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away;

case.

wcli.

868

THE POPULAR EDUCATOR. of observing this rule most pointedly, will be more clearly

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. XXII. seen when we come to speak of the angles of a triangle. We are the more impressed with the necessity of enforcing

By Professor Louis FaeQUELLE, LL.D. these observations on the attention of our students, be

SECTION XLVI. cause we know how much their future progress really does

1. In the compound tenses of the verb s'en aller, to go away depend on it. We have had pupils in a large class, who have read, studied, and repeated the demonstrations of Euclid (Sect. 39. 1, 2], the pronoun en will of course keep its general before the class, in such a manner that no one could detect an place, after the other pronouns and before the auxiliary. It error in their lesson, whether they were delivered in writing, must never come between the auxiliary and the participle :or viod voce (by the mouth), and yet it was afterwards dis- Je m'en suis allé, I went away ; Nous nous en We went away covered that they knew no more of Euclid, or of what they

sommes allés, had uttered or written, than the babe unborn. We have seen Tu t'en es allé, Thou wentest Vous vous en êtes You went away;

allés, such persons most laboriously striving and racking their brains

lle went away;

Ils s'en sont allés, They went away. to no purpose, in order to remember the exact words of Il s'en est allé,

Les dames s'en sont allées.

The ladies are gone away. Euclid, and the precise order of the letters used in speaking of

Les messieurs s'en sont allés, The gentlemen are gone attay. the angles, without caring one straw to understand the meaning-the real meaning of the demonstrations in which they 2. The verb aller when referring to articles of dress answers occurred. And when we have offered to explain the matter to to the English to fit, to sit :some, we have been repulsed, as if we thought them deficient

Mon habit va bien.

My coat fils or sits well. in common understanding—which was in fact invariably the

3. Scoir (4 ir. see table § 62] answers to the English to suil, We do not mean, however, that their deficiency arose

to become :from actual inability to comprehend the meaning of the demonstration, but from their pride of understanding, and Ce chapeau ne vous sied point. That hat does not become you, their indocility or unwillingness to be taught by one that 4. Essayer ($ 49) corresponds in signification to the English knew better than themselves, and one that was appointed to to try on :-teach them. This obstinacy and pride we have often witnessed J'ai essayé mon gilet, il me va bien. I have tried my evaistcoat, it fils me in colleges where better things were to be expected; and we have wondered whether those who showed such a degree of

5. Etre is often used in French for appartenir, to belong indocility themselves were fitted to teach others, and especially in doctrines of more lasting importance than those of 18 106 (3)]:Euclid. We strongly advise our students to lay aside this Á qui est cette maison.

To whom does that kruse belongi

{ Whose house is that i haughtiness of mind, this absurd pride of understanding, so

Elle est à mon cousin.

It is my cousin's. natural to man, and to study with all humility and lowliness of mind, if they wish to acquire a real knowledge of science,

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. and especially of the exact sciences, by which we mean the mathematical, as defined in the extract from Lord Bacon, p. A quelle heure vous en êtes vous At what hour did you go away! 11, No. 1. But, indeed, this humility of spirit is necessary to

allé ?

Je m'en suis allé à neuf heures. I went away at nine o'clock. every learner, let the subject be what it may; and in no case is it more needful, than in the study of the doctrines of our

Vous en êtes vous allées trop tôt, Did you go away too soon, ladics?

Mesdames ? holy religion.

Nous nous en sommes allées trop We went away too late. But to return from this digression, it seems strange that we

tard. cannot obtain a definition of one right angle without bringing Cette robe vous va-t-elle bien ? Does that dress fit you welli in the consideration of two right angles, yet such is the case Elle ne me va pas bien

It does not fit me well. in the tenth definition of Euclid. We have endeavoured to Cet liabit vous sicd il fort bien ? Does that coat become you very well! supply this deficiency by borrowing the physical terms vertical Je l'ai essayé, mais il ne va pas I have tried it on, but it does not fit and horizontal, but these themselves require explanation. To explain the term vertical we may say that this is the position Il lui va bien (régime indirect). It fits him well. which a plumb-line takes when held up above the surface of Il me gêne, il me serre trop. It hurts me, it presses me too much. the earth, and yet this would not, even physically speaking, be cette robe ne lui va pas bien. That dress dots wwi fit her well. strictly true; for it is well known that the attraction of large Ils ne sont ni à moi ni à vous.

Ces livres sont ils à vous ou à moi? are those books yours or mine : masses on the earth's surface have an influence on the plumb. A qui sont ils donc ?

They belong neither to me nor to you, line so as to deflect it, or draw it away, from the true vertical Les livres de qui, avez vous appor.

Whose are they then?

Whose books have you brought? position. From the experiments of Dr. Maskelyne, made on the mountain Schehalien, in Scotland, it was ascertained that J'ai apporté ceux de mon frère. I have brought my brother's. the attraction of that mountain caused the plumb-line to deflect from its true position no less than five seconds and eight

EXERCISE 91. tenths of a second, or about the two hundred and twenty-three Beau-frère, m. brother- Foncé, e, dark; Neuf, ve, new ; thousandth part of an entire revolution round the point by in-law;

Gêner, 1. to hurt, to Où, where; which it was suspended. To explain the term horizontal, we Botte, f. boot,

press;

Serr.er, 1. to press; may say that this is the position which stagnant water assumes Clair, c, light;

Gilet, m. waistcoat ; Ten-ir, 2 ir, to hold; when left free in a vessel, pond, or lake on the surface of the Court, e, short;

Large, wide ;

Vers, towards, about.

Mieux, better; earth; or rather it is the straight line joining two points in the Etroit, e, narrow, tight; opposite edges of the surface of such a piece of water, sup- 1. Vos bottes ne vont elles pas bien: 2. Elles ne me vont posing that capillary attraction is not in operation on the edges pas bien, elles me serrent trop. 3. Sont elles trop étroites? 4. of this surface. Thus we see that if physical terms are brought Elles sont trop étroites et trop courtes, elles me gênent. 5. Le in to explain geometrical ones, we are obliged to hem tnern in, cordonnier s'en est il allé? 6. Il ne s'en est pas encore alle. and surround them with explanations in such a manner as to 7. A quelle heure les compagnes de votre scur s'en sont elles make them lose all their force as definitions. Returning, allées 8. Elles s'en sont allées vers six heures de l'aprèstherefore, to abstract ideas, let us see if we cannot reach the midi. 9. L'habit que vous tenez, est il à vous ou à votre definition of one right angle without calling in the idea of two frère ? 10. Il n'est ni à lui ni à moi, il est à mon beau-frère. right angles. Perhaps the following might answer some minds. 11. Lui va-t-il bien? 12. Il lui va fort bien, et il lui sied bien. If two straight lines meet each other in a point, and the one 13. Où l'a-t-il fait faire? 14. Il l'a fait faire en France ou en stands on the other precisely mid-way between the position of Allemagne. 15. A qui sont les livres que lit Mademoiselle complete coincidence and the greatest degree of divergence or votre seur? 16. Ils sont à moi. 17. Votre gilet va-t-il mieux separation, they form a right angle. If any of our students que celui de votre beau-frère ? 18. Il me va beaucoup mieux. or readers can improve upon this mode of explaining a right 19. Votre habit ne vous géne-t-il pas ? 20. Il ne saurait (careangle without introducing the idea of two right angles, as not) me gêner, il est de beaucoup trop large. 21. Avez vous Euclid does, we shall be glad to insert it in our pages. essayé votre habit neuf ? 22. Je l'ai essayé, mais la couleur

bien. .

me.

tés ?

ne me sied pas. 23. Est elle trop claire? 24. Elle est trop Davantage, more ; Fin-ir, 2. to finish; Payer, i, pec. [$ 49 forcée. 25. Les couleurs foncées ne me siéent jamais.

Désir-er, 1. to wish, to Fort, very, very much; (2)], to pay ; desire;

Modiste, milliner ; Peine, f. trouble; EXERCISE 92.

Dette, f. debt;

Ouyrage, m. work; Quand, uchen. 1. Are your friends gone away? 2. They are not yet gone Envoy-er, 1 ir. [$ 49 away, they are still here. 3. At what hour did your mother (2)], to send; go away? 4. She went away early this morning. 6. Did 1. Que faut il faire aujourd'hui? 2. Aujourd'hui il faut your little sister go away late ' 6. She went away too soon. travailler. 3. A-t-il fallu travailler fort pour finir l'ouvrage à 7. Does your sister's new dress become her? 8. It does not temps ? 4. Il a fallu travailler toute la journée. 6. Quand become her. 9. Why does it not become her ? 10. Dark faut il écrire à notre ami: 6. Il faut lui écrire aujourd'hui. colours never become her. 11. Do light colours become your 7. Me faut il aller trouver mon père? 8. Il vous faut aller le brother's wife? 12. They become her very well. 13. Are trouver, il désire vous parler. 9. A-t-il besoin de quelque your new boots too narrow or too wide: 14. They are neither chose? 10. Il lui faut des livres, des plumes, et de l'encre. too narrow nor too wide, they fit very well. 15. Does your 11. Ne lui faut il pas aussi de l'argent ? 12. Il lui en faut brother's waistcoat fit him: 16. It fits him, but it does not beaucoup pour payer ses dettes. 13. Vous faut encore quel. become him.. 17. Light colours never become him. 18. que chose ? 14. Il ne me faut plus rien, j'ai tout ce qu'il me Does your coat press you? 19. It does not press me, it is by faut. 15. Ne faut il pas du papier à votre scur? 16. Il ne far too wide. 20. Whose house is that? 21. It is my father's lui en faut pas davantage. 17. Que faut il envoyer au and brother's. 22. Whose books have you brought this chirurgien ? '18. Il faut lui envoyer de l'argent, il en a grand morning! 23. I have brought my brother's and my sister's. besoin. 19. La modiste a-t-elle tout ce qu'il lui faut 20. 24. Whose dresses are those? 25. They are my mother's, Elle n'a pas tout ce qu'il lui faut. 21. Combien vous faut il ? my sister's, and my cousin's. 26. Are not those German 22. Il me faut cinq francs. 23. Ne vous faut il pas davantage? book yours? 27. They are not mine, they are my friend's. 24. Il ne me faut pas davantage. 25. Que lui faut il pour sa 28. Are those pens yours or mine? 29. They are neither peine ? 26. Il demande un franc vingt-cinq centimes. yours nor mine, they are my brother's. 30. Does this hat fit

EXERCISE 94. you? 31. Yes, Sir, it fits me, but it does not become me. 32. Ís your hat too small? 33. It is too large (grand). 34. Are

1. What must we do? 2. You must bring your book and your gloves too large ? 35. They are too small, I cannot put to-day? 4. It is not necessary to write to him. 5. Has it

learn lesson. 3. Is it necessary to write to your brother them on. SECTION XLVII.

been necessary to speak to your father? 6. It has been neces

sary to speak to him. 7. Is it necessary to go to D. to-day? 1. The verb falloir (3 ir.), to be necessary, is always conju. 8. It is necessary to go there (y). 9. Must I go to your sister? gated unipersonally. See table, $ 62.

10. You must go to her, she wishes to speak to you. 11. How Il faut, il a fallu,

It is necessary, it was or has been ne. much money must your brother have12. He must have ten cessary.

francs fifty centimes. 13. How many books does your sister Il faut étudier tous les jours. It is necessary to study every day.

want? 14. She must have many books, she reads (lit) much. 2. As falloir has always a unipersonal pronoun for its nomi. 15. What will you send to the surgeon? 16. We must send native or subject, a pronoun in the indirect regimen (dative him our horse; his own (le sien) is sick. 17. Must he not me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur), placed before the verb, will be have paper? 18. He must have some; he has letters to write. equivalent to the pronoun used as nominative to the English 19. Must he have much? 20. He must have a quire (main, f.). verbs must, to be obliged, &c. :

21. Do you want anything more? (See No. 13, in the French Il me faut écrire un thôme.

I must write an exercise. exercise above.) 22. I need something more. 23. I need noOù nous faut il aller ?

Where must we go?

thing more. 24. Must you have one hundred francs ? 25. I 3. Falloir is used in the signification of to want, to need, to 27. He must have money to (pour) pay his debts. 28. Has

must have ten dollars. 28. What does the surgeon want? De under the necessity of having :

the tailor all that he wants ? 29. He has not all that he wants. Il me faut un livre.

I need a book,

30. The milliner has received all that she wants. 31. What Il lui faut de l'argent.

He is in want of money.

must you have for your trouble? 32. How much do you 4. When must is used in the last acceptation, and has a noun want? 33. How much do we want? 34. What must I do? as its nominative, the noun in the corresponding French sen- 35. You must write a letter. 36. What must she write? 37. tence should be in the indirect regimen preceded by à :- She must write four pages. 38. She must go to church, Il faut un livre à ma sæur. My sister must have a book (needs a

book). RESUME OF EXAMPLES.

LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.--No. V. l'our apprendre une langue il faut To learn a language it is necessary The temple of Apollo Panionius, in Ionia, was built according étudier.

to study.

to the Doric style; but the Ionians dissatisfied with the simpliIl faut aller à l'église et à l'école. It is necessary to go to church and to city of this order, invented another of a more delicate character,

school.

and called it the Ionic order, after the name of their country. Il faut rester à la maison. It is necessary to remain at home.

They made the height of the column in this order greater in Il me faut lire un bon livre. I must read a goord book. Il lui faut aller voir ea mère. She must go and see her mother. ,

proportion to its diameter than in the Doric order; the form of Que nous faut-il faire ? What must we do?

the capital was totally different, having large volutes at its Que leur faut-il lire ? What must they read !

corners, of which the spiral is often very finely sculptured; Que leur faut-il ? What do they want or need?

the entablature was changed in its parts and proportions; and Il leur faut de l'argent ou du Tlry need or must have money or

a base was added to the bottom of the column, in harmony erédit.

credit.

with its capital (see fig. 14.) Of the origin of this order of Vous faut-il cinquante francs ? Do you want or must you have fifty architecture we have no distinct account. Vitruvius states,

franc: 7

that as the Doric order was considered strong and masculine Il me faut cinquante-cinq francs ? I must have or I need fifty-five francs. like the form of Hercules, the Ionians modelled their new Combien d'argent faut-il à votre

How much money does your futher order according to the elegance and delicacy of the female père. Il lui en faut beaucoup. He wants much (of it).

figure, and that the volutes were taken from the curls of the Nous avons ce qu'il [R.3] nous faut. We have what we want.

hair on each side of the face. It is not easy to conceive how

the proportions of a Greek order of architecture could be EXERCISE 93.

borrowed from that of the human figure, to which it has 80 Aller trouver, to go to Centime, m. 100th part Combien, how much, little natural resemblance; and it has been ingeniously rea person; of a franc

how many?

marked that it is more natural to trace the form of the voiute Chirurgien, m.surgeon;

in the Ionic order, to the curling of the bark of a rude upright Another construction of these sentences will be found Section 21. 1, 2.

This adverb can never be placed before a substantire.

want?

post, crushed by a superincumbent weight greater than it could The temple of Diana at Magnesia was built under the bear. In this order, continued subjects began to appear on the direction of Hermogenes. He made its general dimensions frieze, which in the Doric were considered the exception to the the same as for a double range of columns; but, in order to rule. The cornice of the entablature was also enriched with afford more space in the porticoes, he omitted the inner range. exquisite mouldings, and decorated with sculptured ornaments. Thus a clear space was left between the outer range and the

The edifices constructed after the Ionic order were numerous body of the building; and thus he established the style called and magnificent : such as the temples of Bacchus, at Teos; the pseudo-dipterick. Vitruvius speaks with great veneration of Apollo, at Miletus ; Minerva, at Priene and Tegea; and of this architect. The temple of Minerva Ulea at Tegea, deDiana, at Magnesia and Ephesus. This order was also em- signed and erected under the direction of Scopas, was of ployed in the construction of the Erectheum, or the temples of singular construction. The peristyle of the temple was of the Minerva Polias and Pandrosus, in the Acropolis at Athens ; Ionic order; the interior was divided into three aislcs by two of the Delphic Apollo and of - Æsculapius, in the same city; rows of Doric columns, and over these were placed others of and in that of Juno, in Attica. The temple of Diana, at the Corinthian order. The sculpture upon the two pediments Ephesus, was justly deemed one of the seven wonders of the were executed by the artist himself. world. The architect who traced the plan of this temple was The simplicity and severity of the Doric order having now Ctesiphon, who flourished about 540 B. C., and it was partly been abandoned, the artists of Greece

Fig. 15. executed under his direction and that of his son Metagenes; Proper, not to be behind the inventors of but it was completed by other architects, who worked upon it the Ionic order, by an effort of genius, after these, for the space of more than two centuries. Vitruvius gave birth to a third order, which sursays that the form of this temple was dipterick (two-winged), - passed the Ionic in delicacy of propor

that is, surrounded with two rows of tion and richness of decoration ; this order Fig. 14. columns in the form of a double portico. was named the Corinthian. The merit

It was about 426 feet long, and 216 broad. of its invention is ascribed to Calli.
In this temple there were a hundred and machus, a sculptor of Athens, who lived
twenty-seven columns of marble each sixty about the period when the Peloponnesian
feet high, given by, as many kings! war was brought to a close (B.C. 404).
Thirty-six of these columns were carved He is said to have taken the idea of
by the most excellent artists of their times. this order from observing the leaves of
Scopas, one of the most celebrated sculp- the acanthus growing round a basket
tors of Greece, executed one which was which had been placed, with some fa-
the finest ornament of this magnificent vourite trinkets, upon the grave of a
structure. All Asia had contributed with young Corinthian lady; the stalks which
incredible ardour to the erection and deco- rose among the leares having been formed
ration of this temple.

into slender volutes by a square tile which
Vitruvius informs us that Demetrius, covered the basket.' In the Corinthian
whom he calls the servant of Diana, and order, the column is more elegant, and
Paconius, the Ephesian, finished this the capital longer and more ornamented
temple, which was of the Ionic order. than in the Ionic, spreading in the form
History records the remarkable fact that of a basket and commingling the richest
this temple was burned to the ground on and lightest vegetation with the. deco-
the day that Alexander the Great was rations of preceding orders. The top of
born; which suggested the waggish con- the capital, instead of being square, ag-
ceit to an historian, that Diana was 80 sumes the curvilinear form, having angu-
busy at the labour of Olympia, the mother lar projections supported by elegant
of the hero, that she could not spare time volutes. The mouldings possess more
to preserve her temple. This same beautiful ornaments than those of the
Alexander, it is said, offered to rebuild Ionic or the Doric; the frieze is usually
it at his own expense, provided the ornamented with scrolls of foliage ; in
Ephesians would consent that he should the cornice, the corona is supported by
have the sole honour of it, and that no modilions, which represent the extremi.
name should be added to his in the in- ties of the beams of the roof, and are
scription to be put upon it. The Ephe usually carved into a scroll (see fig. 15).
sians, not approving this condition, con. These elegant improvements introduced
cealed their refusal of his offer by saying, into their orders, rendered the Greeks
" that it was not consistent for one god to the real masters of architecture; because,
erect a monument to another." This previous to their invention, the Egyptians
temple was rebuilt with still greater and the Asiatic nations in general

, fol. Ionic Order.

magnificence than at first. The truth of lowed no precise rule in their construc

this may be gathered from the words of the tions ; but, as soon as the orders were sacred historian, in reporting the speech of Demetrius the silver- founded on rational proportions, of an smith, who made silver shrines for Diana, to the workmen of like exact and invariable nature, they were occupation : "Sirs, ye know that by this craft, we have our imitated in the edifices of every other wealth. Moreover, ye see and hear, that not alone at Ephesus, nation.

Coriathian Order. but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded and While awarding every credit to the ingenuity of the Greeks, turned away much people, saying, “that they be no gods which however, it must not be forgotten that in the columns of are made with hands :' so that not only this our craft is in several temples in Upper Egypt, whose shafts represent bundles danger to be set at nought; but also that the temple of the of reeds or lotuses bound together in several places by fillets, great goddess Diana should be despised, and her magnificence the capitals are formed by several rows of delicate leaves. In should be destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worshippeth." the ruins of Elora, in India, the capitals of the columns are Such was the glory that attended the worship of the thing that also composed of similar ornaments, and the Persians, at fell down from Jupiter," and such was the terror of the Ephe- their great festivals, were accustomed to introduce ornaments sians that their temple would be destroyed a second time, that, of flowers at the tops of the pillars in their public apartments. in the words of the sacred historian, " when they heard these From tradition, report, or personal observation, Callimachus sayings they were full of wrath, and cried out: Great is Diana might be made acquainted with these examples, and might be of the Ephesians ;” and having assaulted Paul, and created a led to the composition of the Corinthian capital, the chief violent uproar, the mob continued to utter the same cry with ornament of the Greek school. The Corinthian order, although out intermission, for "the space of two hours,” in the chief distinguished for its richness and even luxuriousness of deco. ci'y of Asia.

ration in all its details, is essentially the most simple in its

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general character, and easiest in execution. The finest ex. Die Werfe Gottes find man'nigfal. The works of God are manifold; amples of this order were to be seen at Athens, in the monu- tig ; seine Liebe ist unend'lich und his love is infinite and in all ment of Lysicrates, the Tower of the Winds, the Stoa or an allen Orten sichtbar.

places visible. public piazzas, and the Arch of Adrian, at Alhens; the Pan- 3d war in ter Statt, als der fiö. I was in the city, as the king theon of Agrippa, and the three columns of the Campo Vac- nig da war.

was there. cino, at Rome. The Corinthian order appears to have been but Der Kronprinz ist vor'zestern hier The crown-prince was here, day partially employed in Greece before the time of the Roman

gewe'sen.

before yesterday. conquest; but the Romans themselves employed it to a great Wer ist mit der Søwester auf tas Who has gone to the country extent in every part of their empire; hence, it is in edifices Lund gegan'gen?

with your (the) sister? constructed under their influence that the most perfect speci- Diesel'be, die vorgestern mit ihr The same, that came here(hither) mens are found. It was only in the construction of temples hierher' gefom'men ist.

with her, day before yesterday. that the turbulent states of Greece could unite; and in con- Uchen Sie heute auf das land? Do you go to the country tosequence of this union, they constructed edifices of great mag

day? nitude and splendour. Many of this description were built Nein, weil ich sce'ben von dem lante. No, for I have just come from and maintained at the expense of confederate states, and even

gekom'men bin.

the country. of all Greece : such were the temples at Delphi, Delos, Ephesus, Olympia, Eryx, &c., and these temples had terri- 1. Ist dieser junge Mann frant? 2. Nein, aber er ist vorgestern frant torial revenues, besides being enriched by private donations. gewesen. (Sect. 18. VIII.) 3. Wer ist in tem Garten Ihres Vaters geThe Greeks appear to have made the greatest progress in the arts, and to have constructed the most admirable of their wesen? 4. Niemand ist in tem Garten gewesen, aber Iemand ist in seinem edifices, during the period from the

age of Solon and Pytha- Hause gewesen. 5. Wie lange bleibt der alte Bauer noch in der Stadt? goras to the era of Alexander the Great. Their architecture 6. Id fenne den alten Bauern nicht und weiß nicht, wie lange er bleibt. 7. prevailed in the countries where they extended their influence Ist Ihr alter Freund, der Kaufmann, nach Wien gegangen? 8. Ich glaube, along the coast of Asia, Alexander and his successors intro.

er ist nach Berlin zu seinem Bruder gegangen. 9. Von wem haben Sie duced it into Egypt, and probably in the cities he built on his route to India. To the westward it extended to Sicily, Italy, heute diese Nachricht gehört? 10. Id ḥabe einen meiner Freunde geand the south of France. After the brilliant period to which sprochen, welcher von Dresden gekommen ist und mir einen Vrief von meinem we have alluded, the manners of the Greeks became Asiatic; Vater gebracht hat. 11. Ich wohne bei meinem Dheim und gehe mit ihm heir sublime spirit of independence was subdued; and nach dem fleinen Dorfe. 12. Mein schöner Vogel ist aus dem Käfig ge. though they continued for ages to be the instructors of their Roman conquerors, their glory in the arts declined, and with flogen, und mein kleines Pferd ist nach den Walde gelaufen. 13. Was hat : the purity and elegance of the Greek architecture.

Ihr Herr Vater Ihnen geschrieben? 14. Er hat mir einen laugen Brief geschrieben. 15. Wann sind Sie auf dem Markte gewesen? 16. Ich bin vergestern Abent ta gewesen, und habe Rindfleisch gekauft. 17. Wir haben

diesen Nachmittag schönes Wetter gehabt. 18. Diese Schüler sind faul LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. XII. und jene fleißig gewesen. 19. Der Sonee ist vorgestern sehr tief gewesen.

20. Ich bin nie franf gewesen. 21. Friedrich der Große war ein König Section XXIII.

von Preußen. Soin, like the corresponding English verb, is very irregular in conjugation; its different parts having been derived from words No, she has gone into the country. 3. There has been somebody

1. Is your sister, who gave me these flowers', at home? 2. now obsolete. It is used as the auxiliary to many active intransitive verbs, Dresden. 6. The Queen has returned? from Belgium). 7. Do

in the garden. 4. Do you reside in Berlin ? 5. No, I reside in such as fommen, gehen, &c., where haben cannot (like have for be in English) be substituted. Ex.: Er ist gekommen; he is come. know him. 9. You have had little pleasure on your journey';

you know the merchant who came from Vienna ? 8. Yes, I Gr ist gegangen; he is gone. ($ 71. 3. 4.) Sein is employed as the auxiliary in its own conjugation ; had, but we have been as much pleased? as you.

you have not been fara. 10. You had more pleasure than we as, Ich bin gewesen ; I have been; literally, I am been. For complete conjugation, see $ 72. II.

1 Plume. ?zurüdgekommen. Svon Belgien. 4wenig Vergnügen. Reise.

Gweit. Febenso vergnügt
CONJUGATION OF THE PERFECT TENSE or sein, fom me 11,

Section XXIV.
AND gehen.

The word Haus, without the article, when preceded by n ach, Ich bin gewesen, I have been ; wir sind gewesen, we have been ; answers to our homeafter verbs of motion. Ex.: Er geht Du bist gewesen, thou hast been; ihr seid gewesen, you have been ;

nach Hause; he is going home. Er ist gewesen, he has been; sie sind gewesen, they have been.

Zu Hause answers to our "al home." Ex.: Gr i ft zu Hause; he

is at home. Ich bin gekommen, I have come ; wir sind gekommen, we have come ; Vei (with), is commonly used with verbs of rest, and signi. Du bist gekommen, thou hast ihr seid gekommen, you have fies (with a pronoun following) at one's house or place of busi

Ex.: Er wohnt bei uns ; he lives at our house. Ich faufte Er ist gekommen, be has come; sie sind gefommen, they have come. es bei meinem Vetter ; I bought it at my cousin's.

Mit (with), is chiefly used with verbs of motion. Ex. : Idy Ich bin gegangen, I have gone ; wir sind gegangen, we have gone; gche mit ißm; I am going with him. Du bist gegangen, thou hast gone; ihr scid gegangen, you have gone ; Gr ist gegangen, he has gone;

Zu Iemanden geben, signifies, frequently, to go to the house or sie sind gegangen, they have gone. residence of some one. Ex.: Ich gehe zu meinem Dicim; I am

going to my uncle's. Wollen Sie heute Abend zu uns kommen? Will EXERCISE 23.

you come to our house this evening? (s 112. 3. 7. 8. 13.) Verlin', n. Berlin ; Käfig, m. cage;

Schnee, m. snow;

I. Derselbe (the same) is compounded of ber and selbe:. Bleiben, to remain; Kennen, to know, to be Schreiben, to write ;

It is inflected precisely like derjenige. Bringen, to bring ; acquainted with; Sprechen, to speak;

DECLENSION OF bers, bien, 08elbe. Da, there ;

Kommen, to come ; Vogel, m. bird ; Dresten, no Dresden; laufen, to run ;

Singular.

Plural.
Wetter, n. weather ;
Fliegen, to fly; Marft, m, market; Wien, n. Vienna;

Masculine. Feminine. Neuler. All genders.
Friedrich, m. Frederick;Nachrict, f. news; Wissen, to know; Nom. Derselbe, dieselbe, tasselbe, ticjelben, the same;
Glauben, to believe; Preußen, n. Prussia; Wohnen, to reside, to (Wen. Desselbeni, terselben, tejjelben, terselben, of the same;
Jemand, somebody, Rintficijs, n. beef; dwell.

Dat. Demselben, terselben, tenselben, benselben, to the same anybody;

Acc. Den elben, ticjelbe, tafjelbe, dieselben, the same.

coine ;

come;

ness.

II. Derselbe is often used in place of a personal pronoun to measuring and indicating time, such as clocks and watches, aroid repetition or ambiguity. Ex.: Haben Sie dieselbe (fie) gesehen? Such machines, in his day, presented a strange contrast to Have you scen (the same) her? Der Vann lobt den Knaben, weil those now in daily use. A great improvement in the conterselbe seine Mutter chrt; the man praises the boy because the struction of clocks was effected, when Clement, a London sanie (he) honours his mother. Gr liebt seinen Bruder, aber nicht die clockmaker, in 1680, introduced an invention of Dr. Hooke, Kinder desselben; he loves his brother, but not his children (he by which a less maintaining power, than was previously in use, loves his brother, but not the children of the same).

was employed to carry a heavier pendulum, which, making The genitive of the substantive pronoun der is also thus used. smaller swings or arcs of vibration, met with less resistance Ex: Gr liebt seinen Bruder, aber bessen Kinder nicyt; he loves his from the air, and, therefore, performed its motions with greater brother, but not (that one's) his children.

regularity. Nor was Hooke less successful in improving the

watch. To him is justly attributed the first idea of the balanceEXERCISE 24,

spring, one of the extremities of which is fastened to a point, Plei, n. lead; Laten, m. shop, store ; Tasch'enuhr, f. watch ; independent of the balance, while the other is attached near Vraucien, to require, Lahn, lame;

Truppen, troop; its axis; thus regulating the beat and producing equable to need;

Ring, m. ring; Un'dankbar, unthank. motion; and answering the same purpose in watch-work that Gitera, parents ; Schidan, to send; ful;

the pendulum does in clock-work. This improvement was not Krieg, m. war ; So, so, as ;

Weil, because.

gained, however, without difficulty. Hooke's first balanceWo ist der fremde, ter vor'gestern Where is the stranger who was

spring was straight, and acted very imperfectly; but he soon bei uns war?

at our house day before yes. by adopting first the cylindrical, and afterwards the flat spiral

perceived its defects, and set himself steadily to obviate them,

terday? Er ist gestern nach Wien gereift'. He went yesterday to Vienna.

spring. Ist rieses Buch vasel'be, welches Sie Is this book the same that you meridian of any place eastward or westward from the first or

To find the longitude at sea—that is, the distance of the stern Abend gele'jen haben ? read last evening? Sd liebe ticíen Sưuler, weil er so I love this scholar, because he which the attention of mariners and mathematicians had been

fixed meridian of any country-was mean while a problem, to fleisig ist.

is so diligent. Meine Freundin que Ame'rifa war My friend from America was of Spain offered a reward of 1,000 crowns for its solution,

anxiously directed.' Indeed, so long ago as 1598, Philip III. gestern lier ; Haben Sie tiefel'be here yesterday; have you Not long afterwards, the States-General of Holland promised schon gese'hen?

seen her yet?

10,000 florins to any one who should achieve the solution of Id habe des Lehrere Buch, aber nicht I have the teacher's book, but the same problem. The British parliament, in 1714, went tas Messer desselben.

not his knife.

beyond these premiums, and empowered commissioners to 1. Wo ist das Viei, welches Sie gekauft haben? 2. Es ist noch im introduce a bill for a sum not exceeding £20,000 for defraying Laten, wo ich es gefauft habe. 3: Haben Sie tieselbe Feter, welde ich the cost of the necessary experiments for ascertaining the longehabt habe? 4. Wem werten Sie diese geltene Taidenuhr fd iden? to any one who should make a satisfactory advancement

gitude ; and still further, for granting a proportionate reward 7. Ich werde fie demselben Manne schicken, welcher sie mir geidhidt hat towards this grand object. With wealth and fame in prospect, 6. Wie viel Geld braucht dieser alte Soldat? 7. Er braucit vich, weil er innumerable and unsuccessful attempts were made to gain the immer frant ist 8. 3jt es derelbe, welcher gestern hier war.

9. Nein, prize. jener ist heute sehr lahm. 10. Wem sihicen Sie ten schönen Ring? 11. Major Holmes, in a voyage from the coast of Guinea in 1665;

Previous to this period one experiment had been made by 3d) schicke ihn tem Manne, welchen Sie so sehr gelebt haben. 12. Haben which answered so well that the celebrated Huygens, who had Sie die Freunte meine! Bruders geiobt? 13. Ja, ich habe sie gelobt. 14. paid great attention to watches, and had written a treatise on Haben Sie dieselben nicht geliebt? 15. Ich habe eine kleine Shwester, their use in finding the longitude at sea, determined to imwelche ich liebe; lieben Sie tieselbe? 16. Der Dheim liebt seinen Neffen prove the structure of the watch as an instrument for this aber derselbe ist untunfbar. 17. Der Vater liebt seinen fleinen Sohn, weil purpose; but the variations of heat and cold caused such

irregularities of action that, unless these could be remedied, he derselbe gut ist. 18. Warum find so viele Truppen in ter Statt? 19. found that a watch would be of little use in determining the Weil sie aus dem Kriege gefommen sind. 20. Warum licben uns unsere longitude. Far more, indeed, is involved in the production of Eltern? 21. Weil wir ihre Kinder sind. 22. Zu wein gehen Sic? 23. such a machine than is ordinarily imagined. To become a good Ich gehe zu meinem Vetter. 24. Mit wem gehen Sie ? 25. Ich gehe find accurately the revolutions of each wheel; a geometrician,

watchmaker it is necessary to be an arithmetician, in order to mit meinem Bruter.

to determine correctly the curve of the teeth; a mechanician, 1. Is your brother at home? 2. Yes, but he is ill. 3. to find precisely the forces that must be applied ; and an artist, Where have you bought this watch ? 4. I bought it of the to be able to put into perfect execution the principles and rules watchmaker. 5. These rings are beautiful, will you give me one which these sciences prescribe.. lIe must know how fluids of them.

6. The troops, whih went to Leipsic, returned resist bodies in motion; and be well acquainted with the yesterday. 7. The teacher loves the boy because he writes effects of heat and cold in different metals ; in addition to these beautifully. 8. Do you go to your parents? 9. I go with my acquirements, he must be endowed by nature with a happy brother. 10. These children love their teacher because he is genius, to be able to apply them all in the construction of an good to them. 11. Do you require my books any longer? 12. accurate measurer of time. I will give you them back to-morrow.

No one in pursuit of such a rare combination of qualities gefauft. guruct.

would probably have gone to a young carpenter, with no ad, vantages of education, and whose knowledge of mathematics appears to have been derived solely from a manuscript, as above

mentioned. And yet, before Harrison was twenty-one years BIOGRAPHY.-No. VII.

of age, he had constructed two clocks made entirely of wood, JOHN HARRISON: THE FIRST CHRONOMETER

and without any instruction whatever in the art; while his MAKER.

residence on the coast had directed his mind to the formation John Harrison, the son of a carpenter, was born at Foulby, this subject he appears to have reflected for many successive

of timekeepers, adapted to the purposes of navigation. On near Pontefract, in Yorkshire. He received but little instruc- years, and to have become perfectly acquainted with the diffition in his youth, and was brought up to his father's business, culty which Huygens felt, but was unable to surmount. For at Barrow, in Lincolnshire, whither he had been removed soon though every part of a clock were constructed with the greatest after his birth. When young, he met with a manuscript copy perfection, its performance would manifestly, be very inaccuof Professor Saunderson's lectures, from which he acquired rate, unless it were provided with the means of compensating soma knowledge of mathematics. The bent of his genius led for those changes which result from a variation of temperature,

Hevote himself to mechanics, and especially to since almost all substances expand by heat and contract by

hat is, the art of constructing machines for cold. Accordingly a very minute difference in the length of a

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