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Entrance to auditory cavity.
that membrane. Beyond the membrane is this auditory cavity, which is filled with the air which it receives through the Eustachian tube; and behind this cavity, and opposite to the membrane of the tympanum, is a membrane of the same kind with two apertures, the one oval, and the other round, and these two membranes are united by a chain of little bones. The vibrations produced in the membrane of the tympanum, are transmitted to the membrane with the oval aperture by means of this little chain of bones, from the air contained within the osseous walls of the cavity. This cavity, again, is in communication with the vestibule, which borders upon a system of semicircular canals, which together form the labyrinth or internal ear. These canals contain a watery liquid, into which the fibres of the auditory nerve plunge. The vibrations of the membrane with its apertures are transmitted hither; and the nerve conveying these impressions to the brain, we have the sensation of hearing.
SIGHT.-The eye, as the organ of vision, is made up of an assemblage of parts even more complex than those of the ear. It is an optical instrument of wonderful completeness. This beautiful instrument presents the form and appearance of a globe, and consists of a spheroidal envelope-THE SCLEROTIC-which offers to its anterior part, a transparent circular segment-THE CORNEA-for Crystalline lens.
ous humour, the crystalline lens, and the vitreous body, the sys of light which diverge from the several points of any object, must pass to reach the retina. Falling upon the front of the cornea, they are refracted by its convex surface, while passing through it into the eye. Here they slightly converge; but are brought more closely together by the crystalline lens, which they reach after passing through the pupil. The refracting influence of the lens, together with that produced by the aqueous humour, is such as to bring these rays to a focus on the retina, where is formed a complete inverted image of the object. Then to prevent the light that forms the picture from being reflected from one part of the interior of the globe to another, which would mar and confuse the picture, the retina, which is almost transparent, is spread over the layer of black pigment which lines the choroid coat, and is designed to absorb the rays as soon as they have passed through the retina. The impression of the image is then transmitted by the optic nerve to the brain, and we become conscious of a certain sensation.
the passage of the rays of light,-and to its posterior portion, a round opening for the introduction of the optic nerve, which at once developes itself in a nervous membrane-THE RETINA-doubling within the sclerotic in a manner to curtain three-fourths of the posterior of the spheroidal cavity of the globe. It is upon this nervous expansion that the luminous rays fall, and penetrating through it, terminate upon an absorbent membrane, impregnated with a black matter. This membrane is named THE CHOROID, and is that coat which is found immediately under the sclerotic. At the level of the union of the cornea with the sclerotic, the cavity of the eye is separated into two parts by a moveable, vertical, and diversely-coloured partition-THE IRIS-which is pierced in the centre by a round opening-THE PUPIL. The anterior parts of the cavity of the eye is filled by a transparent liquid-THE AQUEOUS HUMOUR. The posterior part contains THE CRYSTALLINE LENS; situated behind the iris, enclosed in a concavity of the vitreous body, which is a transparent mass made up of little cells full of watery liquid, and this liquid fills all the posterior cavity, even to immediate contact with the retina.
Through the various transparent media of the cornea, the aque
LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. XXI.
By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D.
THE SECOND CONJUGATION.
EXAMPLE.-Moneo 2, I remind.
Chief Parts; moneo, monui, monitum, monére. Characteristic letter, E long.
MOODS, TENSES, &c. OF MONEO, I remind.
monétis monent monébam
monebamus monébatis monebant
moneámus monéte or monemoneátis
mone or mon- monére monens monéto [éto
moneremus monerétis monérent
monuerimus monueritis monuerint
In reply to some inquiring correspondents, the following information is added to the subject of nouns :
The names of the cases in Latin are of Greek origin, as is the term case (ptosis, fall) itself. The nominative is so called because it assigns the name (nomen) of the agent; the genitive denotes the relation of genus, origin or birth, that out of which a thing arises, and to which therefore it belongs; the accusaEXERCISES :-Like moneo form doceo, I teach; and habeo, tive points out that which is caused (causa) or effected, that which receives the action implied in the verb, the result of that action, the object or thing on which the action falls; the dative case is the giving (do, dare, dedi, datum, to give) case, signifying the person (or thing) to which something is given or assigned; the vocative (voco, I call) is the case of calling on or addressing; and the ablative (ablatus, taken from)_bears the name because it involves the idea of separation. In the Greek there is no ablative, the relations implied in that case being expressed partly by the genitive, partly by the dative.
Participle. ceas; timebam ne inimícus mihi noceret; timuit puer ne tacuerit mater; curabam ut pueri mores emendarem et corpus exercerem ; curabam ut pueri mores emendares et corpus exerceres; curabam ut praeceptor pueri mores emendaret et corpus exerceret; timeo ut venias; timet marítus ne uxor occidat; timuit praeceptor ne discipulus ejus verbis pareret; malus puer timet ut veniat praeceptor.
Exerceo 2, I exercise; gaudeo 2, I rejoice; gaudeo quod, I rejoice that; valeo 2, I am well; pareo 2, 1 obey; placeo 2, I please; displicco 2, 1 displease; oblivio, ónis, f. forgetfulness; deleo 2, I blot out; floreo 2, I flourish; probe, honestly, properly; taceo 5, I am silent (E. R. tacit); repente, adv. suddenly; aditus, ûs, m. access, entrance (E. R. an adit); pateo 2, I lie open, I am open; timeo 2, I fear (E. R. timid); noceo 2, I injure; venio 4, come; occido 3, I fall, die.
Observe that, occasionally, forms of other conjugations, &c., than the one immediately under treatment, are introduced with a view to keep up the student's attention, exercise his ingenuity, and test his progress.
Timeo ne tibi displiceam,
I fear lest I should displease thee; that is,
Metuo ne Caesar vincat,
I fear Caesar may conquer; or,
RULE.-After verbs expressive of fear, ne is used with the subjunctive of the following verb. Ne is, in Latin, a negative, and may be often rendered by lest; it may, however, in construing into English, be altogether dropped, the ordinary connecting particle that, or that not, being put between the two verbs; e. g.,
In this case, the second verb may be considered as the object of the first, as is seen in the second rendering, which is equivalent to I fear to displease thee. The force may be more clearly seen if the meaning is put into other words. Plainly the import of the sentence is, I wish not to displease thee. Take another example:
I fear that Caesar may not conquer; or,
He reminded me; they reminded the king; I might remind you; you might remind me; they have reminded the boy; thou wast reminding the woman; I will remind the teacher; be silent; do you be silent; let them be silent; the woman was suddenly silent; take care to improve; that thou improvest the morals of the citizens; I fear he may displease thee; the boys feared to displease their father; he pleases all (persons); a good man will displease the bad; why art thou silent? they fear that Caesar will conquer their country; good sisters fear (their) brothers will not be well; art thou well? I fear thou wilt not be well; if thou exercisest thy body thou wilt be well; my mother fears an entrance into heaven will (may) not lie open to me.
After verbs of fearing, ut is also employed, but with import the reverse of that which is given by ne; e. g.,
Metuo ut Caesar vincat.
N.B. "When several angles are at one point B, any one of them is expressed by three letters, of which the letter that is at the vertex of the angle, that is, at the point in which the straight lines that contain the angle meet one another, is put between the other two letters, and one of these two is somewhere upon one of those straight lines, and the other upon the other straight line: thus the angle which is contained by the straight lines, A B, C B, is named named the angle A B D, or D BA; and that which is contained by the angle ABC, or CBA; that which is contained by AB, DB, is DB, CB, is called the angle DBC, or C BD; but, if there be only one angle at a point, it may be expressed by a letter placed at that point; as the angle at E." This explanation is put in inverted commas, as being Dr. Simson's addition; it is very necessary to be remembered.
Hence, you see, that in putting similar sentences into English, you must drop the negative where it is found in the Latin, and use it where it is not found in the Latin.
LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-No. X.
DEFINITIONS. BOOK I. FROM VIII. TO XII. INCLUSIVE.
[A plane angle is the inclination of two lines to one another in a plane, which meet together, but are not in the same direction.] This definition is put in brackets, as useless, and unnecessary to be remembered.
A plane rectilineal angle is the inclination of two straight lines to one When another, which meet together, but are not in the same straight line. two straight lines meet at a point, so that if produced they would intersect (cross) each other, the indefinite space between them is called an angle.
Exerceo; exercebam; exercebat; exercebo; gaudeo quod tu vales; præceptor gaudebat quod vos ejus præceptis parebatis; tibi placebas, aliis displicebas; virtutis honorem nulla oblivio delebit; exercui; Græcia omnibus artibus floruit; laudo vos quod mentes vestras studio probe exercuistis; cur tacuistis? Tacuit puer reperte; tacebat mater; tacent omnes; nisi virtutis præceptis, parueritis, aditus in coelum vobis non patebit; si cupiditates tuas coercueris, beatus eris; curo ut pueri mores emendem et corpus exerceam; moneo vos ut patris praecepta observetis; timebam ne vobis displicerem; cura ut pueri mores emendes et corpus exer-tal line.
successive position, constitutes an angle; and this angle in.
creases in magnitude from zero, or nothing, to an entire An obtuse angle is that which is greater than a right angle.
revolution ; it may also be stopped at any point in the course
of this revolution, it may be carried to any point beyond this XII.
revolution, or it may be made to perform any number of
revolutions from the same point, or from one point to another, An acute imgle is that which is less than a right angle.
and in all these cases it will generate what is called an angle. The term oblique angles is applied both to obtuse angles
Hence, an angle may consist of any part of such revolution, a and to acute angles.
whole revolution, a whole revolution and part of a revolution, On the eighth definition, Dr. Simson remarks that it seems any number of revolutions, or any number of revolutions and he who made it, intended that it should comprehend not only a part of a revolution. This idea of an angle was certainly a plane angle contained by two straight lines, but likewise the not contemplated in the Elernents of Euclid. It is even angle which some conceive to be made by u straight line and a asserted that no angle greater than half of such a revolution curve, or by two curve lines which meet one another in a plane. was considered or contemplated by him. To this, we demur; Now, though the words, in the same direction, are easily under for we think there are traces in the third book of his stood when applied to two straight lines, it does not appear having taken into consideration angles which are greater than clearly what ought to be understood by them, when applied to those formed by half a revolution, as well as those which are a straight line and a curve, or to two curve lines. Besides, all formed by less than half a revolution. With the idea of the angles that are considered and treated of in the Elements revolution in our hands, we can give very easy explanations of Geometry, are those made by straight lines only; and, of some subsequent definitions : thus, a right angle is onetherefore, the definition and consideration of such other angles fourth of an entire revolution ; an acute angle is less, and an as are above described, is wholly unnecessary and uncalled obtuse angle greater than this quantity. Two right angles are for. It may be further remarked, that as the doctrine of half of an entire revolution; three right angles, three-fourths of curves belongs to the Higher Geometry, sometimes called an entire revolution; and four right angles, an entire revolution. Transcendental, it is plain that the consideration of curvilinear Useful, however, as the idea of revolution is, in thus ex. or mixtilinear angles must be deferred until the student has plaining the nature of angles, it is foreign to geometry, and made himself master of the Elements of Euclid. Dr. Simson not strictly admissible into a logical treatise. The reason of seems to imply, in the preceding observation, that this eighth this is evident; it is only physical or natural objects that can definition is not Euclid's, although found in the Greek text; be put in motion ; and therefore motion belongs to Natural indeed, he asserts, in another place, that it is the addition of Philosophy and not to Geometry. A straight line is not a "some less skilful editor;" by this, he evidently means an physical object, but a mental or ideal object, and therefore it editor less skilful than the author; but wherever any error is cannot be put in motion; it may nevertheless be conceived to found in the Greek text, Dr. Simson never admits that it is be put in motion ; but this would require a new postulate in Euclid's error, for Euclid is his hero; but always throws the geometry; and this postulate being admitted, new postulates blame upon his editors.
would be required at every step, in order to carry on the reaThe ninth definition is one of very great importance to the soning. Euclid foresaw this, and therefore excluded motion student, as upon the right understanding of what an angle as much as possible from his Elements. It is true that the really is, all his future progress in Geometry depends. Varivus idea of revolution occurs in the definitions of the twelfth Book ; modes have been proposed in order to convey the idea of an but there its introduction is of less importance, seeing that he angle clearly to the mind by words; but, at first, it is always has so firmly established the principles of geometry in the surrounded with a haze of indistinctness, whatever words may preceding books ; and it is admitted that the first six books be employed. An angle (or a rectilineal angle) is sometimes are more logically reasoned and elegantly demonstrated than said to be the degree of opening or divergence of two straight the subsequent books. lines which meet one another. This definition plainly implies We cannot avoid calling the attention of the student most that the lines have been at first shut together, or coincident particularly to the N.B. or Nota Bene (that is, "mark well") with each other, and that they have been separated at one added by Dr. Simson. It is plain that when two straight end, while they were kept together at the other. Hence, Dr. lines drawn in different directions, meet at any point in a plane Thomson throws himself at once upon this idea, and says, "a they form, according to the usual interpretation of Euclid's clear idea of the nature of an angle is obtained by gradually definition, only one angle at that point; and therefore only opening a carpenter's rule or a pair of compasses; as the one letter is necessary to be placed at that point in order to angle made by the parts of the rule or the legs of the com- enable us to speak of that angle or to describe it. But when passes, will become greater as the opening widens.” This three straight lines drawn in different directions meet at any illustration will do very well for a class, if the members, while one point in a plane, they form at least three different angles, listening to the lecturer, do not imitate the operation of the according to the usual interpretation of Euclid's definition ; compasses with their mouths, that is, in plain English, do not and, therefore, more letters than one are necessary to distinyawn over it, as they are very apt to do. In an edition of guish these three angles from one another. Now, if besides Euclid's Elements, formerly referred to, and which we shall the point where the two straight lines forming any angle meet, in future call the Gower-street edition, the editor plunges at which is called the vertex of the angle, two other points be taken, once into the idea of an angle generated by motion, and one on each of these straight lines or legs of the angle, at any endeavours to enlarge our conception of an angle to a degree convenient distance from the vertex, and letters be put at far beyond that contemplated by Euclid. He very truly says these three points, we shall be enabled to speak of that one that “angles might not improperly be considered as a fourth angle individually without confusing the mind with the other species of magnitude;" the other three species being lines, two angles. And in order that the nature of the angular space surfacce, and solids, “ Angular magnitude evidently consists may be clearly presented to the mind's eye by the language of parts, and must therefore be admitted to be a species of quan- employed, the letter at the vertex of the angle is always placed in tity. The student must not suppose that the magnitude of the middle between the other two letters, and the three letters are an angle is affected by,” or depends upon "the length of the then read in succesion, not as a word, but as letters of the straight lines which include it,” or by which it is formed, alphabet. Thus, in the diagram above, the three straight lines “and of whose mutual divergence it is the measure. These A B (a-bee), DB (dee-bee), and C B (sce-bee) meet in the same point straight lines, which are called the sides or the_legs of the or common vertex B, and form the three angles A B D (a-bee-dee), angle, are supposed to be of indefinite length. To illustrate DBC (dee-bee-see), and ABC (a-bee-see); or, which is the same the nature of angular magnitude, we shall recur to motion." thing, the three angles DBA (dec-bes-a), C B D (sce-bee-dee), and This illustration, which is given by many editors, consists CB A (see-bee-a); where the B, the letter at the vertex in each in supposing a straight line to be fixed at one erd, and angle, is carefully preserved in the middle between the other two extended indefinitely in one given direction ; it is then sup- Letters ; so that it is quite immaterial to the sense, whether you posed to leave this initial, or first position, and to revolve begin to name an angle by the letter on the one leg, or round its fixed extremity in the same plane; as it revolves, the letter on the other leg, provided you keep the letter the indefinite space between its initial position and every at the vertex in the middle between them.
of observing this rule most pointedly, will be more clearly
But to return from this digression, it seems strange that we cannot obtain a definition of one right angle without bringing in the consideration of two right angles, yet such is the case in the tenth definition of Euclid. We have endeavoured to supply this deficiency by borrowing the physical terms vertical and horizontal, but these themselves require explanation. To explain the term vertical we may say that this is the position which a plumb-line takes when held up above the surface of the earth, and yet this would not, even physically speaking, be strictly true; for it is well known that the attraction of large masses on the earth's surface have an influence on the plumbline so as to deflect it, or draw it away, from the true vertical position. From the experiments of Dr. Maskelyne, made on the mountain Schehalien, in Scotland, it was ascertained that the attraction of that mountain caused the plumb-line to deflect from its true position no less than five seconds and eighttenths of a second, or about the two hundred and twenty-three thousandth part of an entire revolution round the point by which it was suspended. To explain the term horizontal, we may say that this is the position which stagnant water assumes when left free in a vessel, pond, or lake on the surface of the earth; or rather it is the straight line joining two points in the opposite edges of the surface of such a piece of water, supposing that capillary attraction is not in operation on the edges of this surface. Thus we see that if physical terms are brought in to explain geometrical ones, we are obliged to hem them in, and surround them with explanations in such a manner as to make them lose all their force as definitions. Returning, therefore, to abstract ideas, let us see if we cannot reach the definition of one right angle without calling in the idea of two right angles. Perhaps the following might answer some minds. If two straight lines meet each other in a point, and the one stands on the other precisely mid-way between the position of complete coincidence and the greatest degree of divergence or separation, they form a right angle. If any of our students or readers can improve upon this mode of explaining a right angle without introducing the idea of two right angles, as Euclid does, we shall be glad to insert it in our pages.
LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. XXII.
1. In the compound tenses of the verb s'en aller, to go away
Tu t'en es allé,
Vous vous en êtes You went away; allés,
Il s'en est allé,
Ils s'en sont allés, They went away.
The gentlemen are gone away.
Les dames s'en sont allées.
Les messieurs s'en sont allés.
2. The verb aller when referring to articles of dress answers to the English to fit, to sit :
Mon habit va bien.
My coat fits or sits well.
3. Seoir [4 ir. see table § 62] answers to the English to suit,
to become :
Ce chapeau ne vous sied point.
That hat does not become you.
4. Essayer (§ 49) corresponds in signification to the English to try on :-
J'ai essayé mon gilet, il me va bien. I have tried my waistcoat, it fits me
5. Etre is often used in French for appartenir, to belong [§ 106 (3)] :—
A qui est cette maison.
Elle est à mon cousin.
Je m'en suis allé à neuf heures.
Nous nous en sommes allées trop
Cette robe vous va-t-elle bien?
Cet habit vous sied il fort bien ?
Il lui va bien (régime indirect).
Ces livres sont ils à vous ou à moi?
Ils ne sont ni à moi ui à vous.
Les livres de qui, avez vous appor
J'ai apporté ceux de mon frère.
Beau-frère, m. brother-
Botte, f boot,
To whom does that house belong?
At what hour did you go away?
I went away at nine o'clock.
We went away too late.
Does that dress fit you well?
Does that coat become you very well?
I have tried it on, but it does not fit
It fits him well.
It hurts me, it presses me too much.
I have brought my brother's.
Gilet, m. waistcoat;
1. Vos bottes ne vont elles pas bien? 2. Elles ne me vont pas bien, elles me serrent trop. 3. Sont elles trop étroites? 4. Elles sont trop étroites et trop courtes, elles me gênent. 5. Le cordonnier s'en est il allé? 6. 11 ne s'en est pas encore allé. 7. A quelle heure les compagnes de votre sœur s'en sont elles allées ? 8. Elles s'en sont allées vers six heures de l'aprèsmidi. 9. L'habit que vous tenez, est il à vous ou à votre frère? 10. Il n'est ni à lui ni à moi, il est à mon beau-frère. 11. Lui va-t-il bien? 12. Il lui va fort bien, et il lui sied bien. 13. Où l'a-t-il fait faire? 14. Il l'a fait faire en France ou en Allemagne. 15. A qui sont les livres que lit Mademoiselle votre sœur? 16. Ils sont à moi. 17. Votre gilet va-t-il mieux que celui de votre beau-frère? 18. Il me va beaucoup mieux. 19. Votre habit ne vous géne-t-il pas ? 20. Il ne saurait (cannot) me gêner, il est de beaucoup trop large. 21. Avez vous essayé votre habit neuf? 22. Je l'ai essayé, mais la couleur
ne me sied pas. 23. Est elle trop claire? 24. Elle est trop Davantage, more;
1. Are your friends gone away? 2. They are not yet gone away, they are still here. 3. At what hour did your mother go away? 4. She went away early this morning. 5. Did your little sister go away late? 6. She went away too soon. 7. Does your sister's new dress become her? 8. It does not become her. 9. Why does it not become her? 10. Dark colours never become her. 11. Do light colours become your brother's wife? 12. They become her very well. 13. Are your new boots too narrow or too wide? 14. They are neither too narrow nor too wide, they fit very well. 15. Does your brother's waistcoat fit him? 16. It fits him, but it does not become him. 17. Light colours never become him. 18. Does your coat press you? 19. It does not press me, it is by far too wide. 20. Whose house is that? 21. It is my father's and brother's. 22. Whose books have you brought this morning? 23. I have brought my brother's and my sister's. 24. Whose dresses are those? 25. They are my mother's, my sister's, and my cousin's. 26. Are not those German book yours? 27. They are not mine, they are my friend's. 28. Are those pens yours or mine? 29. They are neither yours nor mine, they are my brother's. 30. Does this hat fit you? 31. Yes, Sir, it fits me, but it does not become me, 32. Is your hat too small? 33. It is too large (grand). 34. Are your gloves too large? 35. They are too small, I cannot put
1. The verb falloir [3 ir.], to be necessary, is always conjugated unipersonally. See table, § 62. Il faut, il a fallu.
It is necessary, it was or has been ne
Il faut étudier tous les jours.
1. What must we do? 2. You must bring your book and
2. As falloir has always a unipersonal pronoun for its nominative or subject, a pronoun in the indirect regimen (dative-him me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur), placed before the verb, will be equivalent to the pronoun used as nominative to the English verbs must, to be obliged, &c. :
1. Que faut il faire aujourd'hui ? 2. Aujourd'hui il faut travailler. 3. A-t-il fallu travailler fort pour finir l'ouvrage à temps? 4. Il a fallu travailler toute la journée. 5. Quand faut il écrire à notre ami? 6. Il faut lui écrire aujourd'hui. 7. Me faut il aller trouver mon père? 8. Il vous faut aller le trouver, il désire vous parler. 9. A-t-il besoin de quelque chose? 10. Il lui faut des livres, des plumes, et de l'encre. 11. Ne lui faut il pas aussi de l'argent? 12. Il lui en faut beaucoup pour payer ses dettes. 13. Vous faut encore quelque chose 14. Il ne me faut plus rien, j'ai tout ce qu'il me faut. 15. Ne faut il pas du papier à votre sour? 16. Il ne lui en faut pas davantage.* 17. Que faut il envoyer au chirurgien? 18. Il faut lui envoyer de l'argent, il en a grand besoin. 19. La modiste a-t-elle tout ce qu'il lui faut 20. Elle n'a pas tout ce qu'il lui faut. 21. Combien vous faut il ? 22. Il me faut cinq francs. 23. Ne vous faut il pas davantage? 24. Il ne me faut pas davantage. 25. Que lui faut il pour sa peine? 26. Il demandé un franc vingt-cinq centimes. EXERCISE 94.
Il me faut un livre.
Il lui faut de l'argent.
Il me faut écrire un thême.
3. Falloir is used in the signification of to want, to need, to 27. He must have money to (pour) pay his debts. 28. Has be under the necessity of having :
the tailor all that he wants? 29. He has not all that he wants. 30. The milliner has received all that she wants. 31. What must you have for your trouble? 32. How much do you want? 33. How much do we want? 34. What must I do? 35. You must write a letter. 36. What must she write? 37. She must write four pages. 38. She must go to church.
RESUME OF Tour apprendre une langue il faut étudier.
Il faut aller à l'église et à l'école.
I must write an exercise.
4. When must is used in the last acceptation, and has a noun
Il faut un livre à ma sœur.
Il faut rester à la maison.
Il me faut lire un bon livre.*
Il lui faut aller voir sa mère.
Que leur faut-il lire?
Il leur faut de l'argent ou du
Vous faut-il cinquante francs?
I need a book.
He is in want of money.
To learn a language it is necessary
It is necessary to go to church and to
It is necessary to remain at home.
I must read a good book.
She must go and see her mother.
What must they read?
What do they want or need?
Do you want or must you have fifty
Il me faut cinquante-cinq francs?
I must have or I need fifty-five francs.
Il lui en faut beaucoup.
Another construction of these sentences will be found Section 21. 1, 2.
Combien, how much,
LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-No. V.
THE temple of Apollo Panionius, in Ionia, was built according to the Doric style; but the Ionians dissatisfied with the simplicity of this order, invented another of a more delicate character, and called it the Ionic order, after the name of their country. They made the height of the column in this order greater in proportion to its diameter than in the Doric order; the form of the capital was totally different, having large volutes at its corners, of which the spiral is often very finely sculptured; the entablature was changed in its parts and proportions; and a base was added to the bottom of the column, in harmony with its capital (see fig. 14.) Of the origin of this order of architecture we have no distinct account. Vitruvius states, that as the Doric order was considered strong and masculine like the form of Hercules, the Ionians modelled their new order according to the elegance and delicacy of the female figure, and that the volutes were taken from the curls of the hair on each side of the face. It is not easy to conceive how the proportions of a Greek order of architecture could be borrowed from that of the human figure, to which it has 80 little natural resemblance; and it has been ingeniously remarked that it is more natural to trace the form of the volute in the Ionic order, to the curling of the bark of a rude upright
This adverb can never be placed before a substantive.