to the Saxons, repudiating, in the matter of ancient history, all connexion with the Gael.-AIA-KOPTOU (Fulham): Malte-Brun's or Mrs. Somerville's Physical Geography are among the best, and Lyell's Geology.-J. F. S. The one rule is that one noun governs another in the genitive whatever case the former may be in; and the other is that an active verb governs the accusative.

Answer: 7 leap years, 19 common years, and 274 days. answer be required in days, thus :-

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A JERSEYMAN should read both the P. E. and the "French Lessons,"
republished at 6d., beginning with the latter.-R. G. (Dundee): Thanks
for his solution. We intend to go as far as the diff. and integ. calculus,
and the Oriental languages too; but it is really impossible to say when.
The following correspondents have correctly answered the question
of LEARNER, p. 288:-MISS ANN WALTON (Leeds); JOHN JAMES
N. (Bridgewater); JOSEPH BAGSHAW (Willenhall); JAMES POLAND
(William-street); J. B. M'COLLAN (York); 9, Un Lecteur constant,
SAMUEL HOLMES (Bingley); T. H. (Durham); and others.
PHILO (Berwick-upon-Tweed): Had we not inserted the solution of
LEARNER'S question, p. 288, in our last Number, we should have gladly
inserted that of our friend, who tells us he has done it by reason
and not by rule; in order to show our readers that REASON and RULE
are the same thing, or in other words, that rules are the dictates of
reason. We are delighted to think that our P. E. should interest an
old man 59 years of age, and that at this age he should begin to learn
Latin from our pages, a thing which he has wished to do all his life, but
was never able to do till the P. E. appeared. We cannot help quoting
his words, as an example and encouragement to others.
He says, "I
am eagerly learning Latin, not with the expectation of benefiting

A WARM FRIEND: If he will consult the previous chapter of the prophecies of Jeremiah, he will find that the princes of Judah took offence at the prophet's fidelity, and threw him into prison. Ebed-melech, an Ethiopian servant of Zedekiah, king of Judah, effected l release, and saved him from death by famine. To this pious and humane man, the prophet was sent with a special message from God, and the words to which our friend refers in the close of the thirty-ninth chayter, are to be applied not to Jeremiah, but to Ebed-melech, and are meant to assure him of his personal safety in the midst of public calamity. As to the introduction of the name of NECHO in to questions subjoined to the fourth lesson on Ancient History, it is simply a misprint, for the Apries or Pharaoh-Hophra of the text.

Printed and Published by JOHN CASSELL, La Belle Sauvago Yard,
Ludgate-hill, London.-August 28, 1852,

NAL NERVES, or those which have their root in the spine and the brain, and serve the purpose of sensation and motion. By far the greater number of the nerves which supply the body generally, arise from the spinal marrow, and are possessed of double power. This double power is owing to the subdivision of the nerve into two parts or roots. One root passes to the posterior portion of the spinal cord, and has a ganglion on it. This bestows sensation alone. The other root goes to the anterior portion of that cord. And this gives motion alone. II.

LESSONS IN PHYSIOLOGY. - No. IX.

MAN.

|

for respiration, and to which, as the organ of speech, voice, and expression, man owes so much of his superiority to all other portions of this earthly creation.

IV. THE GANGLIONIC OR SYMPATHETIC NERVES, or such as unite in sympathy those organs of the body by which the various organic functions are performed:-such as secretion, absorption, assimilation of the food, and so

on.

We go on with our lesson on the nerves. You must keep in mind that the whole nervous system divides itself into distinct classes according to the functions or offices which the nerves have to perform. The following is the simplest arrangement which we can give :— I. THE CEREBRO-SPI

THE EXCITO-MOTORY NERVES, or those which pursue their course from internal surfaces to the medulla oblongata or true spine, or that portion of the spinal marrow which in its ascent unites with the brain itself. These nerves are characterised by peculiar excitabilities; and when once excited pursue a reflex course from the medulla oblongata to the particular muscles on which they are designed to act,-the muscles concerned in the taking of food into the stomach, and then in throwing out whatever is not required for the nutrition and building up of the body.

III. THE RESPIRATORY NERVES, or those which pass off from this same medulla oblongata, and diverge to different parts of the head, neck, throat, and chest, as the divinely-prepared mechanism

Description of the Engraving.

I. Frontal branch of the fifth nerve of the brain which bestows sensation alone. II. Superior maxillary, or that branch of the fifth nerve which supplies the upper jaw, and which, like the last, arising from the sensitive root, bestows sensation alone.

III. Mental or inferior maxillary branch of the fifth nerve. This also comes from the sensitive root. It is called mental, because it is involved in that expression which indicates the emotions of the mind.

IV. Temporal branches of the same fifth nerve. They are distributed on the temples, and are for sensation.

V. The only branch of the fifth nerve which arises from the smaller or motor root, and assists in the motion of those muscles which are employed in mastication or chewing.

VI. VII. VIII. IX. These are spinal nerves; the first of the series which come out between the vertebræ, in the whole length of the spine, to supply the body generally with motion and sensation.

A. The facial nerve. It is situated in the front of the ear, and is the VOL. I.

Now as no animal can be compared with man in the number and range of his faculties, so there is not one which approaches him in the development and perfection of his nervous system. The connexion between this nervous system and the brain is very close; and not less close is the relation between the brain and the mind. The mind becomes conscious of external objects only by the influence which they exert on that part of the brain which is called THE SENSORIUM, from its being the peculiar seat of sensation. An impression is made upon any part of the surface of the body by mechanical contact, by heat, by electricity, or by any other external agent; this impression is conveyed by the nervous system to the sensorium, a certain change takes place in the condition of the brain, and the impression is then said to be felt, that is to say, the mind becomes conscious of it. Now it is not the impression made on some remote organ of the body by which the mind is influenced, but simply and immediately by the change which has taken place in the brain. This admits of easy proof. Let us sup

motor nerve of the features. It sends branches (a) to the muscles of tho forehead and eyebrows. Branches (b) to the eyelids. Branches (c) to the muscles which move the nostrils and upper lip. Branches (d) to the lower lip. Branches (e) going down to the side of the neck. Connexions (with the spinal nerves of the neck. A nerve (g) to a portion of the muscle that is in the back of the head, and to muscles of the ear.

B. The nervus vagus, or the wandering nerve, so named from its extensive distribution. This is the grand respiratory nerve.

C. The spinal accessory nerve. D. The ninth nerve, which is the motor nerve of the tongue. E. The nerve which supplies the diaphragm. F. Branch of the sympathetic nerve.

G. A branch of the nervus vagus, which goes to the superior portion of the larynx or windpipe.

H. Another branch of the vagus, which goes to the inferior portion of the larynx.

I. The nerve which goes to the tongue and upper part of the gullet called the pharynx.

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pose, as is really the case, that the mind remains perfectly capable sensations. It is common to nearly the whole surface of the body; of receiving any impression, but that all communication with the but nowhere is the sensibility so keen or acute as at the end of the Let the pressure fingers. The following cut shows the distribution of the nerves of brain is cut off. What is the consequence? which is applied to any distant part of the nervous system be what touch at the extremity of the thumb; it may, no impression is felt, we have no consciousness of it. For and the human hand, both by reason of example:-"The surface of the eye-a part so exquisitely sensible, being endowed with a larger supply of that if a fine hair touches it, there will be severe pain and spasm of sensitive fibres, and of its peculiar comBut the sense of touch in the the eyelids-may, when the nerve is destroyed, be rudely pressed formation, is, par excellence, the organ of with the finger, and the patient will nevertheless be unconscious of touch. pain; or, if the surface be inflamed, and it be necessary to scarify hand would have been of little use withit with the point of the lancet, in order to withdraw blood, the out the power of motion. It is in that patient will submit to the operation without pain, and without even wondrous variety of movement of which winking, although the eyelids retain their power of closing." It the hand of man is capable, that we see Remember, moreover, that follows from this, that in the process by which the mind is rendered his physical superiority to every other while the greatest sensibility is felt at conscious of external objects, there are three distinct steps or animal. stages :lips, the least sensibility is in the skin of the extremities of the fingers and in the whether the sense of temperature is not conveyed by a set of fibres the trunk, the arm, and the thigh. Besides, it is a question, altogether distinct from those which minister to the proper sense of

i. The reception of the impression which is made at the extremity of the nerve of sensation.

ii. The conducting of this impression along the trunk of the nerve to the sensorium or the brain.

iii. The change excited by this impression in the sensorium itself, through which sensation is produced.

The sensitive extremities of the cerebro-spinal nerves transmit all their impressions to the brain under the form of sensations, "Although we commonly refer our various sensations to the parts at which the impressions are made; as, for instance, when we say that we have a pain in the hand, or an ache in the leg, we really use incorrect language; for though we may refer our sensations to the parts where the impression is first made on the nerves, they are really felt in the brain. This is evident from two facts :-first, that if the nervous communication between the part and the brain be interrupted, no impressions, however violent, can make themselves felt; and, second, that if the trunk of the nerve be irritated or pinched anywhere in its course, the pain which is felt is referred, not to the point injured, but to the surface to which these nerves are distributed. Hence the well-known fact, that for some time after the amputation of a limb, the patient feels pains which he refers to the fingers or toes that have been removed. This continues until the irritation of the cut extremities of the nervous trunks has subsided."

touch or resistance.

TASTE. This sense has for its organ that portion of the nervous The nerve membrane which covers the tongue and the throat. which is distributed to this membrane, terminates in little bodies or accumulations called papillæ, or clusters of papillæ, as you see in the cut, which represents the fungus-like papillæ of the tongue.

Its chief purpose is to direct animals in their choice of food, and
hence the wisdom of placing its organ at the entrance to the diges-
tive canal. The sense of taste is of a much more refined nature
than that of touch; but, like that of touch, is excited by direct
contact with particular substances. This contact produces either
an agreeable or a disagreeable sensation. The savour may be
strong, or slight, or insipid, and the impression will correspond.
If you take some
But the impression produced by every substance taken into the
With-
mouth, depends as much on smell as on taste.
decidedly aromatic body into the mouth, and press the nostrils
close together, you will scarcely be conscious of any taste.
draw the pressure from the nostrils, and leave their passage per-
fectly free, and immediately you become conscious of a certain im-
pression or sensation.

But while there is this common sensibility which is diffused over the greater part of the body, there are organs of special sense, endowed with the property of receiving impressions peculiar to themselves. These senses are five-touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing-while the impressions derived from them not only differ from all our other sensations, but differ the one from the other. The sense of touch would never give us the idea or knowledge of those properties which are discovered by taste; nor would the idea of form, shape, or bulk, ever be derived from the sense of smell. The eye would never distinguish sounds, nor would the ear ever Who would ever think of saying that he discriminate colours. hears a beautiful flower, or sees an enchanting sound, or smells a square body, or grasps a disagreeable odour? Each sense has its SMELL. If the thousand varieties of savour, may, in relation to own nerve, and though "we can acquire a knowledge of the shape and position of objects by the touch, we could form no notion of their colour without sight, of their sounds without hearing, or of the sense of taste, be all resolved into agreeable and disagreeable, their odours without smell." Have, then, these nerves of special then analogous characters pertain to those various odours, Are they not all susceptible of im- which, in relation to the sense of smeil, are either pleasant or resense nothing in common? pressions inseparable from a feeling of pain? It cannot be denied pugnant. This sense of smell depends upon the diffusion of the that any violent or excessive impression may occasion a certain particles of the substance through the surrounding air, in a state of For example:-The effect of strong daz-extreme minuteness. These particles proceeding or flying off from degree of discomfort. zling light, or of any sudden unexpected sound, or of any powerful larger bodies, take on a certain degree of volatility, and coming odour, or of any very decided taste, would be followed by corre- into contact with the mucous membrane which lines the nasal cavisponding uneasiness. But mark, this is only a question of degree. ties, and in which the olfactory nerve is distributed, we become These very sensations, in a more or less degree, might afford a conscious of a corresponding sensation. The atmospheric air, in its certain pleasure or delight, or even in the same degree in a different passage through the nostrils, is, during inspiration, the vehicle of those condition of the body. Our feeling of pleasure or of pain very odorous particles into the olfactory organ, and by coming into immuch depends on the previous condition of the part affected, as also mediate contact with its mucous membrane, informs the animal of upon the extent of surface on which an impression is made. For the presence, at a greater or less distance, of the bodies which are example:-If you put one hand in hot water, and the other in cold, the source of these odours. In proportion to the extent of this and then transfer both to tepid water, this tepid water will seem membraneous surface, is the acuteness of the sense. In this recool to the one, and warm to the other. The second fact may be spect man is far surpassed by many of the lower animals. HEARING.-The ear presents a very beautiful, but very compliproved thus:-Hot water, into which you might introduce a single finger without any unpleasant sensation, would, on plunging the cated apparatus. With the form and the situation of the external whole hand into it, not only scald the hand, but give you the feel-ear you are already familiar. The apparatus more properly consists of the tympanum or drum, with its membrane and chain of ing of pain. bones; and which is adapted to direct itself, more or less com

TOUCH is the most general and the most diffused of our external

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