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- EXERCIBE 22.

Questions. 1. In compound sentences connected with a Amtmann, m. magis- Hilflos, helpless ; Stirn, f. forehead ; relative, where does the verb stand? 2. Is the verb, in English, trate ;

Kapel'le, f. chapel ; Verlas'ion, forsaken, when used with a relative in the nominative, placed as in Ger. Ar'bcitor, m. labourer, Kaufen, to buy ; left;

man? 3. When is it so placed? 4. In compound sentences workman; Las terhaft, vicious; Weinberg,

what is the position of the main verb? 5. What of the auxili. Ein'siedler, m. hermit; leßt, last;

yard;

ary? 6. Examples ? 7. What is the position of the verb when Fricte, m. peace, tran- Peyn, m. reward; Wohnhaus, n. dwell. the second of the two connected clauses is introduced by a con. quillity; Marbe, f. scar;

ing

junction or an adverb? 8. To what does terjenige always point? Herz, n. heart; Scheune, f.shed, barn ;

9. Of what compounded and how declined ? 10. Like what is

11. What is ter in the Wir lieben Die'jenigen, die (welche) We love those, who (that) love the genitive of welcher as a relative ?

genitive plural, when substituted for derjenige? 12. To what uns heben. Ich habe ten Hut, ten ich gestern I have the hat, that I (have) does the use of derjenige often correspond ? 13. Examples ? gchabt habe.

had yesterday. Sie haben ric Acpfel, die reif sint, You have the apples, that are und ich habe diesjenigen, die grün ripe, and I have those that

LESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY.-No. VIII. find.

are green.
Der'jenige, ten ich suche, ist nicht hier. He, whom I seek, is not here.

THE FOX.
Der'jenige, tessen Stock ich habe, ist le, whose stick I have, is sick.
Eranf.

[Order CARNIVORA, species CANIS VULPES.)
Diejenige, zu ter die Mutter geht, She, to whom the mother is Though the habits of the fox are generally known, an ac-
ist frant.

going, is sick.

quaintance with his structure is less common. He is larger and Die’jenigen, die ftolz sind, find auch They (or those) that are proud, stronger when found in hilly, than in flat, districts. The närrisch.

are likewise foolish.

average length of the head and body is two feet four 1. Welches sind liebt der Oheim? 2. Er liebt rasjenige, welnes er inches; of the tail, or "brush,” as sportsmen eall it, one foot lobt. 3. Welches Kind liebt den Oheim? 4. Darjenige, welches er liebt, four inches. His general colour is the tawny, usually termed

fulvous, with a combination of white and black distributed in liebt ihn. 5. Welten Hut haben Sie ? 6. Id Nabe denjenigen, welchen different proportions, over various parts of the body. The Ihr Herr (Sect 17. V.) Bruder gehabt hat. 7. Welchen Knaben liebt shoulders are reddish-gray; the throat and chest are gray; the ter Vater ? 8. Gr liebt denjenigen, welchen die Mutter lobt. 9. Welcher belly, the inner surface of the limbs, the cheeks, the upper Knabe liebt die Mutter ? 10. Derjenige, welchen der Vater lebt. ii. lip, and the tip of the tail are white; a black mark runs Welches Pferd hat Ihr Vruter gefaust? 12. Er hat dasjenige gefaust

, the limbs, and the back of the ears, are black. His offensive

along from the eye to the mouth ; while the anterior part of welches Sie gestern gelabt haben (Sect. 18. VIII.) 13. Weleten Mann smell comes from the secretion of a gland under the tail. The leben Sic? 14. Io lose denjenigen, dessen Schn Sie lieben. 15. Welche fox is remarkable for the brilliancy and expression of his eye, Vuter kaben Sie gekauft? 16. Im habe diejenigen gekaust, welche mein which evinces much intelligence. His senses of hearing and Bruter in den (Sect. 17. III.) Şinten geħabt hat. 17. Weijen Vüber of smell are exquisitely perfect. In winter his fur is fuller maben Sie? 18. Ich habe die Vücher derjenigen Knaben, deren Güte Sie A grizzled tone pervades the whole, when the fox, escaping

and deeper than in summer, the fulvous becoming grizzled. haben. 19. Diejenigen, welche lafterhaft sind, haben feinen Frieten tes from the dangers to which he is generally exposed, is permittel Herzens. 20. Derjenige, welcher die Narbe an ter Stirne yat, ist der alte to reach old age. He is not confined to particular districts, Amtmann. 21. Dasjenige ist gut, was ($ 65. 5.) nüßlich ist

. 22. Dicje but is an inhabitant of almost every temperate country on the Männer sind virjellen, deren Scheunen, Stille urs Wohnhäuser Sie gestern sometimes applied to man—"Crafty as a fox.”

face of the globe, and everywhere maintains his character gesehen haben. 23. Der Arbeiter in tem Weinberge desjenigen, welcher den Of his cunning he gives evidence in the choice of a dwell. lepten lohn gibt, sind wenige. 24. Der Einsietler jener Sarelle ist ein ing-place. Not unfrequently he appropriates to himself the Freund terer (III.), tie hulflos und verlassen sind. 25. Der (III.) ist burrow of a badger, or a rabbit, easily enlarging it for his own reise, der tuzenthast ist.

convenience. At other times he excavates a burrow in some Wcijen

secluded place, generally on the edge of a forest or copse, but 1. The friend whom I have is faithful. 2. Whose key have always in a situation abounding with his favourite food. 'Ac

cordingly he displays his strong preference for the neighbour

fennen you? 3. I have that of the woman whose daughter you know. especially if his concealment be favoured by tangled brush

hood of a warren, a preserve of game, or a farm-yard ; geben dieses

zuerit + 4. I shall give this book to that (man), who will be first here. place where we should not commonly expect he would be

wood, with rough and broken ground. Often he dwells in a 5. Have you seen my book? 6. No, I have not seen the one

found. We have heard of a stock of poultry being sadly
erwähnen
Freude

thinned by a fox, and of search being made for its burrow in which you mention. 7. The joy which I shall have. , 8. I came, vain, till it was' accidentally discovered, not at some conversprechen

wohnen siderable distance from the dwelling-house, but actually in a because I had pronised it to him. 9. Where do you live? part of the garden appropriated to pea-sticks, and various

besuchten kinds of rubbish. Thus he lived, quite unmolested, in the 10. I live in the same house in which I lived when you called very centre of the area of his depredations. Danien

In his burrow, often called his " earth," the fox usually upon me. 11. Which of these ladies is your wife? 12. The secludes himself during the day. But when dusk is coming spricht Herrn

on, he leaves his dwelling-place with an appearance strikingly one who is talking with the old gentleman. 13. The friend expressive of his actual disposition. His sharp ears and theuer

gekauft muzzle, his oblique eye with a linear pupil adapted to his whom I have lost was very dear to me. 14. I have bought that nocturnal habits, his peculiar curl of the upper lip, showing Noc

saben Fenster Sduncitors. Gmrfchlen the canine teeth, and especially obvious when he is excited coat which you saw in the window of my tailor. 15. Remenaber and ready to snap at his prey; all indicate his cunning, vigiSie

follich

lance, and ferocity. Warily does he examine the limits of the ne to that gentleman who is so very polite.

farm-yard, and become acquainted with its sheds and build.

ings. Does he reach a high wall? Over this he instantly Literally " Wine-mountain ;" so called because most vine- bounds. Are palings in his way? Under these he stealthily yards in Germany are upon hills or smaller mountains ; the creeps. With noiseless tread he enters the poultry-house, sunny sides of these being much more favourable to the growth often seizing on his victim without disturbing the rest, but of the vine.

sometimes putting all to death, as he provides for his future, as + Translate, “Because I it to him had promised."

well as for his present, appetite.

treu

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ter.

For poultry the fox, has, indeed, a strong liking. Not | lining it with dry leaves, moss, and hay. For her young she many years ago, a mischievous person unchained, during the strongly manifests her maternal anxiety, employing every artinight, a tame fox that was confined in a courtyard belonging fice to conceal them from discovery, defending them with into Mr. Wilcox, at Hatfield, in Hertfordshire. Reynard, find domitable courage, and, if she suspects her retreat to be known, ing himself at liberty, was not long in making his way out of carrying them away, one by one, to a place of safety. the premises, and proceeding but a short distance, he dis- Some years ago, a fox was fairly hallooed from its hiding, covered a hen-roost, and destroyed thirteen fine fowls, which place, amidst a ledge of rocks, high, secluded, and apparently he dragged to his box. The crafty thief, not being contented inaccessible, yet, withal, conveniently situated for those nightly with such an enormous booty, went a little farther, and found forays, by which he had laid half the henroosts of the a quantity of fine ducks, seven of which he killed ; and leaving district under repeated contribution. As the hounds were at six of them heaped up together, he brought the other home, hand, the fox bounded away through bush and brake, and so and was detected entering the courtyard with his prey. far distanced his pursuers, that they had the prospect of a long

Rabbits, too, are a favourite food with the fox; and, failing continued chase." But it was gradually found that violent exthese, he is quite content to regale himself on pheasants and ertions were exhausting his energy, and the increased yelling partridges. For want of better food he will destroy serpents, of the pack showed that it was every moment gaining on the lizards, toads, moles, frogs, rats, and mice; and when greatly enemy. At this juncture, a gentleman who rode foremost in pressed by hunger, he will feed on roots, or other vegetable the chase, observed the animal pause, look round, and then substances, as a last resource. On the continent he finds even bound away with seemingly fresh vigour, and at a greatly greater luxuries than in England ; there he visits the vine- increased speed. Struck by this circumstance, he rode up to yards when the fruit is ripe, its sweetness being, no doubt, the spot, and there found a very young cub, which the affec. very grateful to his nice palate, and commits the most serious tionate mother had carried at least two miles in her teeth, and ravages. He is also said, by Buffon, to be fond of honey, I only abandoned at the very last extremity. Situated as they and will boldly

were, the party attack hives and

had no means wild bees' nests,

of restoring the frequently robo

cub, but as a bing them of

reward for the their stores, but

fidelity. of the not always with

mother the impunity; for,

whipper.in was issuing from

immediately ortheir castles, the

dered to call off enraged insects

the dogs, and fasten on the

recommence the invader, and

sports of the compel him to

day in a totally retire. When

different quarthey stick his back, he

The cubs of takes his re

the fox are very venge by rolling

playful, Like on the ground

the puppies and and crushing

kittens we have them to death;

often seen, they then, returning

are fond of ento the charge,

deavouring to he devours the

catch their own wax as well as

tails, turning the honey.

round and Not only is it

round in the atsaid that the fox

tempt. At about will eat shrimps,

the age of four crabs, and other shell-fish, but that he will resort to a singular | months they leave the mother's protection, and look after device to obtain some of the finny tribes. Observing an otter themselves. If a fox be taken at the earliest age, and brought enter the water to fish, he will place himself behind a bush up in confinement, with every kindness, it will still retain its or a stone, and there lie concealed till he sees the otter safely suspicious character, and though it may, perhaps, show some on shore. Instantly he makes a violent spring at the booty, familiarity with the person who attends it, it will never which surprises and frightens the otter so much, that he rushes manifest ihe attachment or gratitude of the dog, and will into the water, leaving the fish behind.

either conceal itself on the approach of strangers, or repel His cunning, however, like that of human beings, is often any advances with a bite. A fox is, in fact, a wild animal, and void of success. We mention one of many instances. A not to be domesticated. So dear to him is liberty that if one farmer in Essex having suffered much from the depredations of of his legs be caught in a trap, he will bite it off to effect his a fox, determined to lay wait for him. Well-knowing his track, deliverance. he took his stand on a fine moonlight night, and soon espied him padding along a clover-field, with a young goose which he had just stolen, slung across his neck. At the moment the

LESSONS IN ENGLISH. No. XIII. gun was levelled Reynard caught sight of a hare, feeding a

By John R. BEARD, D.D. little on one side, and nearer to the farmer. Dropping, therefore, the goose, he began some curious gambols, rolling over

DERIVATION: PREFIXES (continued). and over on the ground, and jumping up into the air, but In the preceding prefixes and quotations, we may find a species of gradually getting nearer to poor puss, who was totally uncon- indirect history. The facts I have set forth in connexion with scious that so wily an enemy was just at hand. At length the them, show us how much ours is a composite language, a language crisis came : with one enormous spring he captured the hare; that is, like the composite order in architecture, made up of ele. but the moment of his triumph was his last; the farmer shot ments derived from different sources. The facts also inform us the fox, and then carried home his double prize, not forgetting that the English nation has been closely connected with the French, the goose.

: and so is much indebted to the ancient Latins. To the corrupt On the female devolves all the wabour of rearing the cubs, | Latin of the middle ages, we are also obviously indebted ; and from for which she prepares a nest at the bottom of her burrow, the Greek tongue we have derived words and parts of words. Nor

[graphic]

THE FOX.

have Italy and Spain failed to contribute to the enrichment of our

And therefore to our weaker view language. In historical or genealogical relations, we Englishmen

O'erlaid with black, staid Wisdom's hue." of this day are connected with the Norman baron as well as the

Milton, "Il Penseroso." Saxon churl; with the monk and the schoolmen, no less than with Meta, of Greek origin, signifying after, and denoting change, the conquerors of the world; and may fancy the line of our re- transference, is found in metuphor (phero, Gr. I bear), a figure of lationship to stretch from the Thames to the Rhine, and from the speech in which there is a transference of the literal meaning of the Rhine even to the Indus and the Ganges. If every sentence that word. Words originally represented objects of sense. It is only has been written to convey to the world a history of England had by accommodation or transference that the word which set forth totally perished, still scholars out of the fossil remains of the nation some sensible objects has come to denote a state of mind or feeling. discoverable in its words, would, after the manner of the geologists, Thus acute, which now describes a shrewd, clever mind, properly be able to reproduce the great outlines of our English life. Even signifies sharp, piercing—from the Latin acu, a needle. In this single words are full of the elements of history. Those elements view, all words now applied to mental or moral phenomena, conare often beneath the surface ; at least they are not obvious to the tain metaphors. Instances may be given in reflect (re, Lat. back; common eye. I give you, however, an instance, the historical and flccto, I bend); abstract (ab, Lat. from; and traho, I draw), value of which is clear to all. When, in the early part of the reign conceive (cum with, and capio, Lat. I take); and of course their of Charles the First, the Puritan party began to rise against the corresponding nouns: also, in hard (hard-heart), open (open disroyal authority, the more demure members of the party wore their position), light (light-hearted). The term metaphor, however, is hair cropt so close and short, as, in contrast with the full and flow- specially given to more marked and striking, not to say artificial ing locks of the courtiers, to give their heads the appearance of so instances of transference, on the ground of some real or supposed many bowls.

Queen Henrietta Maria, the spouse of Charles, resemblance between the material and the mental objects. Tbus, observing this marked peculiarity graphically as well as wittily, the sun is termed the king of day; and the moon, the queen of termed them roundheads. The particular occasion was the fol- night. lowing :-"Samuel Barnadiston, a noted republican, was, in his “An horn is the hieroglyphick of authority, power, and dignity, and youth, the leader of a deputation of London apprentices, for the in this metaphor is often used in Scripture."- Brown, “Vulgar Errons." purpose of communicating to parliament their notions regarding civil and religious government. The queen, who saw this possé

Meta forms the two first syllables of metaphysics (in Greek, arrive at Whitehall , then first noticed the extraordinary roundness meta ta physica, after the physics). The force of the word will be

learnt in these quotations :of their closely-clipped heads, and saw at the same time that Samuel was a personable apprentice; upon which she exclaimed, “La ! “ The one part which is physic (physics, relating to matter) inquireth what a handsome young roundhead!' The exactness of the and handleth the material and efficient causes ; and the other, which is descriptive appellation fixed it at once as a party name; round- metaphysie (metaphysics, the plural is now generally used) handteth the heads they were called from that moment, and roundheads they formal and final causes.-- Bacon, “Advancement of Learning.” will remain while history endures."* You thus see that the term

" From this part of Aristotle's logic, there is an easy transition to • Roundhead” contains a history.

what has been called his metaphysics; a name unknown to the author

It also paints a picture. himself, and given to his most abstract philosophical works by his In roundhead we possess an historical picture; and the pic- editors, from an opinion that these books ought to be studied immeture which it paints all can appreciate. Why? Because the diately after his physics, or treatises on natural philosophy.”—Gillies, word consists of Saxon terms, nursery terms. Translate the

Analysis of Aristotle's Works." Saxon into Latin, rotunda capita, and so far from painting a picture, the term does not convey any meaning to the mere English and psyche, the soul), the passage of the soul from one body to

Meta also enters into the Greek word metempsychosis (em, in, scholar. If, then, you would be understood by the people, use

another, words of Saxon origin. But if you would be well acquainted with the English language, study its Latin, and generally its foreign

“ The souls of usurers after their death, Lucan affirms to be pretemelements, as these are they with which you do not become familiar psychosed, or translated into the bodies of arses, and there remain in the nursery, and which consequently present difficulties, and ob- certain years, for poor men to take their pennyworth out of their bones.”

- Peacham. struct the pathway to knowledge. These remarks suggest reasons why we are entering so fully into the composition of English words. Meter, metro, a mother, of Greek origin, enters as the first two Magn, of Latin origie (magnus, great), in the forms magna, and city, the capital of a country, the chief city of a province.

syllables into the word metropolis (polis, Gr. a city), a mothermagni, enters into the composition of the following words : magnanimity (animus, Lat. mind), greatness of mind; magnify (facio,

" By consent of all churches, the precedency in each province was Lat. I make), to make great, extol ; magniloquence (loquor, Lat. assigned to the bishop of the metropolis, who was called the first bishop, I speak), great talk. Magnify is connected with the words magni.

the metropolitan."--Barrow. ficence, magnificent, magnifier. From magnus, great, comes also Micro, of Greek origin (mikros, Gr. little) is seen in micromagnitude.

cosm (kosmos, Gr. the world),—that is, a little world. To these, thy naval streams,

" Because in the little frame of man's body there is a representation Thy frequent towns superb, of busy trade,

of the universal, and (by allusion) a kind of participation of all the And ports magnific add, and stately ships, Innumerous."

parts there, therefore was man called microcosmos, or the little world." Dyer.

--Raleigh, llistory of the World." Mal, or male, of Latin origin (malum, evil), forms a set of words the opposites of words containing bene; as, malevolence, benevo

Micro appears also in microscope (skopeo, Gr. I look at, sce). lence ; malediction, benediction. Male is found in mal-administra

" The works of art do not bear a nice microscopical inspection ; but the tion, and maltreat; malcfactions (facio, Lat. I do), are misdeeds.

more helps are used, and the more nicely you pry into natural prodno

tions, the more do you discover of the fine mechanism of nature." I have heard

-Berkeley, “Siris.”
That guilty creatures sitting at a play,
Have, by the very cunning of the scene,

Mid, of Saxon origin (compare middle), halfway, makes a part
Been struck so to the soul, that presently

of several English words, as midland, midnight, midday, midship, They have proclaim'd their malefactions."

midsummer; the meaning of which is very plain. Midriff (rif,

Shakspeare, “ Hamlet." rib, Sax. division) is the diaphragm, the skin or membrane which Melan, of Greek origin (melas, black), to disorder, presents itself separates the heart and lungs from the lower belly. in melancholy (literally, black bile), whence it was thought came word.' It appears in the Greek, in mesos, middle; meta, in the

Mid, though belonging to the Saxon, is an Indo-Germanic babitual sadness.

midst of, among ; in the Latin, in medius, middle ; medium, the “But hail, thou goddess, sage and holy,

middle, the half, the means or medium ; in the German mitte, mit, Hail divinest melancholy,

with ; in the Sanscrit, madhya. Whose sainily visage is too bright

The term midwife is given by Richardson, as “med-wife, s To hit the sense of human sight;

woman hired for meed or reward." But how does the meed dis. Lives of the Queens of England, by Agnes Stricklaud," vol. viii. tinguish the midwife ? Are not all servants hired for meed or P. 92.

reward? And do not all professions receive a meed or reward?

COMMERCE,

CONDUITE,

CONFIANCE.

CAPRICIEUX.

The proper meaning of mid-wife is evidently, from our pères et aux pédants de fouetter les enfants et les châtier, étant en preceding remarks, medium-wife, a woman who from having been colère ? Ce n'est plus correction, c'est vengeance. Le châtiment marrieit berself, which the word wife denotes, becomes useful as a

tient lieu de médecine aux enfants, et souffririons-nous un médecin medium or means of assisting other married women at childbirth,

qui fut animé et courroucé contre son patient?- Montaigne. “Nor need I claim the Muses' midwifry,

Quand Socrate était en colère, c'était alors qu'il parlait et plus To bring to light so worthless poetry."-Bp. Hall.

rarement et plus doucement: on voyait bien qu'il était ému ; mais on voyait aussi qu'il se rendait maître de sa passion.-Plutarque.

Les effets de la colère ressemblent à la chute d une maison qui

en tombant sur une autre, se brise elle-même.--Sénèque. FRENCH EXTRACTS.

La colère commence par la folie et finit par le repentir.-Maximes

des Orientaux. PENSEES MORALES ET MAXIMES.

La force ne consiste pas à renverser un ennemi par terre, mais à

dompter sa colère.--Ibidem. BIENFAIT. Celui-là peut prendre, qui goûte un plaisir aussi délicat à rece- Il n'y a pas de membres plus utiles à la société que les commer. voir que son ami en sert à lui donner.-La Bruyère.

çants ; ils unissent les hommes par un trafic mutuel; ils distribuent BONHEUR.

les dons de la nature ; ils occupent les pauvres, et remplissent les

désirs des riches.- Raynal. Il en est du bonheur comme des montres : les moins compliquées Ce sont les gains légers qui rendent la bourse pesante; car les sont celles qui se dérangent le moins.-Chamfort.

petits gains reviennent souvent, au lieu que les grands arrivent Il y aurait de quoi faire bien des heureux avec tout le bonheur rarement.- Bacon. qui se perd en ce monde.-Levis.

COMPLAISANCE. N'entretenez pas de votre bonheur un homme moins heureux que fous.-Pythagore.

La complaisance est une monnaie à l'aide de laquelle tout le On n'est jamais si heureux ni si malheureux qu'on s'imagine.- la société. On vous en tient toujours compte.-Voltaire.

monde peut, au défaut de moyens essentiels, payer son écot dans La Rochefoucauld. A mesurer le bonheur des hommes seulement par le nombre et

Si vous voulez vous acquérir de l'autorité sans peine, soyez comla vivacité des plaisirs qu'ils ont dans le cours de leur vie, peut-être

plaisant.-Maximes des Orientau. y a-t-il un assez grand nombre de conditions assez égales, quoique fort différeutes. Celui qui a le moins de plaisirs les sent plus vive. ment, il en sent une infinité que les autres ne sentent plus ou n'ont

L'âme n'a point de secret que la conduite ne révèle.- Pensée jamais sentis, et à cet égard la nature fait assez son devoir de mère Chinoise. commune.- Fontenelle.

Mes enfants, ne méprisez jamais personne; regareez celui qui Si l'on vouloit n'être qu'heureux, cela serait bientôt fait; mais est au-dessus de vous comme votre père; votre égal, comme voire on veut être plus heureux que les autres; et cela est presque tou- frère; et votre intérieur, comme votre fils. - Ali. jours difficile, parce que nous croyons les aulies plus heureux qu'ils ne sont. - Montesquicu.

La confiance fournit plus à la conversation que l'esprit.-La

Rochefoucauld. Il se multiplie autant de fois qu'il a de nouveaux goûts et de L'envie d'être plaint ou d'être admiré fait souvent la plus grande manières différentes, il est à chaque moment ce qu'il n'était point, partie de notre contiance.- Idem. et il va être bientôt ce qu'il n'a jamais été; il se succèle à luimême. Ne demandez pas de quelle complexion il est, mais quelles sont ses complexions; ni de quelle humeur, mais combien il a de sortes d'humeurs.--La Bruyère.

LITERARY NOTICES.

THE SCIENCE OF BOTANY beautifully Illustrated by upwards of Quiconque n'a pas de caractère n'est pas un homme, c'est une

Three Hundred Engravings from Drawings from Nature.--In The chose.-Chamfort.

ILLUSTRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART, for September 4th, Diseur de bons mots, mauvais caractère.- Pascal.

will be commenced a series of chapters on the instructive science of CHARITE.

Botany. Each chapter will be profusely illustrated with engravings, Celui-là est vraiment grand qui a une grande charité.—Thomas carefully executed. These chapters on Botany will not interfere with -Kempis.

the general characier of the work, which contains first-class engravings, Faites part de votre pain à celui qui a faim, et faites entrer en including portraits and specimens of the works of the great masters, in votre maison les pauvres qui ne savent où se se retirer : lorsque painting, sculpture, and architecture ; portraits of eminent characters ; vous verrez un homme nu, revêtez-le, et ne méprisez point voire propre chair.- Isaie.

views of cities, palaces, and public buildings; natural history ; manuCelui qui ferme l'oreille au cri du pauvre criera lui-même, et il facturing processes ; machinery and inventions ; scientific, including the ne sera point écouté.-Salomon.

elements of design, perspective, hydraulics, the stereoscope, &c.; ornaN'attristez point le ceur du pauvre, qui est déjà accablé de mental sculpture, needlework, &c. ; with original literary articles, includdouleur, et ne différez point de donner à celui qui souffre.- ing biographies, descriptions of works of art, details of manufacturing Eoclésiastique.

Lorsque vous faites l'aumône, que votre main gauche ne sache processes and machinery, papers on natural history and other branches point ce que fait votre main droite.-Evangile.

of science; and much interesting fragmentary matter. The ILLUSAyez pitié même des pauvres qui se laissent aller à l'impatience TRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART is published in weekly et à la colère. Pensez que c'est une chose bien dure pour le mal. Numbers, twopence each, or in monthly Parts, 9d. or 11d. each, accordheureux de souffrir toutes les misères dans un taudis ou dans un ing to the number of weeks in each month. chemin, tandis qu'à quelques pas de lui passent des hommes parfaitement vêtus et nourris.-Silvio Pellico.

CASSELL'S SILLING EDITION OF EUCLID.—THE ELEMENTS or La charité, c'est tout le christianisme.-Bossuet.

GEOMETRY, containing the First Six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth

Books of Euclid, from the text of Robert Simson, M.D., Emeritus CLEMENCE.

Professor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow; with Corrections, Si votre ennemi a faim, donnez-lui à manger; s'il a soif, donnez- Annotations, and Exercises, by Robert Wallace, A.M., of the same lui à boire.-Salomon.

university, and Collegiate Tutor of the University of London, is now COEUR.

ready, price 18. in stiff covers, or 18. Cd, neat cloth. Les grandes pensées viennent du cæur.-Vauvenargues.

CASSELL'S EMIGRANT'S HANDBOOK, a Guide to the Various Fields la pire de toutes les mésalliances est celle du cæur.- Chamfort. of Emigration in all Parts of the Globe, Second Edition, with considerL'un n'est estimable que par le cour, et l'on n'est heureux que able Additions, and a Map of Australia, with the Gold Regions clearly par lui; car notre bonheur ne dépend que de la manière de sentir. marked, is now ready, price 9d. Pascal.

SCRIPTURE LIBRARY FOR THE YOUNG, in Shilling Volumes - The

first two volumes of this instructive series of works, " The LIFE OF Il n'est passion qui nuise plus au raisonnement que la colère. JOSEPH," illustrated with sixteen choice engravings and maps, and Aucun ne ferait doute de punir de mort un juge qui, par colère, The TABERNACLE, its Priests, and SERVICES,” with twelve engravaurait condamné son criminel. Pourquoi est-il plus permis aux ings, are now ready. The " LIFE OF MOSES ” will shortly appear.

CARACTERE.

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ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

myself alone, but to be an example of perseverance and industry to my

children and grandchildren.” What a noble and praiseworthy feeling! Our readers will please to put last month for yesterday, p. 307, col. 2, It cannot, it will not, lose its reward.—PETER HAY (West Allerdean) : line 28; and add s to nephew, line 48.

E. FINIGAN (Manchester): Correct.-M. W. DICKSON (Dublin): Yes.-A J. FAULKNER (Smethwick): Man and mankind are general terms WELL-WISHER, rates us soundly for using the subjunctive mood after the including every individual of the human race ; male and female, young particle if !-Novi YELSOM (Manchester) makes the extraordinary re. and old, servant and master, king and subject, negro and negro-driver.- quest of us, to send him songs, “lively songs with choruses,” in about J.J. NEWTON (Bridgewater): His solutions to the queries in No. 14, 50 different languages, and he will discharge the debt in postage are nearly correct.-A. LEARNER (Greenock): His observations ou stamps !--G. H. CHELTENHAM, is right, Strabo was a Roman writer of Geometry are good : let him read our answer to J. S. (Ayrshire). His Greek Geography.-W. H. B. should study Cassell's Euclid, and the demonstration of the 47th B. I. contrary to his own maxim, depends on lectures in the P. E. together. Zumpt's Latin Grammar can be obtained “ Euc. B. I., 46, Cor. 2," by his own citation. This cor. is not Euclid's, of any respectable bookseller.-E. EVANS (Abergele): We cannot conbut Dr. Thomson's, and even he refers to “ Euc. B. 1., 34, Cor. 2,” for descend to copy other people's plans in the management of our corre. its demonstration ; neither is the latter Euclid's, but Dr. Thomson's spondence. Our earnest desire is to do ALL THE GOOD we can to EVERY again, for he has added a demonstration. Euclid's demonstration is, INDIVIDUAL, believing that by so doing we shall benefit the mass in therefore, on Learner's own showing, not complete. Neither is it on

the long run ;

“ a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump."-THOMAS another ground; for, whichever of the six ways of constructing the KNOTT (Gateshead) is right; our religious readers should get " The diagram, a student happens to take, the demonstration ought to apply Pathway;" therefore we send him to its editor for an answer to his to that way; a thing which has not yet been satisfactorily made out on religious question.-J.B. (Long Benton) should pronounce Montague Euclid's principles, of the 47th.-A. SKERRIT (Holbrook): His solutions thus : Mont-a-gue, with the emphasis on Mont, with the a short, the u are correct, and very ingenious.-D. M. F. (Bradford) wishes us to put | long, and the e silent.--H. A. (Liverpool): In the French lessons, m. the following query : “How many acres of the earth's surface may be means masculine, and f. feminine.—MOLESTUS (Liverpool): The names seen from the top of a steeple 400 feet high, the earth being perfectly of the cases in Latin shall be explained.-AN ASPIRANT to the profes. spherical, and its diameter 7,920 miles.”—LUPUS is right on the educa- sion of civil engineers, will ascertain how a person becomes a M. I. C. E. tion of females of the middle class; it is preposterous.

by calling at the institution, Great George-street, Westminster, and

i getting a copy of its rules and regulations.-C. F. P. (Duomanway): we A. W. (Edinburgh) wishes us to assist him in dividing t+2+ are obliged by his interesting communication, and shall keep it in view

xfor the benefit of our readers. His solutions are correct.-A. Scots1

MAN is too wide an appellation ; never mind the arrangement of the by First, put unity under the dividend to make a fraction of it; Latin words at present, if your translation be correct. You will see in

the KEY, that the same sentence is arranged two or three different ways.

-E. A. B. (Bellington): His solutions to the queries, p. 223, are very then invert the divisor, and multiply the two fractions together; the result good. No. 4. is a geometrical query.-J. M. L. (Edinburgh) wishes a

1
a(+2+),

2x2–2x+1 solution to the following query : Subtract from

3-1

_* will then be

which can be reduced to its lowest terms. Bring the fractions to a common denominator by multiplying the terms xt

of the first by x. Subtract its numerator, then, from that of the mind

x-2x+1 This may be easily done by observing that the part of the numerator in end, and the result is

; which, when separated into factors parenthesis, is the square of the denominator; hence, dividing both terms

z?-X
1
(x-1) (x-1)

x-1

1
aért
is

:1 by the denominator, the fraction in its lowest terms is *);

by canoelling like terms and x (x-1) 1

dividing.-I. E. his question has beeu answered.-AMICUS VERITAS multiplying both numerator and denominator by x, and removing the Dictionary serve his purpose for a time.-H. B. (London): Spier's

(Glasgow), who should have put VERITATIS, will find Entick's Latin

axta pareathesis according to rule, you have for the

in French Dictionary is a very good one.-G. (Liverpool): correct.-J. H.

(Shelton): Brande's Chemistry or Graham's.- ARITHMOS (Plymouth): another form.

the brick 9 inches long, 44 broad, and a thick, contains 1014 cubic S. Y. B. (Tiverton): The method of putting down this sum in a inches; for 9 X 44 X2=1044.-GEORGE AUGUSTUS (Temple): the ciphering-book is of little moment, provided the student shows that he subject he proposes of inquiry into the meaning of proper names of perthoroughly understands it. “ From July 18th, 1823, to April 18th, sons, is both legitimate and interesting; but we doubt whether at the 1830, how many years and days ?!? It might be done thus:

present stage of our progress, it would be acceptable to the majority of Remaining days of 1823

166 days

our readers, who seem more bent on the acquisition of positively useful Leap years from 1824 to 1848 inclusive

knowledge, than upon that of the merely ingenious, entertaining and Common years from 1824 to 1849 inclusive of 1849

agreeable. In an old and valuable book, called Cruden's “ Concordance Days of 1850 included in the question

108 days.

to the Holy Scriptures," you will find an explanation of the meaning of Answer: 7 leap years, 19 common years, and 274 days. But if the all Scripture names, such as Michael; which by the way, is one of the answer be required in days, thus :

names of the Lord Jesus Christ, he being the only archangel, or prince, Days of 1823...

166

chics, and ruler of angels. In some editions of Ainsworth's Latin DicDays in 7 leap years

2562

tionary, you will find an explanation of non-scriptural names, such as Days in 19 common years

6935

Robert, &c. On the subject of surnames, there are also some books Days of 1850.......

108

extant; the only one we remember at present is Buchanan on " Scottish

Surnames ;" and the Lowland Scots boast of a similar origin to the Answer: number of days......

9 771 in all. Saxons, repudiating, in the matter of ancient history, all connexion with A JERSEYMAN should read both the P. E. and the “ French Lessons," the Gael. --- AIA-KOPTOU (Fulham): Malte-Brun's or Mrs. Somerville's republished at 6d., beginning with the latter.-R. G. (Dundee): Thanks Physical Geography are among the best, and Lyell's Geology.-J. F. S. for his solution. We intend to go as far as the diff. and integ. calculus, The one rule is that one noun governs another in the genitive whatever and the Oriental languages too; but it is really impossible to say when. case the former may be in; and the other is that an active verb governs

The following correspondents have correctly answered the question the accusative. of LEARNER, p. 288:-Miss ANN WALTON (Leeds); JOHN JAMES A WARM FRIEND: If he will consult the previous chapter of the N. (Bridgewater); JOSEPH BAGSHAW (Willenhall); JAMES POLAND prophecies of Jeremiah, he will find that the princes of Judah took (William-street); J. B. M'COLLAN (York); P, Un Lecteur constant ; offence at the prophet's fidelity, and threw him into prison. Ebed-meSAMUEL HOLMES (Bingley) ; T. H. (Durham); and others.

lech, an Ethiopian servant of Zedekiah, king of Judah, effected lis PHILO (Berwick-upon-1'keed): Had we not inserted the solution of release, and saved him from death by famine. To this pious and humai

. LEARNER's question, p. 288, in our last Number,

we should have gladly man, the prophet was sent with a special message from God, and the inserted tha', of our iend, who tells us he bas done it by reason

words to which our friend refers in the close of the thirty-ninth chasand not by rule ; in order to show our readers that REASON and RULE ter, are to be applied not to Jeremiah, but to Ebed-melech, and are are the same thing, or in other words, that rules are the dictates of meant to assure him of his personal safety in the midst of public

We are delighted to think that our P. E. should interest an calamity. As to the introduction of the name of NECHO in to old man 59 years of age, and that at this age he should begin to learn questions subjoined to the fourth lesson on Ancient History, it is simply Latin from our pages, a thing which he has wished to do all his life, but a misprint, for the Apries or Pharaoh-Hophra of the text. was never able to do till the P. E. appeared. We cannot help quoting his words, as an example and encouragement to others. He says, “I Printed and Published by John Cassell, La Belle Sauvago Yaru, em eagerly learning Latin, not with the expectation of benefiting

Ludgate-hill, London.- August 28, 1852,

now

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