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pendulum, arising from this natural cause, will produce a later than that at Greenwich; and in west longitude when it serious influence on the rate of the going of a clock. For, if is earlier. Thus, suppose the mariner takes the meridian altithis alteration be so trifling as to cause either an increase or tude of the sun at sea, and finds that it is noon at the ship, decrease of the time of each vibration of only 1-1440th part of while it is cleven o'clock by the Greenwich chronometer, then its whole duration, it will occasion the clock to lose or gain a the meridian of the place at which he has arrived must be 15 minute in every twenty-four hours-a minute being the 1 140th degrees east of Greenwich ; while, if the chronometer tells it part of a day.

is one o'clock at Greenwich, the longitude of the place must be The problem, therefore, involved in the instance before us 15 degrees west of Greenwich. By the same mode of observais, How shall a timekeeper be constructed so as neither to tion and comparison, the longitude of ll other places where lose nor gain during a yoyage from our temperate climate, to the ship may be found, is readily determined; but this mode the torrid or the frigid zone: The salution of this problem of determining the longitude requires as the indispensable was practically effected by Harrison, in his invention of the condition, the accurate-going of the chronometer. gridiron pendulum. This pendulum takes its name from its When, therefore, after eighteen days sailing in the voyage form, which consisted of a frame of nine parallel bars ; four of which was to test Harrison's chronometer, the vessel was sup. steel, and four of brass, while the centre bar of steel is fixed at posed by the captain to be 13 degrees 50 minutes west of top to the cross bar connecting the two middle brass bars, Portsmouth, and the chronometer gave 15 degrees 19 minutes, slides freely through the two lower bars, and bears the pen- or about a degree and a half more, the variation was considered dulum bobs. The remaining bars are fastened to the cross piece to be fatal to the invention, and the instrument was condemned at both ends, and the uppermost cross piece is attached to the as useless. But the son of the maker felt that the actual axis of suspension. It is easy, therefore, to see that the ex- error might be in the chart, and so firmly did he maintain that pansion of the steel bars tends to lengthen the pendulum, Portland Island would be seen on the following day, that the while that of the brass ones tends to shorten it; and conse- captain was induced to continue in the same course, and the quently, if the two expansions exactly counteract one another, island was actually discovered the next day at seven o'clock. the length of the pendulum will remain unchanged. The rela- The confidence in the chronometer, previously destroyed, was tive lengths of the brass and steel bars are determined by the now restored, and it was increased by the complete fulfilment expansions of the two metals, which are found by experiments of Harrison's successive predictions of the times when the to be, generally, nearly as 100 to 61.

several islands would be passed during the remainder of the With equal ingenuity, and as the result of long-continued voyage. When the vessel arrived at Port Royal, after a voyage and careful thought, Harrison applied the compensatory prin- of 81 days, the chronometer was found to be about five seconds ciple to a watch, by the construction of the compensation too slow, and on his return to Portsmouth, after a voyage of balance, dependent also, on the unequal expansion of two dif- five months, it had kept time within about one minute and five ferent metals. In this instance, the circular arms of the balance seconds, which gives an error of about 16 miles—a variation is a compound bar of brass and steel, the brass being on the greatly within the limits prescribed by the act of parliament. outside: this combination was attended with precisely the From this experimental voyage it was rendered evident that same successful result.

peril and ruin would be avoided by those who trusted themAfter having given himself, for a long time, exclusively to selves to the guidance of an instrument like that of Harrison's, the construction of timepieces, Harrison came to London in so wonderfully improved in comparison with all that were 1728, at the age of thirty-five, bringing with him descriptive constructed before his time. drawings of a machine for determining the longitude at sea, in A further test was now allowed the chronometer, in a voyage expectation of being engaged to make one for the Board of undertaken by the younger Harrison to Barbadoes; and having Longitude. His invention was examined by Graham, the now fully complied with the requirements of the act of parliacelebrated mathematical instrument maker, who advised Har- ment, the first chronometer-maker applied for, and received the rison, instead of presenting merely his drawings, first to com- proposed reward of £20,000. Large as the sum appears it was plete the machine, and then to apply to the Board of Longi- only an appropriate reward for the devotion of extraordinary iude. He therefore went home, and seven years after, returned talents, with unwearied perseverance during a space of forty to London, with the first chronometer; in fact, a large watch, years. The success which accompanied this invention resulted by which he considered the longitude at sea might be correctly in the present highly advanced state of horology, the perfecdetermined ; its variations during several years, not exceeding tion of which as a scientific art is, perhaps, only paralleled by a second in a month; thus incomparably surpassing all time the perfection of astronomy as an artistic science deeply in, mensurers previously constructed, in this or any other country. debted to it. Indeed, to the perfection of both may be ascribed

In 1736 its accuracy was fully brought to the test in a in almost every respect, the present improved condition of voyage to and from Lisbon, during which it corrected an error society. of a degree and a half in the computation of the ship's reckon- Harrison employed the latter part of his life in constructing ing. Public encouragement was now given to him, and, by the a fifth chronometer, which he executed so well that after a year 1761, he had completed three chronometers—the last being ten weeks' trial in the king's private observatory at Richmond, the most accurate. So satisfied was he with this one, that he it was found to have erred only four-and-a-half seconds. He applied to the commissioners of longitude for leave to make died at his house in Red Lion-square, London, March 24th, an experiment with it in a voyage to the West Indies, in com- 1776 ; leaving behind him an impressive lesson of arduous, pliance with the act of parliament. The solicited permission and successful perseverance. was granted; but, in consideration of Harrison's advancing How accurately chronometers have since been made to go, years, his son was allowed to proceed to Jamaica instead ot and with what utility to navigation, will be evident from the himself.

statement of the following facts by Dr. Arnott :-"After In order that our readers may understand the utility of this several months spent at sea, in a long passage from South machine, we may just glance at its application. When a chro- America to Asia, my pocket chronometer and others on board nometer is set to the time of Greenwich, which is that of our announced one morning that a certain point of land was then first meridion—now the invariable practice with all captains bearing north from the ship, at a distance of fifty miles; in an sailing to a great distance-and is carried abroad in a vessel hour afterwards, when a mist had cleared away, the looker-out sailing from this meridian, a chronometer affords the means of on the mast gave the joyous call of Land ahead !' verifying ascertaining the longitude of any place, by simply observing the reports of the chronometers almost to one mile, after a voyage thie instant that the sun reaches the meridian of that place, of thousands of miles. It is allowable at such a moment, with that is, when it is midday there, or twelve o'clock at noon, the dangers and uncertainties of ancient navigation before the and then observing the difference between this time and that mind, to exult in contemplating what man has now achieved. shown by the Greenwich chronometer, which must necessarily Had the rate of the wonderful little instrument, in all that be different, if the meridian of the place be different from that time, been quickened or slackened ever so slightly, its announceof Greenwich; for this difference at once gives the mariner ment would have been useless, or even worse; but in the his longitude, by allowing 15 degrees east or west for each hour night and in the day, in storm and in calm, in heat and in cold, of time, cr 15 minutes of a degree for each minute of time; its steady beat went on, keeping exact account of the rolling the place being in cast longitude, when the time at the place is of the earth and of the stars; and, in the midst of the trackless waves which retain no mark, it was always ready to tell its ! Mort, of Latin origin (mors, death, genitive cortis), forms the magic tale, indicating the very spot of the globe over which it basis of mirtal, and immortal; mortgage, is a dead gage or had arrived.” To this may be added the words of Dr. Car. pledge, -that is to say, something so pledged, as what are called penter : “ Not unfrequently must it occur," says he," that the deeds or writings, so that it cannot be used for raising money. knowledge of the exact position of the ship, which may be Mortam cadena a dead pledge, mortgage, is when a man borrows of obtained by the chronometer, produces a great saving of another a specific sun.-e. . £200, ani grunts him an estate in fee, on time, as well as contributes to the avoidance of danger. A condition that if be, the mortgager, shall repay the mortgagee the said remarkable instance of this was mentioned to the writer a few sum of £200 on a certain day mentioned in the deed, then the mortgager years since, as having just then occurred. Two ships were may re-enter on the estate grated in piedze. — Bakstone, “ Com. returning to London absut the same time, after long voyages,

mentaries." one of them provided with chronometers, the other destitute, Mortmain (mortua manu, Lat. in a kod hand), is explained thus : of them. The weather was hazy, and the winds baffling; so * All purchases made by corporate bodies were said to be purchasee that no ship, whose position was uncertain, could be safely in mortnain; fur tinis reason, those purchases were usually made carried up the British Channel. Confident of his position, by ecclesiastical boties, the members of which being professed (in however, the captain of the first ship stood boldly onwards, orders, were reckoned desi personas in law; land, therefore, holden by and arrived safely in the Thames ; whilst the other ship was them might, with great propriety, be said to be held in mortud manu. still beating about in uncertainty near the entrance to the

Blackstone, " Commentaries." Channel. The first ship discharged her cargo, took in another, Multi, of Latin origin 'multus, muel), appears in multifarious, set sail on a fresh voyage, and actually, in running down the of many sorts ; multiform, of many shapes; multiply (plica, Lat. Channel, encountered the second ship still toilsomely making a fold), to take many folds, &c. her way to her port."

The beauteous lake
The pines wile-branciing, falls of water clear,
The multifariou g!uw ou Flora's lap
Lose all attraction."

Glorer, “ Leonidas."

Neo, of Greek origin (neos, nerc), doubtless the same as our By John R. BEARD, D.D.

new, which thus appears to be Indo-Germanic. Veo forms the DERIVATION: PREFIXES (continued).

first syllable in neology, or new-science, new.doctrine—terms that Mille, of Latin origin (mille, a thousand), appears in millennium found also in nopbyte (phutos, Gr. Corn), a new-born person ; a

might be used as fittingly as the Greek word neology. Neo is and its derivations. Millenium (annus, Lat, a year) properly recent convert. signifies a period of a thousand years.

Yon, of Latin origin, not, stands before words of historical im. * When at your second coming you appear,

portance, as, non-conformist, non-juror.
(For I foretell the millenary year)
The sharpen'd share shall vex the soil no more,

" By that act (the Five Mile Act), passed in the parliament held at But Earth unbidden shall produce her store."

Oxford, October 9, 1865, and entitled, * An Act for restraining Non-conDryden, “ Palæmon and Arcite.*

formists (to the Established Church) from inhabiting Corporations,' the Mis, of Saxon origin, found in the verb to miss, and in the ad-pounds for every offence, to come, unless only in passing upon the road,

non-conforming ministers were prohibited, upon a penalty, of forty verb amiss, denoting something wrong, forms a prefix to many within Ave miles of any city, corporation, &c.”—Luke. words, as, misallied, misapply, misbecome, misconceive, misjudge, Von-juror is a term usually applied to those persons who refused mislike, misrepresent. Mischief (achever, Fr. to accomplish) is a to take the oaths of allegiance to William III. at the Revolution, bad or wicked deed; the second syllable has nothing to do with our word chief,—that is, head. What we now call mischievous, Lloyd, Thomas, and Frampton." —Smollett, “ History of England.”

The nonjuring prelates were Sancroft, Turner, Lake, Ken, White, was formerly pronounced according to the vulgar error mischie. vous.

Ob, of Latin origin (as a preposition, on account of), has the " And every one threw forth reproaches rife,

general meaning of towards, and hence at, near, and varies with the Or his mischicrous deedes, and sayd that hee

word with which it is connected, the meaning of which it sometimes Was the disturber of all civil life,

merely strengthens. In object (jacio, Lat. I throw), to throw The enemy of peace, and authour of all strife.”

before or against, it conveys the idea of obstruction, an idea which

Spenser, “ Faerie Queene." it expresses more fully in obstruction (struo, Lat. I build) itself, Misgive is used in the derivative sense of yielding, weakly yielding, which, according to its constituents, signifies a building or blocking and as yielding weakly, so improperly, the notion of impropriety up. In obliterate (litura, Lat. an erasure), to blot out, it has an lying in the mis.

augmentive force. Passing into the first letter of its principal

, “Great joy he promised to his thoughts, and new

ob becomes oc as in occasion (cado, Lat. I fall), a suitable fall, a Solace in her return, so long deiayed;

fall before you so as to suit your purpose, something seasonable Yet oft his heart, divine of something ill,

and convenient, by which you may profit. Ob passes also into of, Misgave him,"

Millon, “ Paradise Lost." as in ofier (fero, Lat. I bear). This of must not be confounded Mod, of Latin origin (modus, manner, limit), appears in modify; with of or off signifying from, and found in off-scouring, and off. (facio, Lat. I make), to state with some restriction qualification; spring. to alter slightly; also in modest, moderate, commodious, com

* Our prayer hath modity, &c.

No power to pass ; and thou hast made us fall, Molli, of Latin origin (mollis, soft), appears in mollify, to make

As refuse and off-scouring to them all."

Donne. soft; to appease, render gentle ; mollitier, mollification, mollifi.

“Whence it follows that these were nations not descending from us, able, &c.

but born with us; not our of-spring, but our brethren."-South. While the vocal flute,

Octo, also octa, of Latin origin (octo, eight), appears in octagon, Or number'd verse, by fernale voice endear'd

eight-angled ; octosyllable, of eight syllables ; octoteuch (teuché, Crowns his delight and mollifics the scene." Shenslone. Gr. a fold or volume), the first eight books of the Old Testament. Mono, mon, of Greek origin (monos, alone), gives rise to monachos,

Olig, of Greek origin (oligos, a few), is the first part of olig. a monk, one who lives alone; monachism, the society of monks; archy (arché, Gr. government), government by a few; oligarch, monas, a monad, a siogie object, a unit; monarch' (arché, Gr. one of a small number of rulers. government), one who rules alone ; monogamy (gamos, Gr. mar.

Omni, of Latin origin (omnis, all), is seen in omniscient (scio, riage); monopolise (poleo, Gr. I sell), to have the sole power of Lat. I knowo), all knowing ; omnipoteut (potens, Lat. powerful), selling;, monotheisrn (theos, Gr. God), the belief in one God; all-powerful ; omnipresent, existing everywhere; omnivorous, all. monosyllable, a word of one syllable.

devouring. “ Conjunction, preposition, adverb join

Ortho, of Greek origin (orthos, straight, right), as in orthodoxy, To stamp new vigour on the nervous line;

right opinion ; orthogonal, right-angled ; orthopedic, right-footed, In monosyllablcz his thunders roll,

&c. lle, she, it, and we, ye, they, fright the soul.”

“ Athanasius is commonly accounted the very rule of orthodowlity Churchill, “ Rosciad." in this point."-Cudworth, “ intellectual System."

This prefix forms 'part also of orthography (graphè, Gr. writing),

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-No. XIII. right writing, that is, in the spelling of words; as orthoepy (epos, Gr. a word) is right pronunciation.

CLASS XVI.-MONADELPHIA, Over, of Saxon origin, as in overarch, overbalance, onerbear,

Plants bearing flowers, the filaments of whose Stamens are overcharge, overboard, over-boil, over-bounteous, frequently de

joined together in one set. noting too much, as or:gr-careful, that is, careful to excess. Overcome has two significations, to conquer, and to come over or upon. The hemlock stork's-bill is a hairy and somewhat clammy

PENTANDRIA. “He found the means to subdue both the one and the other, compell

plant, with a disagreeable smell. It grows in sandy places, ing as well the overcomers as the overcome to be his tributaries." Brende, “ Quinctus Curtius."

especially near the sea. Its rose-coloured, but frequently

white petals, are observable from June to September. "Mac. Can such things be,

The musky stork’s-bill is so called from the peculiar smell
And overcome us like a summer's cloud,
Without our special wonder P"


it exhales, and the plant is more hairy and clammy than the

preceding. It grows in hilly pastures, and flowers in June and Over when employed for above as “over two hundred” is to be July, with rose-coloured petals. avoided as an Americanism. To overtake is to come up with in The petals of the sea stork's-bill, appearing from May to walking or running.

September are minute, and of a pale red. This plant grows “ And had he not in his extremest need

on the sandy coasts of the south of England, and in Ireland. Been helped through the swiftness of his steed,

He had him overtaken in his flight.”

In the passive the verb overtake seems to denote the being sud. fragments of rocks, a very beautiful little flower is observable

In waste ground, in woods, by walls, among stones and denly surprised into an action ; surprise is from the Fr. surprendre from the beginning of May to the end of October ; it is the (consisting of sur, above or over, and prendre, to take), whence herb Robert, or Poor Robin. It has a red stem, sending out surprise is the same as overtake in both derivation and meaning.

numerous branches at the base; leaves tinged with red, “Brethren if a man be overtaken in a fault,”-Gal, vi. 1.

and lance-shaped ; petals twice the length of the calyx, obIt is not difficult to see how to overtake may mean to get over, long, bright rose-red, with three white veins. When the plant overcome, surprise, but bow it means to come up with is less easy grows on exposed situations, the stems and leaves are of a rich to conceive. The notion of over, or of superiority may, however, crimson colour, and when autumn has come on, and they long lie in the act by which you succeed in coming up to the person you survive the blossoms, they are scarcely less beautiful than the wish to overtake; thus by walking more quickly than be, you flowers themselves. Its 'stems are brittle ; and the whole of overtake your friend, you take a step over his, and get beyond him. the plant is very hairy. Out, of Saxon origin, beyond a certain limit, is a very common

A peculiar resinous substance is secreted by this plant, as prefix, as in outbid, outdo, cutface, outlaw, outlive, outstrip, &c. well as by, several others of the same species. Its odour is Outrage has nothing to do with out. Outrage comes from the threfore disagreeable, particularly when the plant has been mediæval Latin word ultragium, through the French oultraige, long, gathered. So abundant is the resin in some foreign outrage. Ultragium, from ultra, beyond, denoted a surplasage species, that if a light be applied to their stems, they will burn paid to the lord by his subject on failure of paying his dues in like torches, and yield a very agreeable perfume during their proper time, whence outrage came to signify something in excess

combustion. and to have an offensive meaning. Richardson shows himself How numerous these plants are in our own land may be ignorant of the origin of the word.

seen at a rapid glance. The dusky crane's-bill grows in woods Pan, of Greek origin (pas, m. pasa, f. pan, n. all), is found in and thickets, and flowers in May and June; the wood crane'spanacea (akеomai, Gr. I heal), all-heal, a universal remedy; in bill flowers in June and July, and grows in woods and thickets pancreas (kreas, Gr. flesh), all-flesh,—that is, the sweetbread; and by rivers; the spots in which to find the meadow crane's-bill, in pandects (dekomai, Gr. I receive), receive-alls, a common title may be gathered from its name; it flowers in the two lastof the Greek miscellanies. The term is known in history in its ap- early in April, and continues in bloom till August, and

mentioned months. The dove's-foot crane's-bill appears plication to a digest of the civil law published by the emperor is observable on every bank or waste place, and in every pasJustinian. Again, pan occurs in pantheism (theos, Gr. God), allgodness,—that is, the system which regards God and the universe ture : it has long spreading stems, and broad roundish leaves, as the same. Pan forms the first part of pantomime (mimos, Gr. deeply cut into segments, of a pale gray-green, and downy as a mimic; and the word mimic is from mimos), all-mimicry, colour. And, besides these, there are six other species of

velvet; while the flowers are small, and of a purplish-red because the performance consisted solely of imitation.

crane's-bill. “ The pantomimes who maintained their reputation from the age of

Among these plants are found those universal favourites the Augustus to the sixth century, expressed, without the use of words, the geraniums. How often may one of them be observed in cirvarious fables of the gods and heroes of antiquity; and the perfection cumstances reminding us of Cowper's words when he says, of their art, which sometimes disarmed the gravity of the philosopher, always excited the applause and wonder of the people.”—Gibbon,

" That man immured in cities, still retains ** Roman Empire."

His inborn, inextinguishable thirst Para, of Greek origin, by the side of, as in parallels (i. e.,

Of rural scenes, compensating bis loss parallel lines), has in English various acceptations. In parable

By supplemental shifts as best he may.

The most unfurnish'd with the means of life, (ballo, Gr. I throw), something put by the side of another thing,

And they that never pass the brick-wall bounds, a comparison, a similitude. ln Scripture, the parables of the old

To range the fields, and treat their lungs with air, Testament are short, pitby, and weighty sayings : the parables of

Yet feel the burning instinct; overhead the New Testament are short tales, setting forth religious truth

Suspend the crazy boxes, planted thick, under similitudes : the former are apothegms; the latter allegories.

And watered duly. There the pitcher stands, Para appears in paraclete (kalein, Gr. to call), the advocate or

A fragment, and the spoutless teapot there : comforter (John xiv, 16).

Sad witnesses how close-pent man regrets Paradise is a Persian word, denoting a park, and has no con

The country, with what ardour he contrives nexion with the Greek para ; in Hebrew, pardes, a garden.

A peep at nature, when he can no more." Par, Latin origin (pars, partis, a part), appears in participate Of the real geraniums some species or other may be found (capio, Lat. I take) —that is, to partake. This word partake is a growing wild almost everywhere. Several flower-stalks very bybrid, being formed of an English and a Latin word ; it is there commonly diverge from one centre, forming what is called an fore a cross in the breed between Latin and English.

umbel, but in most of the British plants of this tribe each prinPent, or penta, of Greek origin, as in pentagon, a figure having cipal stalk bears but two flowers. The petals are five in numfive sides ; pentateuch (five-fold), the name given to what are called ber, except in a few instances, in which one is undeveloped ; "the five books Moses,”_namely, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, their veins are unusually prominent, and they give to the petals Numbers, and Deuteronomy.,

a streaked or pencilled appearance. These veins consist almost exclusively of air-vessels, and they serve as beautiful flowers rendering them special objects of attention. The Engobjects for microscopic inspection.

lish name is derived from the Saxon holyoak or holihoc, the When the fruit is ripe it strikingly resembles the bill of meaning of which is not very perceptible. Besides their floral certain birds; whence the British geraniums are known by the beauty, hollyhocks are of great utility to bees, as they flower at name of cranesbill. These plants are extensively diffused a season when most other blossoms have faded. The fibrous over the globe. What are commonly termed geraniums by bark of the flower-stalks furnishes no mean substitute for horticulturists are not really such, but belong to the allied hemp; and a blue dye, little inferior to indigo, can be obtained genus pelargonium. The chief residence of the pelargoniums from the whole plant. is at the Cape of Good Hope, from whence these ornaments of our gardens and windows have been derived. These have been greatly improved by cultlvation, and many more varieties

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-No. VIII. have sprung up.

Among the old favourites is the horseshoe pelargonium, known from the brown circle on the leaves in the

DISCOVERIES OF THE EIGHTEENTH AND form of a horseshoe, and the parent of many of the finest

NINETEENTH CENTURIES. hybrid scarlet-flowered varieties introduced by crossing. The flowers of the original plant are small, and not now esteemed. FRANCE, desirous of taking her share in the progress of mariThe oak-leaved and the gooseberry-leaved are rapidly disap- time discovery, fitted out, in 1786, a new expedition under the pearing.

command of La Perouse, an able and intrepid officer. The POLYANDRIA.

principal theatre of the explorations of this little French squa. The leaves of the marsh-mallow are simple, and very, soft Tartary and Japan. Their vessels La Boussole and L'Astrolabe

dron was the north-west coast of America, and the shores of and downy; and so are the stems, which are erect, and three visited Easter Taland, then the Sandwich Isles, and

reached feet high. The petals are of a pale rose-colour. The plant latitude 59° N. on the north-west coast of America. The ex

The common mallow, though very rare in Scotland, is pedition explored with great care a great part of this line of abundant in England. It has an erect stem, leaves with five befell them, which cost twenty-one persons their lives, while

coast. During their hydrographical operations, a sad accident or seven somewhat acute lobes ; leaf-stalks and flower-stalks hairy. Its petals, which are numerous, of a purplish-red, and making an attempt to land. These operations

being finished, deeply-notched, appear about hedges and road-sides, from they traversed the Pacific, determined, on their way, the position June to September. The recollections of some of our readers of the Ladrone Islands, and arrived at Macao on the 2nd Jan. accord, very probably, with those of our rural poet Clare, 1787. At the outset of his second expedition, La Perouse when, looking back to past times, he describes himself and went along the coast of Corea, and discovered Cape Nota on other children, as

the coast of Japan. The officers of the expedition applied

themselves particularly to the determination of the latitudes " Sitting down when school was o'er,

and longitudes of the places which they visited. In latitude Upon the threshold of the door,

45°, they discovered an harbour which they called the bay of Picking from mallows, sport to please,

Ternay. They next discovered the strait which separates the The crumpled seed we call a cheese."

island of Jesso from Tchoka or Sagalien, and which is called The name thus given to the circular fruit of the plant, leads the Straits of La Perouse. The expedition then sailed for to its being called "cheese-flower," in some country places. Kamtschatka, where it was hospitably received. At this point This play is not peculiar to the English child; it amuses also M. Lesseps, who had accompanied La Perouse as interpreter French children, who call the seeds of the mallow by the of the Russian languages, was sent overland to France. This same name les petits fromageons.

intrepid young man, to whom had been intrusted the journals The wild and cultivated mallows of our country are used in and charis of the voyage, traversed the old continent through medicine for the mucilage they contain. Country people apply its whole extent from east to west, and happily arrived at the leaves when boiled to wounds and bruises ; and, in Paris, Paris with the valuable observations which had been made mallow-tea is considered a specific for many diseases. The during the expedition. La Perouse returned to Oceanica, to mallows do not possess, however, any active properties. meet severe trials. At Maouna, one of the Navigators' Islands,

The musk-mallow has an erect stem, about two feet high, his companion De Langle, captain of L'Astrolabe, and twenty little branched, and rough ; its flowers, which grow on long, of his attendants, were cruelly murdered by the natives. Lamasimple stalks, with large rose-cloured petals, appear in July non, the naturalist of the expedition, perished in this attack. and August. The plant grows in pastures, and by way-sides. After a short stay at Botany Bay, New Holland (now Aus

The dwarf-mallow has a prostrate stem; roundish heart- tralia), La Perouse prepared for his third expedition. He shaped leaves; stems numerous, lying fat on the ground; purposed to explore the Tonga Isles, the south part of New flowers pale-lilac, growing from June to September, and fruit. Caledonia, the Louisiade Islands, New Guinea and other stalks bent downwards. It grows in waste ground, and by islands, the gulf of Carpentaria, and the coast of Australia way-sides.

from this gulf to Van Diemen's Land. He left the shores of Besides these plants, there is the sea tree-mallow: the stem New Holland full of hope and enterprise ; but his task, so woody; the leaves downy, and plaited, with seven angles ; courageously self-imposed, was left unfinished ; his career the petals purplish rose-colour, and darker on the base ; grow- came to a close. From that moment he was never more ing on rocks along the sea-shore, and flowering from July to heard of; for two years, expectation was kept on the stretch October. It is, however, between the tropics, that the most looking for news of the expedition. La Perouse and his remarkable species of mallow abound.

companions were lost to their country. The cruel uncertainty In a wild state, the corollas of the hollyhock are generally which remained in France regarding the fate of the expedition, single, and of a red, white, or yellow colour ; but by transfer caused the national assembly

to pass a decree in February 1791, ence to a more favourable situation, and to more fertile soil, by which it entreated the king, Louis XVI., to solicit the their flowers can be doubled to any extent, and, by care on the assistance of the other sovereigns of Europe in the search for part of the cultivator, brought into almost every hue. “Oh, the lost expedition. This decree also directed the organisation The hollyhock !" says a modern writer, "no garden should be of an expedition, which had the double object of endeavour without a hollyhock, whether it belong to a prince or a peasant. ing to find some trace of the unfortunate navigator, and of Stately and aspiring, and requiring space, it yet wisely accom- completing the discoveries which had been left unachieved. modates itself to its circumstances, adorning alike the gay par. This expedition took place under the command of Admiral terra land the cottage door. Whether puce, crimson, scarlet, D'Entrecasteaux, but without success. It was almost as white, it is always elegant, and never forgets that it unfortunate as that of La Perouse, although it was useful in

making those coasts better known which had been carefully speaks of hollyhocks as familiar plants in 1564; explored in search of him. The place of his shipwreck, in

in 1697, observes that they were then seen in gar- fact, was not discovered till 1827, by Captain Dillon, who everywhere. There can be no doubt that they were ascertained that he and his unfortunate companions were lost cultivated, their majestic height and splendid on the rocks of one of the Feejee Islands, and found the remains of the vessel and part of the articles that belonged | latitude 70° N. the expedition returned and explored the coasts to him. The singular voyage of Captain Bligh, who, owing to as far as Cape Walsingham, in Cumberland Island, whence it the mutiny of his crew, was obliged to traverge an immense sailed for England. The other expedition to the north was extent of ocean in an open boat, led to the discovery, in 1789, undertaken by Captain Buchan and Lieutenant Franklin ; but of Waitoutaki, one of the Manaian group, or Harvey Islands. it was productive of no new discovery, as they were compelled The surprising explorations, also, of Captain Flinders and to return when they had reached Spitzbergen, glad to escape the Surgeon Bass, who attempted to effect the periplus of New alarming dangers of sailing in the midst of floating icebergs. Cap Holland, in a sorry boat, ended in the discovery of the strait tain Parry continued the exploration begun by Captain Ross, which separates that continent from Tasmania (Van Diemen's In a new expedition, he discovered the passage called Prince Land), and which still retains the name of Bass; and, at the Regent's inlet, south of Lancaster Sound, Wellington's inlet same time, in the delineation of an immense line of coast on farther north in the same sound, and the islands of Cornwallis, the same continent. Plinders, especially, has a right to the Griffith, Bathurst, Byam Martin, Melville, and others, all inremembrance of geographers, for the steadiness with which he cluded, under the name of the North Georgian Islands. He pursued during many years, his difficult and dangerous also discovered Banks's Land, south of Melville Island, and labours, almost always in an open boat or frail skiff which North Somerset, which forms the north-west point of Prince the smallest storm would have foundered in a moment. To Regent's inlet, and wintered in 1819-1820, in Melville Bay, him we owe the discovery of Kangaroo Island, the hydro- where, during the long months, from the 4th of November till graphy of Van Diemen's Land, the exploration of the southern the 3rd of February following, they lived in continued darkand castern coasts of New Holland, and the determination of ness, and in an atmosphere, whose temperature was below the numerous points in Torres' Straits and the Gulf of Carpen- freezing point. In a second voyage executed in 1821-1822, taria. The expedition to the same coasts under the French Captain Parry discovered Melville Peninsula, north of Southcaptain, Baudin, was productive of little utility in a geo- ampton Island, in the northern part of Hudson's Bay. He graphical point of view, after the labours of Flinders.

passed through the strait which he named after his two vesThe voyage of Vancouver preceded the French expedition sels, the Fury and Hecla, and which separates Melville Pen. above mentioned, and added to the knowledge of the Aus- insula from Cockburn Island, on the north. Captain Scoresby, tralian continent. He discovered the harbour of King George at the same period, explored a part of the east coast of Greenin the south-western extremity of New Holland, and com- land. Parry made a third voyage in 1823, to the same regions pleted the labours of Cook at New Zealand. To the cast of he had formerly visited; but the Fury was shipwrecked, and the latter, Captain Broughton, commander of the tender, dis- the expedition failed. During the period from 1823 to 1826, covered Chatham Island, and the expedition proceeded to Lieutenant Beechy sought for the passage between the two Tahiti to prepare for exploring the north-western coast of oceans by Behring's Straits, and reached latitude 710 23' N., and America. Vancouver, in company with a Spanish expedition longitude 154° 3' w. The indefatigable Parry attempted a which he met, under the command of Captain Quadra, dis- fourth expedition to the north in search of the same passage, covered the island which now bears the name of both; he then but it entirely failed, because he disregarded the experience of explored the river Colombia as far as the expedition could as- former navigators, as well as his own in preceding voyages. cend its streams. A rest at the Sandwich Islands, and new expeditions on the American coasts detained Vancouver till the winter of 1794, when he returned to the same archipelago. Having, in a new hydrographical expedition, explored another

LITERARY NOTICES. part of the coast of the new world, including Cook's inlet, Vancouver returned to England, laden with geographical in. Three Hundred Engravings from Drawings from Nature.— In The

THE SCIENCE OF BOTANY beautifully Illustrated by upwards of formation, and signalised by not a few discoveries. These ILLUSTRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART, for September 4th, regions were scarcely revisited until the voyage of Kotzebue, a series of chapters has been commenced on the instructive science of which took place in 1815-1818. This Russian navigator dis- Botany. Each chapter will be profusely illustrated with engravings, covered to the north of Behring's Straits, between latitudes carefully executed. These chapters on Botany will not interfere with 679 and 689 N., and in longitude 163°

37' W., a great bay, or the general character of the work, which contains first-class engravings, scund to which he gave his name. His object was to find a including portraits and specimens of the works of the great masters, in passage to the Atlantic, and to ascertain first whether Icy painting, sculpture, and architecture : portraits of eminent characters ; Cape was an island ; but illness prevented him from carrying views of cities palaces, and public buildings ; natural history: manuhis designs into execution. He discovered several unimportant facturing processes ; machinery and inventions ; scientific, including the islands in the Pacific, particularly the eastern part of the elements of design, perspective, hydraulics, the stereoscope, &c.; ornaCaroline group.

mental sculpture, needlework, &c. ; with original literary articles, includAs to the northern passage between the Atlantic and the ing biographies, descriptions of works of art, details of manufacturing Pacific, it seemed to elude all the skill and vigilance of navie processes and machinery, papers on natural history and other branches

The ILLUSgators. Captain Phipps, in 1773, had reached latitude 80° 37' TRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART is published in weekly N. from the Atlantic side; Captain Cook, as we have seen, at- Numbers, twopence each, or in monthly Parts, 9d. or 11d. each, accordtempted it from the Pacific side; Pickersgill and Young suc- ing to the number of weeks in each month. ceeded no better by sailing through Baffin's Bay; and Lowen

CASSELL'S SHILLING EDITION OF EUCLID.—THE ELEMENTS Or orn, Egede, and Rothe, in 1786-1787, attempted, but without GEOMETRY, containing the First Six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth success, to explore the eastern shores of Greenland, which is Books of Euclid, from the text of Robert Simson, M.D., Emeritus said to be unapproachable in consequence of the accumula- Professor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow; with Corrections, tion of ice since the beginning of the fifteenth century. At Annotations, and Exercises, by Robert Wallace, A.M., of the same the beginning of the present century, northern expeditions university, and Collegiate Tutor of the University of London, is now were revived, and they have been pursued with more or less ready, price 18. in stiff covers, or 18. 6d. neat cloth. ardour till the present day. In 1818 two expeditions were CABHELL'S' EMIGRANT'S HANDBOOK, a Guide to the Various Fields £tted out for the north. The one was placed under the com- of Emigration in all Parts of the Globe, "Second Edition, with considermand of Captain Ross, who sailed from England towards the able Additions, and a Map of Australia with the Gold Regions clearly end of April of that year, accompanied by Lieutenant Parry, marked, is now ready,,price 9d. who commanded under his direction the ship Alexander. Between latitudes 76° and 77° 40' N. they discovered land lot of every month, price twopence-32 pages enclosed in a heat

THE PATHWAY, a Monthly Religious Magazine, is published on the which they called the Arctic Highlands. This country occupied

No. 33, for September, is now ready, and Vols. I. and II., a space of 120 miles in the north-east corner of Baffin's Bay. neatly bound in cloth and lettered, price 29. 3d. each, may be obtained On the 30th of August they reached the entrance of Lancaster by order of any Bookseller. Sound, ard as it was 50 miles broad from north to south, and

RUSSIA AND THE RUSSIANS.-In THE WORKING MAN'S FRIEND as the soundings were 750 fathoms, they fancied they had dis

FAMILY INSTRUCTOR, published weekly, price one penny; covered the north-west passage ; but they soon perceived their monthly parts, od. or 6d., a most interesting series of papers appear mistake by observing land in their course at a distance of 30 weekly, descriptive of Russia and the Russians, richly embellished with miles from the entrance of the sound. Having reached engravings of the principal cities and public edifices of European Russia.



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