Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

The temple of Diana at Magnesia was built under the direction of Hermogenes. He made its general dimensions the same as for a double range of columns; but, in order to afford more space in the porticoes, he omitted the inner range. Thus a clear space was left between the outer range and the body of the building; and thus he established the style called the pseudo-dipterick. Vitruvius speaks with great veneration of this architect. The temple of Minerva Ulea at Tegea, designed and erected under the direction of Scopas, was of singular construction. The peristyle of the temple was of the Ionic order; the interior was divided into three aisles by two rows of Doric columns, and over these were placed others of the Corinthian order. The sculpture upon the two pediments were executed by the artist himself.

Fig. 14.

post, crushed by a superincumbent weight greater than it could bear. In this order, continued subjects began to appear on the frieze, which in the Doric were considered the exception to the rule. The cornice of the entablature was also enriched with exquisite mouldings, and decorated with sculptured ornaments. The edifices constructed after the Ionic order were numerous and magnificent: such as the temples of Bacchus, at Teos; Apollo, at Miletus; Minerva, at Priene and Tegea; and of Diana, at Magnesia and Ephesus. This order was also employed in the construction of the Erectheum, or the temples of Minerva Polias and Pandrosus, in the Acropolis at Athens; of the Delphic Apollo and of Esculapius, in the same city; and in that of Juno, in Attica. The temple of Diana, at Ephesus, was justly deemed one of the seven wonders of the world. The architect who traced the plan of this temple was The simplicity and severity of the Doric order having now Ctesiphon, who flourished about 540 B. c., and it was partly been abandoned, the artists of Greece Fig. 15. executed under his direction and that of his son Metagenes; Proper, not to be behind the inventors of but it was completed by other architects, who worked upon it the Ionic order, by an effort of genius, after these, for the space of more than two centuries. Vitruvius gave birth to a third order, which sursays that the form of this temple was dipterick (two-winged), passed the Ionic in delicacy of proporthat is, surrounded with two rows of tion and richness of decoration; this order columns in the form of a double portico. was named the Corinthian. The merit It was about 426 feet long, and 216 broad. of its invention is ascribed to CalliIn this temple there were a hundred and machus, a sculptor of Athens, who lived twenty-seven columns of marble each sixty about the period when the Peloponnesian feet high, given by as many kings! war was brought to a close (B.C. 404). Thirty-six of these columns were carved He is said to have taken the idea of by the most excellent artists of their times. this order from observing the leaves of Scopas, one of the most celebrated sculp- the acanthus growing round a basket tors of Greece, executed one which was which had been placed, with some fathe finest ornament of this magnificent vourite trinkets, upon the grave of a structure. All Asia had contributed with young Corinthian lady; the stalks which incredible ardour to the erection and deco-rose among the leaves having been formed ration of this temple. into slender volutes by a square tile which covered the basket. In the Corinthian order, the column is more elegant, and the capital longer and more ornamented than in the Ionic, spreading in the form of a basket and commingling the richest and lightest vegetation with the. decorations of preceding orders. The top of the capital, instead of being square, assumes the curvilinear form, having angular projections supported by elegant volutes. The mouldings possess more beautiful ornaments than those of the Ionic or the Doric; the frieze is usually ornamented with scrolls of foliage; in the cornice, the corona is supported by modilions, which represent the extremities of the beams of the roof, and are usually carved into a scroll (see fig. 15). These elegant improvements introduced into their orders, rendered the Greeks the real masters of architecture; because, previous to their invention, the Egyptians and the Asiatic nations in general, followed no precise rule in their constructions; but, as soon as the orders were founded on rational proportions, of an exact and invariable nature, they were imitated in the edifices of every other nation.

Vitruvius informs us that Demetrius, whom he calls the servant of Diana, and Paconius, the Ephesian, finished this temple, which was of the Ionic order. History records the remarkable fact that this temple was burned to the ground on the day that Alexander the Great was born; which suggested the waggish conceit to an historian, that Diana was so busy at the labour of Olympia, the mother of the hero, that she could not spare time to preserve her temple. This same Alexander, it is said, offered to rebuild it at his own expense, provided the Ephesians would consent that he should have the sole honour of it, and that no name should be added to his in the inscription to be put upon it. The Ephesians, not approving this condition, concealed their refusal of his offer by saying, "that it was not consistent for one god to erect a monument to another." This temple was rebuilt with still greater magnificence than at first. The truth of this may be gathered from the words of the sacred historian, in reporting the speech of Demetrius the silversmith, who made silver shrines for Diana, to the workmen of like occupation: "Sirs, ye know that by this craft, we have our wealth. Moreover, ye see and hear, that not alone at Ephesus, but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded and turned away much people, saying, 'that they be no gods which are made with hands: so that not only this our craft is in danger to be set at nought; but also that the temple of the great goddess Diana should be despised, and her magnificence should be destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worshippeth." Such was the glory that attended the worship of "the thing that fell down from Jupiter," and such was the terror of the Ephesians that their temple would be destroyed a second time, that, in the words of the sacred historian, "when they heard these sayings they were full of wrath, and cried out: Great is Diana of the Ephesians;" and having assaulted Paul, and created a violent uproar, the mob continued to utter the same cry without intermission, for "the space of two hours," in the chief city of Asia.

Ionic Order.

Corinthian Order.

While awarding every credit to the ingenuity of the Greeks, however, it must not be forgotten that in the columns of several temples in Upper Egypt, whose shafts represent bundles of reeds or lotuses bound together in several places by fillets, the capitals are formed by several rows of delicate leaves. In the ruins of Ellora, in India, the capitals of the columns are also composed of similar ornaments; and the Persians, at their great festivals, were accustomed to introduce ornaments of flowers at the tops of the pillars in their public apartments. From tradition, report, or personal observation, Callimachus might be made acquainted with these examples, and might be led to the composition of the Corinthian capital, the chief ornament of the Greek school. The Corinthian order, although distinguished for its richness and even luxuriousness of decoration in all its details, is essentially the most simple in its

LESSONS IN GERMAN.

tig; seine Liebe ist unend'lich und
an allen Orten sichtbar.

3ch war in der Stadt, als der Kö.
nig da war.
Der Kronprinz
gewe'sen.

ist vor'gestern hier

Wer ist mit der Schwester auf das
Land gegan'gen?

Diesel'be, tie vor'gestern mit ihr
hierher gekom'men ist.
Gehen Sie heute auf das Land?

Nein, weil ich soe'ben von dem Lante
gekom'men bin.

general character, and easiest in execution. The finest ex-Die Werke Gottes find man'nigfal.
amples of this order were to be seen at Athens, in the monu-
ment of Lysicrates, the Tower of the Winds, the Stoa or
public piazzas, and the Arch of Adrian, at Athens; the Pan-
theon of Agrippa, and the three columns of the Campo Vac-
cino, at Rome. The Corinthian order appears to have been but
partially employed in Greece before the time of the Roman
conquest; but the Romans themselves employed it to a great
extent in every part of their empire; hence, it is in edifices
constructed under their influence that the most perfect speci-
mens are found. It was only in the construction of temples
that the turbulent states of Greece could unite; and in con-
sequence of this union, they constructed edifices of great mag-
nitude and splendour. Many of this description were built
and maintained at the expense of confederate states, and even
of all Greece: such were the temples at Delphi, Delos,
Ephesus, Olympia, Eryx, &c., and these temples had terri-
torial revenues, besides being enriched by private donations.
The Greeks appear to have made the greatest progress in the
arts, and to have constructed the most admirable of their
edifices, during the period from the age of Solon and Pytha-
goras to the era of Alexander the Great. Their architecture
prevailed in the countries where they extended their influence
along the coast of Asia. Alexander and his successors intro-
duced it into Egypt, and probably in the cities he built on his
route to India. To the westward it extended to Sicily, Italy,
and the south of France. After the brilliant period to which
we have alluded, the manners of the Greeks became Asiatic;
heir sublime spirit of independence was subdued; and
though they continued for ages to be the instructors of their
Loman conquerors, their glory in the arts declined, and with
the purity and elegance of the Greek architecture.

[ocr errors]

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. XII.
SECTION XXIII.

Sein, like the corresponding English verb, is very irregular in
conjugation; its different parts having been derived from words
now obsolete.

It is used as the auxiliary to many active intransitive verbs, such as kommen, gehen, &c., where haben cannot (like have for be Ex.: Er ist gekommen; he is come. in English) be substituted. Er ist gegangen; he is gone. (§ 71. 3. 4.)

For com

ein is employed as the auxiliary in its own conjugation; Ich bin gewesen; I have been; literally, I am been. plete conjugation, see § 72. II.

as,

CONJUGATION OF THE PERFECT TENSE OF sein, fommen,

AND gehen.

[blocks in formation]

wir sind gewesen, we have been;
ihr seid gewesen, you have been ;
sie sind gewesen, they have been.

[blocks in formation]

sie sind gekommen, they have come.

wir fint gegangen, we have gone;
ihr seid gegangen, you have gone;
sie sind gegangen, they have gone.
EXERCISE 23.
Käfig, m. cage;
Kennen, to know, to be
acquainted with;
Kommen, to come;
Laufen, to run;
Markt, m. market;

Friedrich, m. Frederick; Nachricht, f. news;
Glauben, to believe; Preußen, n. Prussia;
Jemand, somebody,

anybody;

Rindfleisch, n. beef;

Schnee, m. snow;
Schreiben, to write;
Sprechen, to speak;
Vogel, m. bird;
Wetter, n. weather;
Wien, n. Vienna;

his love is infinite and in all The works of God are manifold; places visible.

I was in the city, as the king

was there.

before yesterday. The crown-prince was here, day with your (the) sister? Who has gone to the country with her, day before yesterday. The same, that came here (hither) Do you go to the country today?

the country. No, for I have just come from

1. Ist dieser junge Mann krank? 2. Nein, aber er ist vorgestern frank gewesen. (Sect. 18. VIII.) 3. Wer ist in dem Garten Ihres Vaters ge wesen? 4. Niemand ist in tem Garten gewesen, aber Jemand ist in seinem Hause gewesen. 5. Wie lange bleibt der alte Bauer noch in der Stadt? 6. Ich kenne den alten Bauern nicht und weiß nicht, wie lange er bleibt. 7. 9. Von wem haben Sie Ist Ihr alter Freund, der Kaufmann, nach Wien gegangen? 8. Ich glaube, er ist nach Berlin zu seinem Bruter gegangen. heute diese Nachricht gehört? 10. Ich habe einen meiner Freunde gesprochen, welcher von Dresden gekommen ist und mir einen Brief von meinem 12. Mein schöner Vogel ist aus dem Käfig ge Vater gebracht hat. 11. Ich wohne bei meinem Oheim und gehe mit ihm nach dem kleinen Dorfe. flegen, und mein kleines Pferd ist nach dem Walde gelaufen. 13. Was hat Ihr Herr Vater Ihnen geschrieben? 14. Er hat mir einen laugen Brief geschrieben. 15. Wann sind Sie auf dem Markte gewesen? 16. Ich bin vorgestern Abend da gewesen, und habe Rindfleisch gekauft. 17. Wir haben diesen Nachmittag schönes Wetter gehabt. 18. Diese Schüler sind faul und jene fleißig gewesen. 19. Der Schnee ist vorgestern sehr tief gewesen. 20. Ich bin nie krank gewesen. 21. Friedrich der Große war ein König von Preußen.

1. Is your sister, who gave me these flowers1, at home? 2. 5. No, I reside in No, she has gone into the country. 3. There has been somebody in the garden. 4. Do you reside in Berlin ? Dresden. 6. The Queen has returned from Belgium3. 7. Do you know the merchant who came from Vienna? 8. Yes, I know him. 9. You have had little pleasure on your journey3; you have not been far. 10. You had more pleasure than we had, but we have been as much pleased' as you.

Blume. zurückgekommen. von Belgien. wenig Vergnügen. Reise. weit. Tebenso vergnügt

[blocks in formation]

Bei (with), is commonly used with verbs of rest, and signifies (with a pronoun following) at one's house or place of business. Ex.: Er wohnt bei uns; he lives at our house. Ich kaufte cs bei meinem Vetter; I bought it at my cousin's.

Mit (with), is chiefly used with verbs of motion. Ex.: 3ch gche mit ihm; I am going with him.

Zu Jemanden gehen, signifies, frequently, to go to the house or Ex.: Ich gehe zu meinem Oheim; I am residence of some one. going to my uncle's. Wollen Sie heute Abend zu uns kommen? Will you come to our house this evening? ($ 112. 3. 7. 8. 13.)

1. Derselbe (the same) is compounded of ver and selbes. It is inflected precisely like derjenige.

DECLENSION OF der, die, das selbe.
Singular.

[blocks in formation]

Wissen, to know;

[blocks in formation]

taffelbe,

dieselben, the same;

Wohnen, to reside, to
dwell.

Gen. Desselben,

derselben, Dat. Demselben, derselben,

desselben,

derselben, of the same;

demselben,

benselben, to the same

Acc. Denselben,

dieselbe,

tasselbe,

dieselben, the same.

II. Derselbe is often used in place of a personal pronoun to avoid repetition or ambiguity. Ex.: Haben Sie dieselbe (sie) gesehen? Have you seen (the same) her? Der Mann lobt den Knaben, weil derselbe seine Mutter chrt; the man praises the boy because the same (he) honours his mother. Er liebt seinen Bruder, aber nicht die Kinter desselben; he loves his brother, but not his children (he loves his brother, but not the children of the same).

The genitive of the substantive pronoun der is also thus used. Ex.: Er liebt seinen Bruder, aber reffen Kinder nicht; he loves his brother, but not (that one's) his children.

EXERCISE 24.

Laten, m. shop, store; Tasch'enuhr, ƒ. watch;
Lahm, lame;
Truppen, troop;
Un'dankbar, unthank-
ful;
Weil, because.
Where is the stranger who was
at our house day before yes-
terday?

Ring, m. ring;
Schicken, to send;
So, so, as;

He went yesterday to Vienna.
Is this book the same that you
read last evening?
I love this scholar, because he
is so diligent.

My friend from America was
here yesterday; have you
seen her yet?
have the teacher's book, but

I

not his knife.

Blei, n. lead;
Brauchen, to require,
to need;
Eltern, parents;
Krieg, m. war ;

Wo ist der Fremde, ter vor'gestern

bei uns war?

Er ist gestern nach Wien gereist'.
Ist dieses Buch dassel be, welches Sie
#stern Abend gele'sen haben?
Ich liebe diesen Schüler, weil er so
fleißig ist.

Meine Freundin aus Ame'rifa war
gestern hier; haben Sie diesel'be
schon gesehen?

Ich habe des Lehrers Buch, aber nicht das Messer dessel’ben.

1. Wo ist das Vlei, welches Sie gekauft haben? 2. Es ist noch im Laren, wo ich es gekauft habe. 3: Haben Sie dieselbe Feder, welche ich gehabt habe? 4. Wem werden Sie diese goldene Taschenuhr schiden? 5. Ich werde sie demselben Manne schicken, welcher sie mir geschickt hat. 6. Wie viel Geld braucht dieser alte Soldat? 7. Er braucht viel, weil er immer krank ist. 8. Ist es derselbe, welcher gestern hier war. 9. Nein, jener ist heute sehr lahm. 10. Wem schicken Sie den schönen Ring? 11. Ich schicke ihn dem Manne, welchen Sie so sehr gelobt haben. 12. Haben Sie die Freunde meines Bruders gelobt? 13. Ja, ich habe sie gelobt. 14. Haben Sie dieselben nicht geliebt? 15. Ich habe eine kleine Schwester, welche ich liebe; lieben Sie dieselbe? 16. Der Oheim liebt seinen Neffen, aber derselbe ist undankbar. 17. Der Vater liebt seinen kleinen Sohn, weil derselbe gut ist. 18. Warum sind so viele Truppen in der Stadt? 19. Weil sie aus dem Kriege gekommen sind. 20. Warum lieben uns unsere Eltern? 21. Weil wir ihre Kinder sind. 22. Zu wem gehen Sie? 23. Ich gehe zu meinem Vetter. 24. Mit wem gehen Sie? 25. Ich gehe

mit meinem Bruder.

1. Is your brother at home? 2. Yes, but he is ill. 3. Where have you bought this watch? 4. I bought it of the watchmaker. 5. These rings are beautiful, will you give me one of them. 6. The troops, which went to Leipsic, returned yesterday. 7. The teacher loves the boy because he writes beautifully. 8. Do you go to your parents? 9. I go with my brother. 10. These children love their teacher because he is good to them. 11. Do you require my books any longer? 12. I will give you them back to-morrow.

1gekauft.

zurück.

BIOGRAPH Y.-No. VII.

JOHN HARRISON: THE FIRST CHRONOMETER
MAKER.

JOHN HARRISON, the son of a carpenter, was born at Foulby,
near Pontefract, in Yorkshire. He received but little instruc-
tion in his youth, and was brought up to his father's business,
at Barrow, in Lincolnshire, whither he had been removed soon
after his birth. When young, he met with a manuscript copy
of Professor Saunderson's lectures, from which he acquired
some knowledge of mathematics. The bent of his genius led
devote himself to mechanics, and especially to
that is, the art of constructing machines for

measuring and indicating time, such as clocks and watches. Such machines, in his day, presented a strange contrast to those now in daily use. A great improvement in the construction of clocks was effected, when Clement, a London clockmaker, in 1680, introduced an invention of Dr. Hooke, by which a less maintaining power, than was previously in use, was employed to carry a heavier pendulum, which, making smaller swings or arcs of vibration, met with less resistance from the air, and, therefore, performed its motions with greater regularity. Nor was Hooke less successful in improving the watch. To him is justly attributed the first idea of the balancespring, one of the extremities of which is fastened to a point, independent of the balance, while the other is attached near its axis; thus regulating the beat and producing equable motion; and answering the same purpose in watch-work that the pendulum does in clock-work. This improvement was not gained, however, without difficulty. Hooke's first balancespring was straight, and acted very imperfectly; but he soon by adopting first the cylindrical, and afterwards the flat spiral perceived its defects, and set himself steadily to obviate them,

spring.

To find the longitude at sea-that is, the distance of the meridian of any place eastward or westward from the first or which the attention of mariners and mathematicians had been fixed meridian of any country-was meanwhile a problem, to anxiously directed. Indeed, so long ago as 1598, Philip III. of Spain offered a reward of 1,000 crowns for its solution. Not long afterwards, the States-General of Holland promised 10,000 florins to any one who should achieve the solution of the same problem. The British parliament, in 1714, went beyond these premiums, and empowered commissioners to introduce a bill for a sum not exceeding £20,000 for defraying gitude; and still further, for granting a proportionate reward the cost of the necessary experiments for ascertaining the lonto any one who should make a satisfactory advancement towards this grand object. With wealth and fame in prospect, innumerable and unsuccessful attempts were made to gain the prize.

Major Holmes, in a voyage from the coast of Guinea in 1665, Previous to this period one experiment had been made by which answered so well that the celebrated Huygens, who had paid great attention to watches, and had written a treatise on their use in finding the longitude at sea, determined to improve the structure of the watch as an instrument for this irregularities of action that, unless these could be remedied, he purpose; but the variations of heat and cold caused such found that a watch would be of little use in determining the longitude. Far more, indeed, is involved in the production of such a machine than is ordinarily imagined. To become a good find accurately the revolutions of each wheel; a geometrician, watchmaker it is necessary to be an arithmetician, in order to to determine correctly the curve of the teeth; a mechanician, to find precisely the forces that must be applied; and an artist, to be able to put into perfect execution the principles and rules which these sciences prescribe. He must know how fluids resist bodies in motion; and be well acquainted with the effects of heat and cold in different metals; in addition to these acquirements, he must be endowed by nature with a happy genius, to be able to apply them all in the construction of an accurate measurer of time.

No one in pursuit of such a rare combination of qualities would probably have gone to a young carpenter, with no ad, vantages of education, and whose knowledge of mathematics appears to have been derived solely from a manuscript, as above mentioned. And yet, before Harrison was twenty-one years of age, he had constructed two clocks made entirely of wood, and without any instruction whatever in the art; while his residence on the coast had directed his mind to the formation of timekeepers, adapted to the purposes of navigation. On this subject he appears to have reflected for many successive years, and to have become perfectly acquainted with the difficulty which Huygens felt, but was unable to surmount. For though every part of a clock were constructed with the greatest perfection, its performance would manifestly, be very inaccurate, unless it were provided with the means of compensating for those changes which result from a variation of temperature, since almost all substances expand by heat and contract by cold. Accordingly a very minute difference in the length of a

pendulum, arising from this natural cause, will produce a serious influence on the rate of the going of a clock. For, if this alteration be so trifling as to cause either an increase or decrease of the time of each vibration of only 1-1440th part of its whole duration, it will occasion the clock to lose or gain a minute in every twenty-four hours-a minute being the 1140th part of a day.

The problem, therefore, involved in the instance before us is, How shall a timekeeper be constructed so as neither to lose nor gain during a voyage from our temperate climate, to the torrid or the frigid zone? The solution of this problem was practically effected by Harrison, in his invention of the gridiron pendulum. This pendulum takes its name from its form, which consisted of a frame of nine parallel bars; four of steel, and four of brass, while the centre bar of steel is fixed at top to the cross bar connecting the two middle brass bars, slides freely through the two lower bars, and bears the pendulum bobs. The remaining bars are fastened to the cross piece at both ends, and the uppermost cross piece is attached to the axis of suspension. It is easy, therefore, to see that the expansion of the steel bars tends to lengthen the pendulum, while that of the brass ones tends to shorten it; and consequently, if the two expansions exactly counteract one another, the length of the pendulum will remain unchanged. The relative lengths of the brass and steel bars are determined by the expansions of the two metals, which are found by experiments to be, generally, nearly as 100 to 61.

With equal ingenuity, and as the result of long-continued and careful thought, Harrison applied the compensatory principle to a watch, by the construction of the compensation balance, dependent also, on the unequal expansion of two different metals. In this instance, the circular arms of the balance is a compound bar of brass and steel, the brass being on the outside: this combination was attended with precisely the same successful result.

After having given himself, for a long time, exclusively to the construction of timepieces, Harrison came to London in 1728, at the age of thirty-five, bringing with him descriptive drawings of a machine for determining the longitude at sea, in expectation of being engaged to make one for the Board of Longitude. His invention was examined by Graham, the celebrated mathematical instrument maker, who advised Harrison, instead of presenting merely his drawings, first to complete the machine, and then to apply to the Board of Longitude. He therefore went home, and seven years after, returned to London, with the first chronometer; in fact, a large watch, by which he considered the longitude at sea might be correctly determined; its variations during several years, not exceeding a second in a month; thus incomparably surpassing all timemeasurers previously constructed, in this or any other country.

In 1736 its accuracy was fully brought to the test in a voyage to and from Lisbon, during which it corrected an error of a degree and a half in the computation of the ship's reckoning. Public encouragement was now given to him, and, by the year 1761, he had completed three chronometers-the last being the most accurate. So satisfied was he with this one, that he applied to the commissioners of longitude for leave to make an experiment with it in a voyage to the West Indies, in compliance with the act of parliament. The solicited permission was granted; but, in consideration of Harrison's advancing years, his son was allowed to proceed to Jamaica instead of himself.

In order that our readers may understand the utility of this machine, we may just glance at its application. When a chronometer is set to the time of Greenwich, which is that of our first meridian-now the invariable practice with all captains sailing to a great distance-and is carried abroad in a vessel sailing from this meridian, a chronometer affords the means of ascertaining the longitude of any place, by simply observing the instant that the sun reaches the meridian of that place, that is, when it is midday there, or twelve o'clock at noon, and then observing the difference between this time and that shown by the Greenwich chronometer, which must necessarily be different, if the meridian of the place be different from that of Greenwich; for this difference at once gives the mariner his longitude, by allowing 15 degrees east or west for each hour of time, or 15 minutes of a degree for each minute of time; the place being in east longitude, when the time at the place is

later than that at Greenwich; and in west longitude when it is earlier. Thus, suppose the mariner takes the meridian altitude of the sun at sea, and finds that it is noon at the ship, while it is eleven o'clock by the Greenwich chronometer, then the meridian of the place at which he has arrived must be 15 degrees east of Greenwich; while, if the chronometer tells it is one o'clock at Greenwich, the longitude of the place must be 15 degrees west of Greenwich. By the same mode of observation and comparison, the longitude of all other places where the ship may be found, is readily determined; but this mode of determining the longitude requires as the indispensable condition, the accurate-going of the chronometer.

When, therefore, after eighteen days sailing in the voyage which was to test Harrison's chronometer, the vessel was supposed by the captain to be 13 degrees 50 minutes west of Portsmouth, and the chronometer gave 15 degrees 19 minutes, or about a degree and a half more, the variation was considered to be fatal to the invention, and the instrument was condemned as useless. But the son of the maker felt that the actual error might be in the chart, and so firmly did he maintain that Portland Island would be seen on the following day, that the captain was induced to continue in the same course, and the island was actually discovered the next day at seven o'clock. The confidence in the chronometer, previously destroyed, was now restored, and it was increased by the complete fulfilment of Harrison's successive predictions of the times when the several islands would be passed during the remainder of the voyage. When the vessel arrived at Port Royal, after a voyage of 81 days, the chronometer was found to be about five seconds too slow, and on his return to Portsmouth, after a voyage of five months, it had kept time within about one minute and five seconds, which gives an error of about 16 miles a variation greatly within the limits prescribed by the act of parliament. From this experimental voyage it was rendered evident that peril and ruin would be avoided by those who trusted themselves to the guidance of an instrument like that of Harrison's, so wonderfully improved in comparison with all that were constructed before his time.

A further test was now allowed the chronometer, in a voyage undertaken by the younger Harrison to Barbadoes; and having now fully complied with the requirements of the act of parlia ment, the first chronometer-maker applied for, and received the proposed reward of £20,000. Large as the sum appears it was only an appropriate reward for the devotion of extraordinary talents, with unwearied perseverance during a space of forty years. The success which accompanied this invention resulted in the present highly advanced state of horology, the perfection of which as a scientific art is, perhaps, only paralleled by the perfection of astronomy as an artistic science deeply indebted to it. Indeed, to the perfection of both may be ascribed in almost every respect, the present improved condition of society.

Harrison employed the latter part of his life in constructing a fifth chronometer, which he executed so well that after a ten weeks' trial in the king's private observatory at Richmond, it was found to have erred only four-and-a-half seconds. He died at his house in Red Lion-square, London, March 24th, 1776; leaving behind him an impressive lesson of arduous, and successful perseverance.

How accurately chronometers have since been made to go, and with what utility to navigation, will be evident from the statement of the following facts by Dr. Arnott :-" After several months spent at sea, in a long passage from South America to Asia, my pocket chronometer and others on board announced one morning that a certain point of land was then bearing north from the ship, at a distance of fifty miles; in an hour afterwards, when a mist had cleared away, the looker-out on the mast gave the joyous call of Land ahead!' verifying the reports of the chronometers almost to one mile, after a voyage of thousands of miles. It is allowable at such a moment, with the dangers and uncertainties of ancient navigation before the mind, to exult in contemplating what man has now achieved. Had the rate of the wonderful little instrument, in all that time, been quickened or slackened ever so slightly, its announcement would have been useless, or even worse; but in the night and in the day, in storm and in calm, in heat and in cold, its steady beat went on, keeping exact account of the rolling of the earth and of the stars; and, in the midst of the trackless

waves which retain no mark, it was always ready to tell its magic tale, indicating the very spot of the globe over which it had arrived." To this may be added the words of Dr. Carpenter: "Not unfrequently must it occur," says he, "that the knowledge of the exact position of the ship, which may be obtained by the chronometer, produces a great saving of time, as well as contributes to the avoidance of danger. A remarkable instance of this was mentioned to the writer a few years since, as having just then occurred. Two ships were returning to London about the same time, after long voyages, one of them provided with chronometers, the other destitute of them. The weather was hazy, and the winds baffling; so that no ship, whose position was uncertain, could be safely carried up the British Channel. Confident of his position, however, the captain of the first ship stood boldly onwards, and arrived safely in the Thames; whilst the other ship was still beating about in uncertainty near the entrance to the Channel. The first ship discharged her cargo, took in another, set sail on a fresh voyage, and actually, in running down the Channel, encountered the second ship still toilsomely making her way to her port."

[blocks in formation]

"Great joy he promised to his thoughts, and new
Solace in her return, so long delayed;

Yet oft his heart, divine of something ill,
Misgave him."

Milton, "Paradise Lost."

Mod, of Latin origin (modus, manner, limit), appears in modify; (facio, Lat. Imake), to state with some restriction or qualification; to alter slightly; also in modest, moderate, commodious, commodity, &c.

Molli, of Latin origin (mollis, soft), appears in mollify, to make soft; to appease, render gentle; mollifier, mollification, mollifi. able, &c.

"While the vocal flute, Or number'd verse, by female voice endear'd Crowns his delight and mollifies the scene." Shenstone. Mono, mon, of Greek origin (monos, alone), gives rise to monachos, a monk, one who lives alone; monachism, the society of monks; monas, a monad, a single object, a unit; monarch (arché, Gr. government), one who rules alone; monogamy (gamos, Gr. marriage); monopolise (poleo, Gr. I sell), to have the sole power of selling; monotheism (theos, Gr. God), the belief in one God; monosyllable, a word of one syllable.

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

Mert, of Latin origin (mors, death, genitive mortis), forms the basis of mortal, and immortal; mortgage, is a dead gage or pledge, that is to say, something so pledged, as what are called deeds or writings, so that it cannot be used for raising money. Mortunam vadium, a dead pledge, mortgage, is when a man borrows of another a specific sum.-e. g. £200, and grants him an estate in fee, on condition that if he, the mortgager, shall repay the mortgagee the said sum of £200 on a certain day mentioned in the deed, then the mortgager may re-enter on the estate granted in pledge.-Blackstone, "Commentaries."

[blocks in formation]

"By that act (the Five Mile Act), passed in the parliament held at Oxford, October 9, 1665, and entitled, An Act for restraining Non-conformists (to the Established Church) from inhabiting Corporations,' the non-conforming ministers were prohibited, upon a penalty, of forty pounds for every offence, to come, unless only in passing upon the road, within five miles of any city, corporation, &c."-Locke. Non-juror is a term usually applied to those persons who refused to take the oaths of allegiance to William III, at the Revolution. Lloyd, Thomas, and Frampton."-Smollett," History of England." "The nonjuring prelates were Sancroft, Turner, Lake, Ken, White,

Ob, of Latin origin (as a preposition, on account of), has the general meaning of towards, and hence at, near, and varies with the word with which it is connected, the meaning of which it sometimes merely strengthens. In object (jacio, Lat. I throw), to throw before or against, it conveys the idea of obstruction, an idea which it expresses more fully in obstruction (struo, Lat. I build) itself, which, according to its constituents, signifies a building or blocking up. In obliterate (litura, Lat. an erasure), to blot out, it has an augmentive force. Passing into the first letter of its principal, ob becomes oc as in occasion (cado, Lat. I fall), a suitable fall, a fall before you so as to suit your purpose, something seasonable and convenient, by which you may profit. Ob passes also into of, as in offer (fero, Lat. I bear). This of must not be confounded with of or off signifying from, and found in off-scouring, and offspring.

"Our prayer hath

No power to pass; and thou hast made us fall, As refuse and off-scouring to them all." Donne. "Whence it follows that these were nations not descending from us, but born with us; not our off-spring, but our brethren.”—South.

Octo, also octa, of Latin origin (octo, eight), appears in octagon, eight-angled; octosyllable, of eight syllables; octoteuch (teuché, Gr. a fold or volume), the first eight books of the Old Testament.

Olig, of Greek origin (oligos, a few), is the first part of oligarchy (arché, Gr. government), government by a few; oligarch, one of a small number of rulers.

Omni, of Latin origin (omnis, all), is seen in omniscient (scio, Lat. I know), all knowing; omnipotent (potens, Lat. powerful), all-powerful; omnipresent, existing everywhere; omnivorous, alldevouring.

Ortho, of Greek origin (orthos, straight, right), as in orthodoxy, right opinion; orthogonal, right-angled; orthopedic, right-footed,

&c. .

"Athanasius is commonly accounted the very rule of orthodoxality in this point."-Cudworth," Intellectual System."

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »